Loose Leaf Version for Biology / Edition 11

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Overview

Biology is a comprehensive introductory biology textbook for non-majors or mixed-majors courses that covers biology in a traditional order from the structure and function of the cell to the organization of the biosphere. The book, which centers on the evolution and diversity of organisms, is appropriate for a one- or two-semester course.

It's no wonder that Sylvia Mader's Biology continues to be a text that's appreciated as much by instructors as it is by the students who use it. The ninth edition is the epitome of Mader's expertise: Its concise, precise writing uses an economy of words to present the material as succinctly and clearly as possible, thereby enabling students — even non-majors — to understand the concepts without necessarily asking the instructor to explain further.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
This introductory textbook covers the cell, genetics, evolution, behavior and ecology, plant structures and function, and animal structure and function. The seventh edition features a new chapter which discusses the current biodiversity crisis. The CD-ROM contains 100 animations and 200 learning activities. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780077491062
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 1/10/2012
  • Edition number: 11
  • Sales rank: 1,349,925
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Sylvia Mader is the best-selling author of introductory biology textbooks. Other books she has authored for WCB include: Inquiry Into Life, Human Biology, Introduction to Biology, and Understanding Human Anatomy & Physiology.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiv
Readings xi
The Learning System xii
Supplements
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1 A View of Life 1
1.1 How to Define Life 2
Living Things Are Organized 2
Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy 3
Living Things Respond 3
Living Things Reproduce and Develop 4
Living Things Have Adaptations 4
1.2 How the Biosphere Is Organized 5
Tropical Rain Forest, a Terrestrial Ecosystem 6
Ecology Focus: Tropical Rain Forests: Can We Live Without Them? 7
The Human Population 7
1.3 How Living Things Are Classified 8
1.4 The Process of Science 9
A Field Investigation 9
A Laboratory Investigation 10
The Scientific Method 12
Scientific Theories in Biology 12
Connecting Concepts 13
Summary 13
Reviewing the Chapter 13
Testing Yourself 14
Thinking Scientifically 14
Bioethical Issue 14
Understanding the Terms 15
Web Connections 15
Further Readings for Chapter One 15
Part I The Cell 16
Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry 17
2.1 Chemical Elements 18
2.2 Compounds and Molecules 22
2.3 Chemistry of Water 25
Chapter 3 The Chemistry of Organic Molecules 33
3.1 Organic Molecules 34
3.2 Carbohydrates 37
3.3 Lipids 40
3.4 Proteins 44
3.5 Nucleic Acids 48
Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function 55
4.1 Cellular Level of Organization 56
4.2 Bacterial Cells 60
4.3 Eukaryotic Cells 61
Chapter 5 Membrane Structure and Function 79
5.1 Membrane Models 80
5.2 Plasma Membrane Structure and Function 81
5.3 Permeability of the Plasma Membrane 84
5.4 Modification of Cell Surfaces 92
Chapter 6 Metabolism: Energy and Enzymes 97
6.1 Energy 98
6.2 Metabolic Reactions and Energy Transformations 100
6.3 Metabolic Pathways and Enzymes 102
6.4 Metabolic Pathways and Oxidation-Reduction 106
Chapter 7 Photosynthesis 111
7.1 Solar Energy 112
7.2 Structure and Function of Chloroplasts 114
