LTE, WiMAX and WLAN Network Design, Optimization and Performance Analysis / Edition 1

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A technological overview of LTE and WiMAX

LTE, WiMAX and WLAN Network Design, Optimization and Performance Analysis provides a practical guide to LTE and WiMAX technologies introducing various tools and concepts used within. In addition, topics such as traffic modelling of IP-centric networks, RF propagation, fading, mobility, and indoor coverage are explored; new techniques which increase throughput such as MIMO and AAS technology are highlighted; and simulation, network design and performance analysis are also examined. Finally, in the latter part of the book Korowajczuk gives a step-by-step guide to network design, providing readers with the capability to build reliable and robust data networks.

By focusing on LTE and WiMAX this book extends current network planning approaches to next generation wireless systems based on OFDMA, providing an essential resource for engineers and operators of fixed and wireless broadband data access networks. With information presented in a sequential format, LTE, WiMAX and WLAN Network Design, Optimization and Performance Analysis aids a progressive development of knowledge, complementing latter graduate and postgraduate courses while also providing a valuable resource to network designers, equipment vendors, reference material, operators, consultants, and regulators.

Key Features:

  • One of the first books to comprehensively explain and evaluate LTE
  • Provides an unique explanation of the basic concepts involved in wireless broadband technologies and their applications in LTE, WiMAX, and WLAN before progressing to the network design
  • Demonstrates the application of network planning for LTE and WiMAX with theoretical and practical approaches
  • Includes all aspects of system design and optimization, such as dynamic traffic simulations, multi-layered traffic analysis, statistical interference analysis, and performance estimations
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470741498
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 9/27/2011
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 782
  • Sales rank: 899,731
  • Product dimensions: 6.70 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Leonhard Korowajczuk has 40 plus years of experience in the telecommunication field working in R&D and Engineering areas. He graduated from UFRJ in 1969. His first assignments were in the Energy and FDM area at Standard Electrica S/A, followed by pioneer work on a PCM project at STC in England. He was part of the group that created the Telecom R&D Center (CPqD) in Brazil, where he did pioneer work on TDM switching. Next he joined Elebra S/A (later Alcatel do Brazil) where he was in charge of the Switching and Wireless Divisions. In 1992, he founded CelTec Tecnologia de Telecomunicações in Campinas, SP, Brazil, and in 1994 CelPlan Technologies in Reston, VA, USA, to provide design and optimization software for wireless operators. He was CTO of Comsat/Plexsys, were he was responsible for the development of advanced wireless equipment. Today he is CEO and CTO of CelPlan International, a company with subsidiaries in several countries that provides design and optimization solutions for wireless operators. His team have done hundreds of designs of Cellular, PCS, WLAN, WiMAX and LTE networks worldwide. He is also the head of the Wi4Net division, which provides Citywide Video Surveillance Networks for Public Safety, using technologies like WLAN and WiMAX.
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Table of Contents

List of Figures.

List of Tables.

About the Author.



List of Abbreviations.


1 The Business Plan.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Market Plan.

1.3 The Engineering Plan.

1.4 The Financial Plan.

1.4.1 Capital Expenditure (CAPEX).

1.4.2 Operational Expenditure (OPEX).

1.4.3 Return of Investment (ROI).

1.5 Business Case Questionnaire.

1.6 Implementing the Business Plan.

2 Data Transmission.

2.1 History of the Internet.

2.2 Network Modeling.

2.3 Internet Network Architecture.

2.3.1 Router.

2.3.2 Hub.

2.3.3 Bridge.

2.3.4 Switch.

2.3.5 Gateway.

2.4 The Physical Layer.

2.4.1 Ethernet PHY.

2.5 The Data Link Layer

2.5.1 Ethernet MAC.

2.6 Network Layer.

2.6.1 Internet Protocol (IP).

2.6.2 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP).

