LTE, WiMAX and WLAN Network Design, Optimization and Performance Analysis / Edition 1

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Overview

A technological overview of LTE and WiMAX

LTE, WiMAX and WLAN Network Design, Optimization and Performance Analysis provides a practical guide to LTE and WiMAX technologies introducing various tools and concepts used within. In addition, topics such as traffic modelling of IP-centric networks, RF propagation, fading, mobility, and indoor coverage are explored; new techniques which increase throughput such as MIMO and AAS technology are highlighted; and simulation, network design and performance analysis are also examined. Finally, in the latter part of the book Korowajczuk gives a step-by-step guide to network design, providing readers with the capability to build reliable and robust data networks.

By focusing on LTE and WiMAX this book extends current network planning approaches to next generation wireless systems based on OFDMA, providing an essential resource for engineers and operators of fixed and wireless broadband data access networks. With information presented in a sequential format, LTE, WiMAX and WLAN Network Design, Optimization and Performance Analysis aids a progressive development of knowledge, complementing latter graduate and postgraduate courses while also providing a valuable resource to network designers, equipment vendors, reference material, operators, consultants, and regulators.

Key Features:

  • One of the first books to comprehensively explain and evaluate LTE
  • Provides an unique explanation of the basic concepts involved in wireless broadband technologies and their applications in LTE, WiMAX, and WLAN before progressing to the network design
  • Demonstrates the application of network planning for LTE and WiMAX with theoretical and practical approaches
  • Includes all aspects of system design and optimization, such as dynamic traffic simulations, multi-layered traffic analysis, statistical interference analysis, and performance estimations
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470741498
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 9/27/2011
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 782
  • Sales rank: 917,170
  • Product dimensions: 6.70 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Leonhard Korowajczuk has 40 plus years of experience in the telecommunication field working in R&D and Engineering areas. He graduated from UFRJ in 1969. His first assignments were in the Energy and FDM area at Standard Electrica S/A, followed by pioneer work on a PCM project at STC in England. He was part of the group that created the Telecom R&D Center (CPqD) in Brazil, where he did pioneer work on TDM switching. Next he joined Elebra S/A (later Alcatel do Brazil) where he was in charge of the Switching and Wireless Divisions. In 1992, he founded CelTec Tecnologia de Telecomunicações in Campinas, SP, Brazil, and in 1994 CelPlan Technologies in Reston, VA, USA, to provide design and optimization software for wireless operators. He was CTO of Comsat/Plexsys, were he was responsible for the development of advanced wireless equipment. Today he is CEO and CTO of CelPlan International, a company with subsidiaries in several countries that provides design and optimization solutions for wireless operators. His team have done hundreds of designs of Cellular, PCS, WLAN, WiMAX and LTE networks worldwide. He is also the head of the Wi4Net division, which provides Citywide Video Surveillance Networks for Public Safety, using technologies like WLAN and WiMAX.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures xix

List of Tables xxxv

About the Author xli

Preface xliii

Acknowledgements xlv

List of Abbreviations xlvii

Introduction 1

1 The Business Plan 5

1.1 Introduction 5

1.2 Market Plan 5

1.3 The Engineering Plan 7

1.4 The Financial Plan 8

1.5 Business Case Questionnaire 11

1.6 Implementing the Business Plan 12

2 Data Transmission 15

2.1 History of the Internet 15

2.2 Network Modeling 16

2.3 Internet Network Architecture 19

2.4 The Physical Layer 20

2.5 The Data Link Layer 22

2.6 Network Layer 24

2.7 Transport Protocols 28

2.8 Routing Protocols 29

2.9 Application Protocols 31

2.10 The World Wide Web (WWW) 35

3 Market Modeling 37

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Data Traffic Characterization 38

