LTE-Advanced and Next Generation Wireless Networks: Channel Modelling and Propagation


LTE- A and Next Generation Wireless Networks: Channel Modeling and Performance describes recent advances in propagation and channel modeling necessary for simulating next generation wireless systems. Due to the radio spectrum scarcity, two fundamental changes are anticipated compared to the current status. Firstly, the strict reservation of a specific band for a unique standard could evolve toward a priority policy allowing the co-existence of secondary users in a band allocated to a primary system. Secondly, a ...

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LTE- A and Next Generation Wireless Networks: Channel Modeling and Performance describes recent advances in propagation and channel modeling necessary for simulating next generation wireless systems. Due to the radio spectrum scarcity, two fundamental changes are anticipated compared to the current status. Firstly, the strict reservation of a specific band for a unique standard could evolve toward a priority policy allowing the co-existence of secondary users in a band allocated to a primary system. Secondly, a huge increase of the number of cells is expected by combining outdoor base stations with smaller cells such as pico/femto cells and relays. This evolution is accompanied with the emergence of cognitive radio that becomes a reality in terminals together with the development of self-organization capabilities and distributed cooperative behaviors.

The book is divided into three parts:

  • Part I addresses the fundamentals (e.g. technologies, channel modeling principles etc.)
  • Part II addresses propagation and modeling discussing topics such as indoor propagation, outdoor propagation, etc.
  • Part III explores system performance and applications (e.g. MIMO Over-the-air testing, electromagnetic safety, etc).
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781119976707
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 12/26/2012
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 566
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Guillaume de la Roche, University of Bedfordshire,UK
Guillaume de la Roche received the Dipl.-Ing. in telecommunicationfrom the School of Chemistry Physics and Electronics (CPE) Lyon,France, an M.S. degree in signal processing (2003) and a in wireless communication (2007) from the National Instituteof Applied Sciences (INSA), Lyon, France.

Dr. Andres Alayon-Glazunov, KTH - Royal Institute ofTechnology, Sweden
Andres Alayon-Glazunov obtained the M.Sc. (Engineer-Researcher)degree in Physical Engineering from Saint Petersburg’s StatePolytechnical University, Russia, and the Ph.D. degree inElectrical Engineering from Lund University, Sweden, during1988-1994 and 2006-2009, respectively.

Prof. Ben Allen, University of Bedfordshire, UK
Ben Allen received his PhD from the University of Bristol in 2001.In 2002 he joined Tait Electronics Ltd, Christchurch, New Zealand,before becoming a Research Fellow with the Centre forTelecommunications Research, King's College London.

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Table of Contents

About the Editors xv

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xix

Acknowledgements xxiii

List of Acronyms xxv


1 Enabling Technologies for 3GPP LTE-Advanced Networks3
Narcis Cardona, Jose F. Monserrat and Jorge Cabrejas

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 General IMT-Advanced Features and Requirements 5

1.3 Long Term Evolution Advanced Requirements 11

1.4 Long Term Evolution Advanced Enabling Technologies 15

1.5 Summary 33

2 Propagation and Channel Modeling Principles 35
Andreas F. Molisch

2.1 Propagation Principles 35

2.2 Deterministic Channel Descriptions 41

2.3 Stochastic Channel Description 46

2.4 Channel Modeling Methods 51


3 Indoor Channels 67
Jianhua Zhang and Guangyi Liu

3.1 Introduction 67

3.2 Indoor Large Scale Fading 69

3.3 Indoor Small Scale Fading 83

4 Outdoor Channels 97
Petros Karadimas

4.1 Introduction 97

4.2 Reference Channel Model 98

4.3 Small Scale Variations 103

4.4 Path Loss and Large Scale Variations 117

4.5 Summary 119

5 Outdoor-Indoor Channel 123
Andres Alayon Glazunov, Zhihua Lai and Jie Zhang

5.1 Introduction 123

5.2 Modelling Principles 124

5.3 Empirical Propagation Models 127

5.4 Deterministic Models 137

5.5 Hybrid Models 142

6 Vehicular Channels 153
Laura Bernado, Nicolai Czink, Thomas Zemen, Alexander Paier,Fredrik Tufvesson, Christoph Mecklenbrauker and Andreas F.Molisch