2.6.3 Multicast and Internet Group Message. Protocol (IGMP).

2.6.4 Link Layer Control (LLC).

2.7 Transport Protocols.

2.7.1 User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

2.7.2 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

2.8 Routing Protocols.

2.8.1 Basic IP Routing.

2.8.2 Routing Algorithms.

2.9 Application Protocols.

2.9.1 Applications.

2.9.2 Data Transfer Protocols.

2.9.3 Real Time Protocols.

2.9.4 Network Management Protocols.

2.10 The World Wide Web (WWW).

3 Market Modeling.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Data Traffic Characterization.

3.2.1 Circuit-Switched Traffic Characterization.

3.2.2 Packet-Switched Traffic Characterization.

3.2.3 Data Speed and Data Tonnage.

3.3 Service Plan (SP) and Service Level Agreement (SLA).

3.4 User Service Classes.

3.5 Applications.

3.5.1 Application Types.

3.5.2 Applications Field Data Collection.

3.5.3 Application Characterization.

3.6 Over-Subscription Ratio (OSR).

3.7 Services Summary.

3.8 RF Environment.

3.9 Terminals.

3.9.1 Terminal Types.

3.9.2 Terminal Specification.

3.10 Antenna Height.

3.11 Geographic User Distribution.

3.11.1 Geographic Customer Distribution.

3.11.2 Customer’s Distribution Layers.

3.12 Network Traffic Modeling.

3.12.1 Unconstrained Busy Hour Data User Traffic.

3.12.2 Traffic Constraint Factor per Terminal Type.

3.12.3 Expected Number of Users per Terminal Type.

3.12.4 Busy Hour Traffic per Subscription.

3.12.5 Daily Traffic per Subscription.

3.12.6 Service Plan Tonnage Ranges.

3.12.7 Number of Subscriptions per Service Plan.

3.12.8 Total Number of Users.

3.12.9 Mapping of Portable Terminal Users (MPU).

3.12.10 Users’ Area Mapping.

3.12.11 Hourly Traffic Variation.

3.12.12 Prediction Service Classes (PSC).

3.12.13 Traffic Layers Composition.

3.12.14 Network Traffic per Layer.

3.13 KPI (Key Performance Indicator) Establishment.

3.14 Wireless Infrastructure.

4 Signal Processing Fundamentals.

4.1 Digitizing Analog Signals.

4.2 Digital Data Representation in the Frequency Domain (Spectrum).

4.3 Orthogonal Signals.

4.3.1 Sine and Cosine Orthogonality.

4.3.2 Harmonically Related Signals’ Orthogonality.

4.4 Combining Shifted Copies of a Sine Wave.

4.5 Carrier Modulation.

5 RF Channel Analysis.

5.1 The Signal.

5.2 The RF Channel.

5.3 RF Signal Propagation.

5.3.1 Free Space Loss.

5.3.2 Diffraction Loss.

5.3.3 Reflection and Refraction.

5.4 RF Channel in the Frequency Domain.

5.4.1 Multipath Fading.

5.4.2 Shadow Fading.

5.5 RF Channel in Time Domain.

5.5.1 Wind Effect.

5.5.2 Vehicles Effect.

5.5.3 Doppler Effect.

5.5.4 Fading Types.

5.5.5 Multipath Mitigation Procedures.

5.5.6 Comparing Multipath Resilience in Different Technologies.

5.6 RF Channel in the Power Domain.

5.7 Standardized Channel Models.

5.7.1 3GPP Empirical Channel Model.

5.7.2 3GPP2 Semi-Empirical Channel Model.