3.3 Service Plan (SP) and Service Level Agreement (SLA) 41

3.4 User Service Classes 43

3.5 Applications 44

3.6 Over-Subscription Ratio (OSR) 50

3.7 Services Summary 51

3.8 RF Environment 51

3.9 Terminals 52

3.10 Antenna Height 58

3.11 Geographic User Distribution 58

3.12 Network Traffic Modeling 63

3.13 KPI (Key Performance Indicator) Establishment 72

3.14 Wireless Infrastructure 74

4 Signal Processing Fundamentals 77

4.1 Digitizing Analog Signals 77

4.2 Digital Data Representation in the Frequency Domain (Spectrum) 80

4.3 Orthogonal Signals 84

4.4 Combining Shifted Copies of a Sine Wave 86

4.5 Carrier Modulation 87

5 RF Channel Analysis 95

5.1 The Signal 95

5.2 The RF Channel 101

5.3 RF Signal Propagation 102

5.4 RF Channel in the Frequency Domain 107

5.5 RF Channel in Time Domain 115

5.6 RF Channel in the Power Domain 120

5.7 Standardized Channel Models 123

5.8 RF Environment 126

5.9 Fading 128

6 RF Channel Performance Prediction 139

6.1 Advanced RF Propagation Models 139

6.2 RF Measurements and Propagation Model Calibration 163

6.3 RF Interference Issues 172

6.4 Interference Mitigation Techniques 180

6.5 RF Spectrum Usage and Resource Planning 181

6.6 Availability 187

7 OFDM 193

7.1 Multiplexing 193

7.2 Other PAPR Reduction Methods 201

7.3 De-Multiplexing 201

7.4 Cyclic Prefix 202

7.5 OFDMA 203

7.6 Duplexing 204

7.7 Synchronization 207

7.8 RF Channel Information Detection 208

7.9 Error Correction Techniques 211

7.10 Resource Allocation and Scheduling 215

7.11 Establishing Wireless Data Communications 216

8 OFDM Implementation 221

8.1 Transmit Side 221

8.2 Receive Side 228

9 Wireless Communications Network (WCN) 235

9.1 Introduction 235

9.2 Wireless Access Network 235

9.3 Core Network 237

10 Antenna and Advanced Antenna Systems 245

10.1 Introduction 245

10.2 Antenna Basics 246

10.3 Antenna Radiation 247

10.4 Antenna Types 249

10.5 Antenna Characteristics 254

10.6 Multiple Antennas Arrangements 262

10.7 Receive Diversity 267

10.8 Transmit Diversity 271

10.9 Transmit and Receive Diversity (TRD) 275

10.10 Spatial Multiplexing (Matrix B) 276

10.11 Diversity Performance 278

10.12 Antenna Array System (AAS), Advanced Antenna System (AAS) or Adaptive Antenna Steering (AAS) or Beamforming 282

11 Radio Performance 287

11.1 Introduction 287

11.2 Input RF Noise 288

11.3 Receive Circuit Noise 288

11.4 Signal to Noise Ratio 288

11.5 Radio Sensitivity Calculations 295

11.6 Radio Configuration 307

12 Wireless LAN 311

12.1 Standardization 311

12.2 Architecture 315

12.3 The IEEE Std 802.11-2007 316

12.4 Enhancements for Higher Throughputs, Amendment 5: 802.11n-2009 328

12.5 Work in Progress 333

12.6 Throughput 334

13 WiMAX 341

13.1 Standardization 341

13.2 Network Architecture 344

13.3 Physical Layer (PHY) 353

13.4 Multiple Access OFDMA 369

13.5 WiMAX Network Layers 370

13.6 WiMAX Operation Phases 384

13.7 WiMAX Interference Reduction Techniques 386

13.8 WiMAX Resource Planning 401

14 Universal Mobile Telecommunication System – Long Term Evolution (UMTS-LTE) 409

14.1 Introduction 409

14.2 Standardization 412

14.3 Frequency Bands 415

14.4 Architecture 417

14.5 Wireless Message Flow and Protocol Stack 424

14.6 Wireline Message Flow and Protocol Stacks 433

14.7 Identifiers 434

14.8 HARQ Procedure 435

14.9 Scrambling Sequences 439

14.10 Physical Layer (PHY) 439

14.11 PHY Structure 444

14.12 PHY TDD 457

14.13 Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) 457

14.14 Call Placement Scenario 461

14.15 PHY Characteristics and Performance 463

14.16 Multiple Antennas in LTE 466

14.17 Resource Planning in LTE 472

14.18 Self-Organizing Network (SON) 473

14.19 RAT (Radio Access Technology) Internetworking 475

14.20 LTE Radio Propagation Channel Considerations 475

14.21 Handover Procedures in LTE 481

14.22 Measurements 482

14.23 LTE Practical System Capacity 483

14.24 Synchronization 486

14.25 Beyond 4G 486

15 Broadband Standards Comparison 489

15.1 Introduction 489

15.2 Performance Tables 489

16 Wireless Network Design 513

16.1 Introduction 513

16.2 Wireless Market Modeling 513

16.3 Wireless Network Strategy 515

16.4 Wireless Network Design 516

16.5 Wireless Network Optimization 517

16.6 Wireless Network Performance Assessment 517

17 Wireless Market Modeling 519

17.1 Findings Phase 519

17.2 Area of Interest (AoI) Modeling 519

17.3 Terrain Databases (GIS Geographic Information System) 519

17.4 Demographic Databases 530

17.5 Service Modeling 533

17.6 Environment Modeling 536

17.7 User Terminal Modeling 537

17.8 Service Class Modeling 538

17.9 User Distribution Modeling 542

17.10 Traffic Distribution Modeling 551

18 Wireless Network Strategy 553

18.1 Define Spectrum Usage Strategy 553

18.2 Deployment Strategy 555

18.3 Core Equipment 555

18.4 Base Station Equipment 555

18.5 Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) 563

18.6 Link Budget 565

18.7 Backhaul Equipment 565

18.8 Land Line Access Points of Presence (PoP) 570

18.9 List of Available Site Locations 570

19 Wireless Network Design 573

19.1 Field Measurement Campaign 573

19.2 Measurement Processing 575

19.3 Propagation Models and Parameters 579

19.4 Site Location 582

19.5 Run Initial Site Predictions 586

19.6 Static Traffic Simulation 593

19.7 Adjust Design for Area and Traffic Coverage 595

19.8 Configure Backhaul Links and Perform Backhaul Predictions 595

19.9 Perform Signal Level Predictions with Extended Radius 597

20 Wireless Network Optimization 599

20.1 Cell Enhancement or Footprint Optimization 599

20.2 Resource Optimization 603

21 Wireless Network Performance Assessment 615

21.1 Perform Dynamic Traffic Simulation 615

21.2 Performance 620

21.3 Perform Network Performance Predictions 625

21.4 Backhaul Links Performance 655

21.5 Analyze Performance Results, Analyze Impact on CAPEX, OPEX and ROI 661

22 Basic Mathematical Concepts Used in Wireless Networks 663

22.1 Circle Relationships 663

22.2 Numbers and Vectors 665

22.3 Functions Decomposition 668

22.4 Sinusoids 670

22.5 Fourier Analysis 674

22.6 Statistical Probability Distributions 676

Appendix: List of Equations 689

Further Reading 697

Index 701

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