6.1 Introduction 153

6.2 Radio Channel Measurements 154

6.3 Vehicular Channel Characterization 160

6.4 Channel Models for Vehicular Communications 171

6.5 New Vehicular Communication Techniques 180

7 Multi-User MIMO Channels 187
Fredrik Tufvesson, Katsuyuki Haneda and Veli-MattiKolmonen

7.1 Introduction 187

7.2 Multi-User MIMO Measurements 188

7.3 Multi-User Channel Characterization 196

7.4 Multi-User Channel Models 200

8 Wideband Channels 215
Vit Sipal, David Edward and Ben Allen

8.1 Large Scale Channel Properties 216

8.2 Impulse Response of UWB Channel 219

8.3 Frequency Selective Fading in UWB Channels 226

8.4 Multiple Antenna Techniques 239

8.5 Implications for LTE-A 243

9 Wireless Body Area Network Channels 247
Rob Edwards, Muhammad Irfan Khattak and Lei Ma

9.1 Introduction 247

9.2 Wearable Antennas 249

9.3 Analysis of Antennas Close to Human Skin 251

9.4 A Survey of Popular On-Body Propagation Models 259

9.5 Antenna Implants-Possible Future Trends 263

9.6 Summary 265


10 Ray-Tracing Modeling 271
Yves Lostanlen and Thomas Kurner

10.1 Introduction 271

10.2 Main Physical Phenomena Involved in Propagation 272

10.3 Incorporating the Influence of Vegetation 277

10.4 Ray-Tracing Methods 280

11 Finite-Difference Modeling 293
Guillaume de la Roche

11.1 Introduction 293

11.2 Models for Solving Maxwell’s Equations 294

11.3 Practical Use of FD Methods 298

11.4 Results 303

11.5 Perspectives for Finite Difference Models 308

11.6 Summary and Perspectives 314

12 Propagation Models for Wireless Network Planning 317
Thomas Kurner and Yves Lostanlen

12.1 Geographic Data for RNP 317

12.2 Categorization of Propagation Models 322

12.3 Empirical Models 325

12.4 Semi-Empirical Models for Macro Cells 326

12.5 Deterministic Models for Urban Areas 332

12.6 Accuracy of Propagation Models for RNP 339

12.7 Coverage Probability 344

13 System-Level Simulations with the IMT-Advanced ChannelModel 349
Jan Ellenbeck

13.1 Introduction 349

13.2 IMT-Advanced Simulation Guidelines 350

13.3 The IMT-Advanced Channel Models 357

13.4 Channel Model Calibration 366

13.5 Link-to-System Modeling for LTE-Advanced 371

13.6 3GPP LTE-Advanced System-Level Simulator Calibration379

13.7 Summary and Outlook 385

14 Channel Emulators for Emerging Communication Systems389
Julian Webber

14.1 Introduction 389

14.2 Emulator Systems 390

14.3 Random Number Generation 391

14.4 Fading Generators 394

14.5 Channel Convolution 401

14.6 Emulator Development 403

14.7 Example Transceiver Applications for Emerging Systems403

14.8 Summary 407

15 MIMO Over-the-Air Testing 411
Andres Alayon Glazunov, Veli-Matti Kolmonen and TommiLaitinen

15.1 Introduction 411

15.2 Channel Modelling Concepts 414

15.3 DUTs and Usage Definition 418

15.4 Figures-of-Merit for OTA 419

15.5 Multi-Probe MIMO OTA Testing Methods 421

15.6 Other MIMO OTA Testing Methods 429

15.6.1 Reverberation Chambers 429

15.6.2 Two-Stage Method 436

15.7 Future Trends 437

16 Cognitive Radio Networks: Sensing, Access, Security443
Ghazanfar A. Safdar

16.1 Introduction 443

16.2 Cognitive Radio: A Definition 443

16.3 Spectrum Sensing in CRNs 448

16.4 Spectrum Assignment–Medium Access Control in CRNs452

16.5 Security in Cognitive Radio Networks 461

16.6 Applications of CRNs 468

16.7 Summary 470

17 Antenna Design for Small Devices 473
Tim Brown

17.1 Antenna Fundamentals 474

17.2 Figures of Merit and their Impact on the PropagationChannel 477

17.3 Challenges in Mobile Terminal Antenna Design 484

17.4 Multiple-Antenna Minaturization Techniques 485

17.5 Multiple Antennas with Multiple Bands 489

17.6 Multiple Users and Antenna Effects 491

17.7 Small Cell Antennas 492

17.8 Summary 492

18 Statistical Characterization of Antennas in BANs 495
Carla Oliveira, Michal Mackowiak and Luis M. Correia

18.1 Motivation 495

18.2 Scenarios 496

18.3 Concepts 498

18.4 Body Coupling: Theoretical Models 500

18.5 Body Coupling: Full Wave Simulations 508

18.6 Body Coupling: Practical Experiments 513

18.7 Correlation Analysis for BANs 517

18.8 Summary 522

Acknowledgements 523

References 523

Index 525

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