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The source for world history - narrative and primary sources in one book

Ways of the World is one of the most successful and innovative new textbooks for world history in recent years. This 2-in-1 textbook and reader includes a brief-by-design narrative that is truly global and focuses on significant historical trends, themes, and developments in world history. Author Robert W. Strayer, a pioneer in the world history movement with years of classroom experience, provides a thoughtful and insightful synthesis that helps students see the big picture. Following each chapter's narrative are collections of primary written and visual sources organized around a particular theme, issue, or question so that students can consider the evidence the way historians do. The second edition rolls out Bedford/St. Martin's new digital history tools, including LearningCurve, an adaptive quizzing engine that garners over a 90% student satisfaction rate, and LaunchPad, the all new interactive e-book and course space that puts high quality easy-to-use assessment at your fingertips. Easy to integrate into your campus LMS, and featuring video, additional primary sources, a wealth of adaptive and summative quizzing, and more, LaunchPad cements student understanding of the text while helping them make progress toward learning outcomes. It's the best content joined up with the best technology. Also available in number of affordable print and digital editions, including an edition without sources.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781457647284
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 11/9/2012
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 720
  • Sales rank: 739,050
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert W. Strayer (PhD, University of Wisconsin) taught African, Soviet, and world history for many years at SUNY College at Brockport, where he received Chancellor’s Awards for Excellence in Teaching and for Excellence in Scholarship. In 1998 he was visiting professor of world and Soviet history at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Since 2002, he has taught world history at the University of California, Santa Cruz; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Cabrillo College. His scholarship includes work in African history (Kenya: Focus on Nationalism, 1975; The Making of Mission Communities in East Africa, 1978); Soviet history (Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?,1998;  The Communist Experiment, 2007) and World History (The Making of the Modern World, 1988, 1995; Ways of the World, 2009, 2011). He is a long-time member of the World History Association and served on its Executive Committee.

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Table of Contents


Versions and Supplements


Special Features

Working with Primary Sources

Prologue: The Three Cs of World History: Change, Comparison, and Connection

Context in World History: Change

Context in World History: Comparison

Context in World History: Connection

12 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century

The Shapes of Human Communities

  Paleolithic Persistence: Australia and North America

  Agricultural Village Societies: The Igbo and the Iroquois

  Herding Peoples: Central Asia and West Africa

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe

  Ming Dynasty China

  European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal

  European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World

  In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires

  On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas

  The Aztec Empire

  The Inca Empire

Webs of Connection

A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern Era, 1500–2012

Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Major Developments around the World in the Fifteenth Century

Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000–2000

*Portrait: Zheng He, China's Non-Chinese Admiral

Considering the Evidence

  Documents: The Aztecs and the Incas through Spanish Eyes

  12.1—Diego Duran on the Aztecs: King Moctezuma I, Laws, Ordinances and Regulations, ca. 1450 and Diego Duran, Book of the Gods and Rites, 1574-1576

  12.2— Pedro de Cieza de Léon on the Incas: Pedro de Cieza de Léon, Chronicles of the Incas, ca. 1550

Using the Evidence

  *Visual Sources: Islam and Renaissance Europe

  Gentile Bellini, Portrait of Mehmed II

  The Venetian Ambassador Visits Damascus

  Aristotle and Averroes

  St. George Baptizes the Pagans of Jerusalem

  Giovanni da Modena, Muhammad in Hell

Using the Evidence 

Part Four: The Early Modern World, 1450–1750

The Big Picture

Debating the Character of an Era

  An Early Modern Era?

  A Late Agrarian Era?

  *Mapping Part Four

13 Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters, 1450–1750

European Empires in the Americas

  The European Advantage

  The Great Dying

  The Columbian Exchange

Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas

  In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas

  Colonies of Sugar

  Settler Colonies in North America

The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire

  Experiencing the Russian Empire

  Russians and Empire

Asian Empires

  Making China an Empire

  Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire

  Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire

Reflections: The Centrality of Context in World History

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Ethnic Composition of Colonial Societies in Latin America

*Portrait: Doña Marina, Between Two Worlds

Considering the Evidence

  Documents: State Building in the Early Modern Era

  13.1—The "Self-Portrait" of a Chinese Emperor: The Emperor Kangxi, Reflections, 1671-1722

  13.2—The Memoirs of Emperor Jahangir: Jahangir, Memoirs, 1605-1627

  13.3—An Outsider’s View of Suleiman I: Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, The Turkish Letters, 1555-1562

  13.4—French State-Building and Louis XIV: Louis XIV, Memoirs, 1670 Using the Evidence