7.3 Solar Energy Capture 116
7.4 Carbohydrate Synthesis 119
Chapter 8 Cellular Respiration 127
8.1 Cellular Respiration 128
8.2 Outside the Mitochondria: Glycolysis 130
8.3 Inside the Mitochondria 132
8.4 Fermentation 137
8.5 Metabolic Pool 139
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction and the Cell Cycle 143
9.1 How Prokaryotic Cells Divide 144
9.2 How Eukaryotic Cells Divide 145
9.3 How Eukaryotic Cells Cycle 150
9.4 How Cancer Develops 152
Part II Genetic Basis of Life 158
Chapter 10 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction 159
10.1 Halving the Chromosome Number 160
10.2 Genetic Recombination 162
10.3 The Phases of Meiosis 164
10.4 Comparison of Meiosis with Mitosis 166
10.5 The Human Life Cycle 168
Chapter 11 Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance 173
11.1 Gregor Mendel 174
11.2 Monohybrid Inheritance 176
11.3 Dihybrid Inheritance 181
Chapter 12 Chromosomes and Genes 187
12.1 Mendelism and the Genotype 188
12.2 Mendelism and the Chromosomes 192
12.3 Chromosomal Mutations 196
Chapter 13 Human Genetics 201
13.1 Inheritance of Chromosomes 202
13.2 Autosomal Genetic Disorders 207
13.3 Sex-Linked Genetic Disorders 214
Chapter 14 DNA Structure and Functions 219
14.1 The Genetic Material 220
14.2 The Structure of DNA 223
14.3 Replication of DNA 226
Chapter 15 Gene Activity: How Genes Work 233
15.1 The Function of Genes 234
15.2 The Genetic Code 237
15.3 The First Step: Transcription 238
15.4 The Second Step: Translation 240
Chapter 16 Genome Organization and Regulation of Gene Activity 247
16.1 Prokaryotic Regulation 248
16.2 Eukaryotic Regulation 251
16.3 Genetic Mutations 258
Chapter 17 Biotechnology 265
17.1 Cloning of a Gene 266
17.2 Biotechnology Products 270
17.3 The Human Genome Project 274
17.4 Gene Therapy 275
Part III Evolution 280
Chapter 18 Darwin and Evolution 281
18.1 History of the Theory of Evolution 282
18.2 Darwin's Theory of Evolution 285
18.3 Evidence for Evolution 292
Chapter 19 Process of Evolution 301
19.1 Evolution in a Genetic Context 302
19.2 Natural Selection 306
19.3 Speciation 310
Chapter 20 Origin and History of Life 319
20.1 Origin of Life 320
20.2 History of Life 324
20.3 Factors That Influence Evolution 334
Chapter 21 Human Evolution 341
21.1 Humans Are Primates 342
21.2 Evolution of Australopithecines 348
21.3 Evolution of Humans 351
Part IV Behavior and Ecology 360
Chapter 22 Animal Behavior 361
22.1 Behavior Has a Genetic Basis 362
22.2 Behavior Undergoes Development 364
22.3 Behavior Is Adaptive 366
22.4 Animal Societies 370
22.5 Sociobiology and Animal Behavior 372
Chapter 23 Ecology of Populations 377
23.1 Scope of Ecology 378
23.2 Characteristics of Populations 380
23.3 Regulation of Population Size 386
23.4 Life History Patterns 390
23.5 Human Population Growth 393
Chapter 24 Community Ecology 399
24.1 Concept of the Community 400
24.2 Structure of the Community 403
24.3 Community Development 414
24.4 Community Biodiversity 416
Chapter 25 Ecosystems and Human Interferences 421
25.1 The Nature of Ecosystems 422
25.2 Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling 424
25.3 Global Biogeochemical Cycles 428
Chapter 26 The Biosphere 441
26.1 Climate and the Biosphere 442
26.2 Biomes of the World 445
26.3 Terrestrial Biomes 447
26.4 Aquatic Biomes 455
Chapter 27 Conservation Biology 469
27.1 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity 470
27.2 Value of Biodiversity 472
27.3 Causes of Extinction 476
27.4 Conservation Techniques 480
Part V Diversity of Life 488
Chapter 28 Classification of Living Things 489