5.7.3 Stanford University Interim (SUI) Semi-Empirical Channel Model.

5.7.4 Network-Wide Channel Modeling.

5.8 RF Environment.

5.8.1 Human Body Attenuation.

5.8.2 Environment Penetration Attenuation.

5.8.3 Rain Precipitation.

5.8.4 Environment Fading.

5.9 Fading.

5.9.1 Fading Types.

5.9.2 Fading Probability.

5.9.3 Fading Distributions.

5.9.4 The Rician Distribution (for Short-Term Fading with Combined LOS and NLOS).

5.9.5 The Suzuki Distribution (for Combined Long- and Short-Term Fading).

5.9.6 Traffic Simulation with Fading.

6 RF Channel Performance Prediction.

6.1 Advanced RF Propagation Models.

6.1.1 Terrain Databases.

6.1.2 Antenna Orientation.

6.1.3 Propagation Models.

6.1.4 Prediction Layers.

6.1.5 Fractional Morphology.

6.1.6 Korowajczuk 2D Model for Outdoor and Indoor Propagation.

6.1.7 Korowajczuk 3D Model.

6.1.8 CelPlan Microcell Model.

6.2 RF Measurements and Propagation Model Calibration.

6.2.1 RF Measurements.

6.2.2 RF Propagation Parameters Calibration.

6.3 RF Interference Issues.

6.3.1 Signal Level Variation and Signal to Interference Ratio.

6.3.2 Computing Interference.

6.3.3 Cell Interference Statistical Characterization.

6.3.4 Interference Outage Matrix.

6.4 Interference Mitigation Techniques.

6.4.1 Interference Avoidance.

6.4.2 Interference Averaging.

6.5 RF Spectrum Usage and Resource Planning.

6.5.1 Network Footprint Enhancement.

6.5.2 Neighborhood Planning.

6.5.3 Handover Planning.

6.5.4 Paging Zone Planning.

6.5.5 Carrier Planning.

6.5.6 Code Planning.

6.5.7 Spectrum Efficiency.

6.6 Availability.


7.1 Multiplexing.

7.1.1 Implementation of an Inverse Discrete Fast Fourier Transform (iDFFT).

7.1.2 Implementation of a Discrete Fast Fourier Transform.

7.1.3 Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR).

7.1.4 Single Carrier OFDM (SC-OFDM).

7.2 Other PAPR Reduction Methods.

7.3 De-Multiplexing.

7.4 Cyclic Prefix.

7.5 OFDMA.

7.6 Duplexing.

7.6.1 FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing).

7.6.2 TDD (Time Division Duplexing).

7.7 Synchronization.

7.7.1 Unframed Solution.

7.7.2 Framed Solution.

7.8 RF Channel Information Detection.

7.8.1 Frequency and Time Synchronization.

7.8.2 RF Channel Equalization and Reference Signals (Pilot).

7.8.3 Information Extraction.

7.9 Error Correction Techniques.

7.10 Resource Allocation and Scheduling.

7.10.1 FIFO (First In, First Out).

7.10.2 Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS).

7.10.3 Fair Queuing (FQ).

7.10.4 Max-Min Fairness (MMF).

7.10.5 Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ).

7.11 Establishing Wireless Data Communications.

7.11.1 Data Transmission.

7.11.2 Data Reception.

7.11.3 Protocol Layers.

7.11.4 Wireless Communication Procedure.

8 OFDM Implementation.

8.1 Transmit Side

8.1.1 Bit Processing.

8.1.2 Symbol Processing.

8.1.3 Digital IF Processing.

8.1.4 Carrier Modulation.

8.2 Receive Side 228.

8.2.1 Carrier Demodulation.

8.2.2 Digital IF Processing.

8.2.3 Symbol Processing.

8.2.4 Bit Processing Stages.

9 Wireless Communications Network (WCN).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Wireless Access Network.

9.2.1 Subscriber Wireless Stations (SWS).

9.2.2 Wireless Base Stations (WBS).

9.3 Core Network.

9.3.1 Access Service Network (ASN).

9.3.2 Connectivity Service.

9.3.3 Application Service.

9.3.4 Operational Service.

10 Antenna and Advanced Antenna Systems.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Antenna Basics.

10.3 Antenna Radiation.

10.3.1 Reactive Near Field (Reactive Region).

10.3.2 Radiating Near Field (Fresnel Region).

10.3.3 Far Field (Fraunhofer Region).

10.4 Antenna Types.

10.4.1 Dipole (Half Wave Dipole).

10.4.2 Quarter Wave Antenna (Whip).

10.4.3 Omni Antenna.

10.4.4 Parabolic Antenna.

10.4.5 Horn Antenna.

10.4.6 Antenna Type Comparison.

10.5 Antenna Characteristics

10.5.1 Impedance Matching.

10.5.2 Antenna Patterns.

10.5.3 Antenna Polarization.

10.5.4 Cross-Polarization.

10.5.5 Antenna Correlation or Signal Coherence.

10.6 Multiple Antennas Arrangements.

10.6.1 SISO (Single In to Single Out).

10.6.2 SIMO (Single In to Multiple Out).

10.6.3 MISO (Multiple In to Single Out).

10.6.4 MISO-SIMO.

10.6.5 MIMO (Multiple In to Multiple Out).

10.6.6 Adaptive MIMO Switching (AMS).

10.6.7 Uplink MIMO (UL-MIMO).

10.7 Receive Diversity.

10.7.1 Equal Gain Combining (EGC).

10.7.2 Diversity Selection Combining (DSC).

10.7.3 Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC).