  Visual Sources: The Conquest of Mexico through Aztec Eyes

  Disaster Foretold

  Moctezuma and Cortés

  The Massacre of the Nobles

  The Spanish Retreat from Tenochtitlán

Using the Evidence

14 Economic Transformations: Commerce and Consequence, 1450–1750

Europeans and Asian Commerce

  A Portuguese Empire of Commerce

  Spain and the Philippines

  The East India Companies

  Asian Commerce

Silver and Global Commerce

The "World Hunt": Fur in Global Commerce

Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade

  The Slave Trade in Context

  The Slave Trade in Practice

  Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa

Reflections: Economic Globalization—Then and Now

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: The Slave Trade in Numbers (1501-1866)

*Portrait: Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, To Slavery and Back

Considering the Evidence

  Documents: Voices from the Slave Trade 00

  14.1—The Journey to Slavery: Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789

  14.2—The Business of the Slave Trade: Thomas Phillips, "A Journal of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of London," 1694

  14.3—The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Kongo: King Affonso I, Letters to King Jao of Portugal, 1526

  14.4—The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Asante: Osei Bons, Conversation with Joseph Dupuis, 1820

Using the Evidence

  Visual Sources: Exchange and Status in the Early Modern World

  Tea and Porcelain in Europe

  A Chocolate Party in Spain

  An Ottoman Coffeehouse

  Clothing and Status in Colonial Mexico

Using the Evidence

15 Cultural Transformations: Religion and Science, 1450–1750

The Globalization of Christianity

  Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation

  Christianity Outward Bound

  Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America

  An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits

Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions

  Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World

  China: New Directions in an Old Tradition

  India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide

A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science

  The Question of Origins: Why Europe?

  Science as Cultural Revolution • Science and Enlightenment

  Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century

  European Science beyond the West

Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Catholic/Protestant Differences in the Sixteenth Century

Snapshot: Major Thinkers and Achievements of the Scientific Revolution

*Portrait: Ursula de Jesus, An Afro-Peruvian Slave and Christian Visionary

Considering the Evidence

  Documents: Renewal and Reform in the Early Modern World

  15.1—Luther’s Protest: Martin Luther, Table Talk, early sixteenth century

  15.2—Progress and Enlightenment: Marquis de Condorcet, Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind, 1793-1794

  15.3—The Wahhabi Perspective on Islam: Abdullah Wahhab, "History and Doctrines of the Wahhabis," 1803

  15.4—The Poetry of Kabîr: Kabîr, Poetry, ca. late fifteenth century

Using the Evidence

  Visual Sources: Global Christianity in the Early Modern World

  Pieter Seanredam, Interior of a Dutch Reformed Church

  Catholic Baroque: Interior of Pilgrimage Church, Mariazell, Austria

  Cultural Blending in Andean Christianity

  Making Christianity Chinese

  Christian Art at the Mughal Court

Using the Evidence

Part Five: The European Moment In World History, 1750–1914

The Big Picture European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism

  Eurocentric Geography and History

  Countering Eurocentrism

  *Mapping Part Five

16 Atlantic Revolutions, Global Echoes, 1750–1914

Atlantic Revolutions in a Global Context

Comparing Atlantic Revolutions

  The North American Revolution, 1775–1787

  The French Revolution, 1789–1815

  The Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804

  Spanish American Revolutions, 1810–1825

Echoes of Revolution

  The Abolition of Slavery

  Nations and Nationalism

  Feminist Beginnings

Reflections: Revolutions Pro and Con

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Key Moments in the Growth of Nationalism

*Portrait: Kartini, Feminism and Nationalism in Java

Considering the Evidence

  Documents: Claiming Rights

  16.1—The French Revolution and the "Rights of Man": The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789

  16.2—Rights and National Independence: Simón Bolívar, The Jamaica Letter, 1815

  16.3—Rights and Slavery: Frederick Douglass, "What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?", 1852

  16.4—The Rights of Women: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, The Solitude of Self, 1892

Using the Evidence

  Visual Sources: Representing the French Revolution

  The Early Years of the French Revolution: "The Joyous Accord"

  A Reversal of Roles: The Three Estates of Revolutionary France

  Revolution and Religion: "Patience, Monsignor, your turn will come"

  An English Response to Revolution: "Hell Broke Loose or The Murder of Louis"

Using the Evidence

17 Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750–1914

Explaining the Industrial Revolution

  Why Europe?

  Why Britain?

The First Industrial Society

  The British Aristocracy

  The Middle Classes

  The Laboring Classes

  Social Protest

  Europeans in Motion

Variations on a Theme: Comparing Industrialization in the United States and Russia

  The United States: Industrialization without Socialism

  Russia: Industrialization and Revolution

The Industrial Revolution and Latin America in the Nineteenth Century

  After Independence in Latin America

  Facing the World Economy

  Becoming like Europe?