28.1 Taxonomy 490
28.2 Phylogenetic Trees 494
28.3 Systematics Today 498
28.4 Classification Systems 501
Chapter 29 Viruses, Bacteria, and Archaea 507
29.1 The Viruses 508
29.2 The Prokaryotes 513
29.3 The Bacteria 517
29.4 The Archaea 519
Chapter 30 The Protists 525
30.1 General Biology of the Protists 526
30.2 Diversity of the Protists 528
Chapter 31 The Fungi 543
31.1 Characteristics of Fungi 544
31.2 Classification of Fungi 546
31.3 Symbiotic Relationships of Fungi 553
Chapter 32 The Plants 557
32.1 Classification of Plants 558
32.2 Nonvascular Plants 559
32.3 Vascular Plants 562
32.4 Ferns and Allies 564
32.5 Gymnosperms 568
32.6 Angiosperms 572
Chapter 33 Animals: Introduction to Invertebrates 579
33.1 Classification of Animals 580
33.2 Multicellularity 582
33.3 Two Tissue Layers 584
33.4 Bilateral Symmetry 588
33.5 A Pseudocoelom 592
Chapter 34 Animals: The Protostomes 597
34.1 A Coelom 598
34.2 Molluscs 600
34.3 Annelids 604
34.4 Arthropods 606
Chapter 35 Animals: The Deuterostomes 617
35.1 Echinoderms 618
35.2 Chordates 619
35.3 Vertebrates 622
Part VI Plant Structure and Function 640
Chapter 36 Plant Structure 641
36.1 Plant Organs 642
36.2 Monocot Versus Dicot Plants 644
36.3 Plant Tissues 645
36.4 Organization of Roots 648
36.5 Organization of Stems 652
36.6 Organization of Leaves 658
Chapter 37 Nutrition and Transport in Plants 665
37.1 Plant Nutrition and Soil 666
37.2 Uptake of Water and Minerals 670
37.3 Transport Mechanisms in Plants 672
Chapter 38 Control of Plant Growth and Response 683
38.1 Plant Responses 684
38.2 Plant Hormones 688
38.3 Photoperiodism 694
Chapter 39 Reproduction in Plants 699
39.1 Life Cycle of Flowering Plants 700
39.2 Development of the Embryo 707
39.3 Fruits and Seeds 708
39.4 Asexual Reproduction in Plants 712
Part VII Animal Structure and Function 722
Chapter 40 Animal Organization and Homeostasis 723
40.1 Types of Tissues 724
40.2 Organs and Organ Systems 730
40.3 Homeostasis 734
Chapter 41 Circulation 739
41.1 Transport in Invertebrates 740
41.2 Transport in Vertebrates 742
41.3 Transport in Humans 744
41.4 Cardiovascular Disorders 750
41.5 Blood, a Transport Medium 753
Chapter 42 Lymph Transport and Immunity 759
42.1 Lymphatic System 760
42.2 Nonspecific Defenses 762
42.3 Specific Defenses 764
42.4 Immunity in Other Animals 772
42.5 Induced Immunity 772
42.6 Immunity Side Effects 774
Chapter 43 Digestion and Nutrition 781
43.1 Digestive Tracts 782
43.2 Human Digestive Tract 785
43.3 Nutrition 792
Chapter 44 Respiration 797
44.1 Gas Exchange Surfaces 798
44.2 Human Respiratory System 802
44.3 Respiration and Health 806
Chapter 45 Body Fluid Regulation and Excretion 811
45.1 Body Fluid Regulation 812
45.2 Nitrogenous Waste Products 814
45.3 Organs of Excretion 815
45.4 Urinary System in Humans 816
Chapter 46 Neurons and Nervous Systems 825
46.1 Evolution of the Nervous System 826
46.2 Nervous Tissue 829
46.3 Peripheral Nervous System 834
46.4 Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord 838
Chapter 47 Sense Organs 847
47.1 Chemical Senses 848
47.2 Sense of Vision 850
47.3 Sense of Hearing and Balance 856
Chapter 48 Support Systems and Locomotion 863
48.1 Diversity of Skeletons 864
48.2 The Human Skeletal System 866
48.3 The Human Muscular System 873
Chapter 49 Hormones and Endocrine Systems 881
49.1 Chemical Signals 882
49.2 Human Endocrine System 885
Chapter 50 Reproduction 901
50.1 How Animals Reproduce 902
50.2 Male Reproductive System 904
50.3 Female Reproductive System 908
50.4 Control of Reproduction 912
Chapter 51 Development
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