10.7.4 Maximal Likelihood Detector (MLD).

10.7.5 Performance Comparison for Receive Diversity Techniques.

10.8 Transmit Diversity.

10.8.1 Receiver-Based Transmit Selection.

10.8.2 Transmit Redundancy.

10.8.3 Space Time Transmit Diversity.

10.9 Transmit and Receive Diversity (TRD).

10.10 Spatial Multiplexing (Matrix B).

10.11 Diversity Performance.

10.12 Antenna Array System (AAS), Advanced Antenna System (AAS) or Adaptive Antenna Steering (AAS) or Beamforming.

11 Radio Performance.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Input RF Noise.

11.3 Receive Circuit Noise.

11.4 Signal to Noise Ratio.

11.4.1 Modulation Constellation SNR.

11.4.2 Error Correction Codes.

11.4.3 SNR and Throughput.

11.5 Radio Sensitivity Calculations.

11.5.1 Modulation Scheme SNR.

11.5.2 FEC Algorithm Gains.

11.5.3 Mobility Effect.

11.5.4 Permutation Effect.

11.5.5 HARQ Effect.

11.5.6 Improvement Reduction Factor for Antenna Systems.

11.5.7 Receive Diversity.

11.5.8 Transmit Diversity.

11.5.9 Spatial Multiplexing.

11.5.10 Spatial Multiplexing.

11.6 Radio Configuration.

12 Wireless LAN.

12.1 Standardization.

12.2 Architecture.

12.3 The IEEE Std 802.11-2007

12.3.1 Physical (PH) Layer.

12.3.2 Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer.

12.3.3 RF Channel Access.

12.3.4 Power Management.

12.4 Enhancements for Higher Throughputs, Amendment 5: 802.11n-2009.

12.4.1 Physical Layer.

12.4.2 MAC Layer.

12.5 Work in Progress.

12.6 Throughput.

13 WiMAX.

13.1 Standardization.

13.1.1 The WiMAX Standards.

13.1.2 The WiMAX Forum.

13.1.3 WiMAX Advantages.

13.1.4 WiMAX Claims.

13.2 Network Architecture.

13.2.1 ASN (Access Service Network).

13.2.2 CPE.

13.2.3 ASN-GW (Access Service Network Gateway).

13.2.4 CSN (Connectivity Service Network).

13.2.5 OSS/BSS (Operation Support System/Business Support System).

13.2.6 ASP (Application Service Provider).

13.3 Physical Layer (PHY) .

13.3.1 OFDM Carrier in Frequency Domain.

13.3.2 OFDM Carrier in Time Domain.

13.3.3 OFDM Carrier in the Power Domain.

13.4 Multiple Access OFDMA.

13.5 WiMAX Network Layers.

13.5.1 The PHY Layer.

13.5.2 The MAC (Data) Layer.

13.5.3 Error Correction.

13.5.4 Frame Description.

13.5.5 Resource Management.

13.6 WiMAX Operation Phases.

13.7 WiMAX Interference Reduction Techniques.

13.7.1 Interference Avoidance and Segmentation.

13.7.2 Interference Averaging and Permutation Schemes.

13.7.3 Permutation Schemes.

13.7.4 Permutation Summary.

13.8 WiMAX Resource Planning.

13.8.1 WiMAX Frequency Planning.

13.8.2 WiMAX Code Planning (Cell Identification).

13.8.3 Tips for PermBase Resource Planning.

13.8.4 Spectrum Efficiency.

14 Universal Mobile Telecommunication System – Long Term Evolution (UMTS-LTE).

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Standardization.

14.2.1 Release 8 (December 2008).

14.2.2 Release 9 (December 2009).

14.2.3 Release 10 (March 2011).

14.2.4 Release 11 (December 2012).

14.2.5 LTE 3GPP Standards.

14.3 Frequency Bands.

14.4 Architecture.

14.4.1 GSM and UMTS Architectures.

14.4.2 EPS Architecture.

14.4.3 eNodeB (eNB).