Reflections: History and Horse Races

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Measuring the Industrial Revolution

Snapshot: The Industrial Revolution and the Global Divide

*Portrait: Ellen Johnston, Factory Girl and Poet

Considering the Evidence

  *Documents: Experiencing Industrialization

  17.1— The Experience of an English Factory Worker: Elizabeth Bentley, Factory Worker, Testimony, 1831 and William Harter, Mill Owner, Testimony, 1832

  17.2—A Weaver’s Lament: Only a Weaver, 1860s

  17.3—A Middle-Class Understanding of the Industrial Poor: Samuel Smiles, Thrift, 1875

  17.4—Socialism According to Marx: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 1848

  17.5—Socialism in Song: Eugene Pottier (trans. Charles Kerr), The Internationale, 1871

Using the Evidence

  Visual Sources: Art and the Industrial Revolution

  The Machinery Department of the Crystal Palace

  The Railroad as a Symbol of the Industrial Era

  Outside the Factory: Eyre Crowe, The Dinner Hour, Wigan

  Inside the Factory: Lewis Hine, Child Labor, 1912

  John Leech, Capital and Labour

Using the Evidence

18 Colonial Encounters in Asia and Africa, 1750–1950

Industry and Empire

A Second Wave of European Conquests

Under European Rule

  Cooperation and Rebellion

  Colonial Empires with a Difference

Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies

  Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State

  Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market

  Economies of Wage Labor: Migration for Work

  Women and the Colonial Economy: Examples from Africa

  Assessing Colonial Development

Believing and Belonging: Identity and Cultural Change in the Colonial Era



  "Race" and "Tribe"

Reflections: Who Makes History?

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions • Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Long-Distance Migration in an Age of Empire, 1846–1940

*Portrait: Wanjiku of Kenya, An Ordinary Woman in Extraordinary Times

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Indian Responses to Empire

  18.1—Seeking Western Education: Ram Mohan Roy, Letter to Lord Amherst, 1823

  18.2—The Indian Rebellion: Prince Feroze Shah, The Azamgarh Proclamation, 1857

  18.3—The Credits and Debits of British Rule in India: Dadabhai Naoroji, Speech to a London Audience, 1871

  18.4—Gandhi on Modern Civilization: Mahatma Gandhi, Indian Home Rule, 1908

Using the Evidence

  Visual Sources: The Scramble for Africa

  Prelude to the Scramble

  Conquest and Competition

  From the Cape to Cairo

  British and French in North Africa

  The Ethiopian Exception

Using the Evidence

19 Empire in Collision: Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia, 1800–1914

Reversal of Fortune: China’s Century of Crisis

  The Crisis Within

  Western Pressures

  The Failure of Conservative Modernization

The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century

  "The Sick Man of Europe"

  Reform and Its Opponents

  Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire

The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power

  The Tokugawa Background

  American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration

  Modernization Japanese Style

  Japan and the World

Reflections: Success and Failure in History

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Chinese/British Trade at Canton, 1835–1836

*Portrait: Commissioner Lin, Confronting the Opium Trade

Considering the Evidence

  *Documents: Changing China

  19.1—Towards a Constitutional Monarchy: Kang Youwei, Memorial to Emperor Guangxu, 1898

  19.2—Education and Examination: Anonymous, Editorial on China’s Examination System, 1898, and Emperor Guangxu, Edict on Education, 1898

  19.3—Gender, Reform, and Revolution: Qiu Jin, An Address to Two Hundred Million Fellow Countrywomen, 1904

  19.4—Prescriptions for a Revolutionary China: Sun Yat-sen, The Three People’s Principles and the Future of the Chinese People, 1906

Using the Evidence

  Visual Sources: Japanese Perceptions of the West

  The Black Ships

  Women and Westernization

  Kobayashi Kiyochika’s Critique of Wholesale Westernization

  Japan, China, and Europe: A Reversal of Roles

Using the Evidence

Part Six: The Most Recent Century, 1914–2012

The Big Picture

Since World War I: A New Period in World History?