14.4.4 Mobility Management Entity (MME).

14.4.5 Serving Gateway (S-GW).

14.4.6 Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN-GW or P-GW).

14.4.7 Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (PCRF).

14.4.8 Home Subscriber Server (HSS).

14.4.9 IP Multimedia Sub-System (IMS).

14.4.10 Voice over LTE via Generic Access (VoLGA).

14.4.11 Architecture Interfaces.

14.5 Wireless Message Flow and Protocol Stack

14.5.1 Messages.

14.5.2 Protocol Layers.

14.5.3 Message Bearers.

14.5.4 Message Channels.

14.5.5 Physical Signals.

14.6 Wireline Message Flow and Protocol Stacks

14.7 Identifiers.

14.8 HARQ Procedure .

14.8.1 Turbo Code.

14.8.2 Incremental Redundancy.

14.9 Scrambling Sequences.

14.10 Physical Layer (PHY).

14.10.1 PHY Downlink.

14.10.2 PHY Uplink.

14.11 PHY Structure.

14.11.1 Downlink Physical Channels.

14.11.2 Uplink Physical Channels.

14.11.3 Downlink PHY Assignments.

14.11.4 Uplink PHY Assignments.

14.12 PHY TDD.

14.13 Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS)

14.14 Call Placement Scenario.

14.15 PHY Characteristics and Performance.

14.15.1 Transmitter.

14.15.2 Receiver.

14.15.3 Power Saving.

14.16 Multiple Antennas in LTE.

14.16.1 Antenna Configurations.

14.16.2 LTE Antenna Algorithms.

14.16.3 Transmit Diversity.

14.16.4 Spatial Multiplexing.

14.16.5 Beamforming.

14.17 Resource Planning in LTE.

14.17.1 Full Reuse.

14.17.2 Hard Reuse.

14.17.3 Fractional Reuse.

14.17.4 Soft Reuse.

14.18 Self-Organizing Network (SON)

14.19 RAT (Radio Access Technology) Internetworking

14.20 LTE Radio Propagation Channel Considerations

14.20.1 SISO Channel Models.

14.20.2 MIMO Channel Models.

14.21 Handover Procedures in LTE.

14.22 Measurements.

14.22.1 UE Measurements.

14.22.2 eNB Measurements.

14.23 LTE Practical System Capacity.

14.23.1 Downlink Capacity.

14.23.2 Uplink Capacity.

14.24 Synchronization.

14.25 Beyond 4G.

15 Broadband Standards Comparison.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Performance Tables.

15.2.1 General Characteristics.

15.2.2 Cyclic Prefix.

15.2.3 Modulation Schemes.

15.2.4 Framing.

15.2.5 Resource Blocks.

15.2.6 Throughput.

16 Wireless Network Design.

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Wireless Market Modeling.