  *Mapping Part Six

20: Collapse at the Center: World War, Depression, and the Rebalancing of Global Power, 1914–1970s

The First World War: European Civilization in Crisis, 1914–1918

  An Accident Waiting to Happen

  Legacies of the Great War

Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression

Democracy Denied: Comparing Italy, Germany, and Japan

  The Fascist Alternative in Europe

  Hitler and the Nazis

  Japanese Authoritarianism

A Second World War

  The Road to War in Asia

  The Road to War in Europe

  The Outcomes of Global Conflict

The Recovery of Europe

Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Comparing the Impact of the Depression

*Portrait: Etty Hillesum, Witness to the Holocaust

Considering the Evidence

  Documents: Ideologies of the Axis Powers

  20.1—Hitler on Nazism: Adolph Hitler, Mein Kampf (My Struggle), 1925-1926

  20.2—The Japanese Way: Cardinal Principles of the National Entity of Japan, 1937

Using the Evidence

  Visual Sources: Propaganda and Critique in World War I

  Defining the Enemy

  War and the Colonies

  Women and the War

  War and the Colonies

  The Battlefield

  The Aftermath of War

Using the Evidence

21 Revolution, Socialism, and Global Conflict: The Rise and Fall of World Communism, 1917–Present

Global Communism

Comparing Revolutions as a Path to Communism

  Russia: Revolution in a Single Year

  China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle

Building Socialism in Two Countries

  Communist Feminism

  Socialism in the Countryside

  Communism and Industrial Development

  The Search for Enemies

East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War

  Military Conflict and the Cold War

  Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry

Paths to the End of Communism

  China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party

  The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country

Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: China under Mao, 1949–1976

*Portrait: Anna Dubova, A Peasant Woman and Soviet Communist

Considering the Evidence

  Documents: Experiencing Stalinism

  21.1—Stalin on Stalinism: Joseph Stalin, "The Results of the First Five-Year Plan," 1933

  21.2—Living through Collectivization: Maurice Hindus, Red Bread, 1931

  21.3—Living through Industrialization: Personal Accounts of Soviet Industrialization, 1930s

  21.4—Living through the Terror: Personal Accounts of the Terror, 1930s

Using the Evidence

  Visual Sources: Poster Art in Mao’s China

  Smashing the Old Society

  Building the New Society: The People’s Commune

  Women, Nature, and Industrialization

  The Cult of Mao

Using the Evidence

22 The End of Empire: The Global South on the Global Stage, 1914–Present

Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence

  The End of Empire in World History

  Explaining African and Asian Independence

Comparing Freedom Struggles

  The Case of India: Ending British Rule

  The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid

Experiments with Freedom

  Experiments in Political Order: Party, Army, and the Fate of Democracy

  Experiments in Economic Development: Changing Priorities, Varying Outcomes

  Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran

Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1950-2011

*Portrait: Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Muslim Pacifist

Considering the Evidence

  Documents: Contending for Islam

  22.1—A Secular State for an Islamic Society in Turkey: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Speech to the General Congress of the Republican Party, 1927

  22.2—Political Islam: Ayatollah Khomeini, Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini, 1980

  22.3—Progressive Islam: Kabir Helminski, "Islam and Human Values," 2009

  22.4—Abandoning Islam: Ayaan Hirsi Ail, From Islam to America, 2010

Using the Evidence

  Visual Sources: Representing Independence

  African National Congress

  Vietnamese Independence and Victory over the United States

  Winning a Jewish National State

  A Palestinian Nation in the Making

Using the Evidence

23 Capitalism and Culture: A New Phase of Global Interaction, since 1945

The Transformation of the World Economy


  Growth, Instability, and Inequality

  Globalization and an American Empire

The Globalization of Liberation: Focus on Feminism

  Feminism in the West

  Feminism in the Global South

  International Feminism

Religion and Global Modernity

  Fundamentalism on a Global Scale

  Creating Islamic Societies: Resistance and Renewal in the World of Islam

  Religious Alternatives to Fundamentalism

Experiencing the Anthropocene Era: Environment and Environmentalism

  The Global Environment Transformed

  Green and Global

Final Reflections: Pondering the OAR

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study


*Snapshot: Global Development and Inequality: 2011

*Portrait: Rachel Carson, Pioneer of Environmentalism

Considering the Evidence

  *Documents: Voices of Global Feminism

  23.1—Communist Feminism: Alexandra Kollotai, "Communism and the Family," 1920

  23.2—Western Feminism: Andrea Dworkin, "Remember, Resist, Do Not Comply," 1995

  23.3—Black American Feminism: Combahee River Collective, A Black Feminist Statement, 1977

  23.4—Islamic Feminism: Benzair Bhutto, Politics and the Muslim Woman, 1985

  23.5—Mexican Zapatista Feminists: Indigenous Women's Petition, March 1, 1994 and The Women's Revolutionary Law, January 1, 1994

Using the Evidence

  Visual Sources: Experiencing Globalization

  Globalization and Work

  Globalization and Consumerism

  Globalization and Protest

  Globalization: One World or Many?

Using the Evidence




About the Author

*new to this edition

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