16.3 Wireless Network Strategy.

16.4 Wireless Network Design.

16.5 Wireless Network Optimization.

16.6 Wireless Network Performance Assessment.

17 Wireless Market Modeling.

17.1 Findings Phase.

17.2 Area of Interest (AoI) Modeling.

17.3 Terrain Databases (GIS Geographic Information System).

17.3.1 Satellite/Aerial Photos for Area of Interest.

17.3.2 Topography.

17.3.3 Digitize Landmarks.

17.3.4 Morphology.

17.3.5 Buildings Morphology.

17.3.6 Multiple Terrain Layers.

17.3.7 Terrain Database Editing.

17.3.8 Background Images.

17.4 Demographic Databases.

17.4.1 Obtain Demographic Information (Maps and Tables).

17.4.2 Generate Demographic Regions.

17.5 Service Modeling.

17.6 Environment Modeling.

17.7 User Terminal Modeling.

17.8 Service Class Modeling.

17.9 User Distribution Modeling.

17.9.1 User Distribution Layers.

17.9.2 User Hourly Distribution.

17.10 Traffic Distribution Modeling.

18 Wireless Network Strategy.

18.1 Define Spectrum Usage Strategy.

18.1.1 Define Backhaul Spectrum Strategy.

18.2 Deployment Strategy.

18.3 Core Equipment.

18.4 Base Station Equipment.

18.4.1 Base Station and Sector Controller.

18.4.2 Sector Radio and RF Head.

18.4.3 Antenna.

18.5 Customer Premises Equipment (CPE).

18.6 Link Budget.

18.7 Backhaul Equipment.

18.7.1 Backhaul Radio Equipment.

18.7.2 Backhaul Antennas.

18.7.3 Backhaul Network Layout Strategy.

18.8 Land Line Access Points of Presence (PoP).

18.9 List of Available Site Locations.

19 Wireless Network Design.

19.1 Field Measurement Campaign.

19.2 Measurement Processing.

19.3 Propagation Models and Parameters.

19.3.1 Calibrate for Different Propagation Models.

19.3.2 Define Propagation Models and Parameters for Different Site Types.

19.4 Site Location.

19.4.1 Simplified Site Distribution.

19.4.2 Advanced Cell Selection Procedure.

19.5 Run Initial Site Predictions.

19.6 Static Traffic Simulation.

19.6.1 Define Target Noise Rise Per Area.

19.6.2 Static Traffic Simulation.

19.7 Adjust Design for Area and Traffic Coverage

19.8 Configure Backhaul Links and Perform Backhaul Predictions.

19.9 Perform Signal Level Predictions with Extended Radius.

20 Wireless Network Optimization.

20.1 Cell Enhancement or Footprint Optimization.

20.2 Resource Optimization.

20.2.1 Neighbor List.

20.2.2 Handover Thresholds.

20.2.3 Paging Groups.

20.2.4 Interference Matrix for Downstream and Upstream for All PSC.

20.2.5 Interference Matrix.

20.2.6 Automatic Code Planning (Segmentation, CellID and PermBase).

20.2.7 Automatic Carrier Planning.

20.2.8 Constrained Cell Enhancement.

20.2.9 Backhaul Interference Matrix.

20.2.10 Backhaul Automatic Channel Plan.

21 Wireless Network Performance Assessment.

21.1 Perform Dynamic Traffic Simulation.

21.1.1 Traffic Snapshot.

21.1.2 Traffic Report.

21.2 Performance.

21.2.1 Generate Key Parameter Indicators (KPI).

21.3 Perform Network Performance Predictions.

21.3.1 Topography.

21.3.2 Morphology.

21.3.3 Image.

21.3.4 Landmarks.

21.3.5 Demographic Region.

21.3.6 Traffic Layers.

21.3.7 Traffic Simulation Result.

21.3.8 Composite Signal Level.

21.3.9 Composite S/N.

21.3.10 Preamble.

21.3.11 Preamble SNIR.

21.3.12 Preamble Margin.

21.3.13 MAP (Medium Access Protocol) Margin.

21.3.14 MAP S/N.

21.3.15 Best Server.

21.3.16 Number of Servers.

21.3.17 Radio Selection.

21.3.18 Zone Selection.

21.3.19 MIMO Selection.

21.3.20 Modulation Scheme Selection.

21.3.21 Payload Data Rate.

21.3.22 Maximum Data Rate Per Sub-Channel.

21.3.23 Interference.

21.3.24 Noise Rise.

21.3.25 Downstream/Upstream Service.

21.3.26 Service Margin.

21.3.27 Service Classes.

21.3.28 Channel (Frequency) Plan.

21.4 Backhaul Links Performance.

21.4.1 Backhaul Traffic Analysis.

21.5 Analyze Performance Results, Analyze Impact on CAPEX, OPEX and ROI.

22 Basic Mathematical Concepts Used in Wireless Networks.

22.1 Circle Relationships.

22.2 Numbers and Vectors.

22.2.1 Rational and Irrational Numbers.

22.2.2 Imaginary Numbers.

22.3 Functions Decomposition

22.3.1 Polynomial Decomposition.

22.3.2 Exponential Number.

22.4 Sinusoids.

22.4.1 Positive and Negative Frequencies.

22.5 Fourier Analysis.

22.5.1 Fourier Transform.

22.6 Statistical Probability Distributions.

22.6.1 Binomial Distribution.

22.6.2 Poisson Distribution (Law of Large Numbers).

22.6.3 Exponential Distribution.

22.6.4 Normal or Gaussian Distribution.

22.6.5 Rayleigh Distribution.

22.6.6 Rice Distribution.

22.6.7 Nakagami Distribution.

22.6.8 Pareto Distribution.

Appendix: List of Equations.

Further Reading.


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