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Ma'Aikacin Banki Don Talakawa

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781452054216
  • Publisher: AuthorHouse
  • Publication date: 2/11/2011
  • Language: Hausa
  • Pages: 384
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.85 (d)

Meet the Author

Muhammad Yunus
Muhammad Yunus

Muhammad Yunus was born in 1940 in Chittagong, a seaport in Bangladesh. The third of fourteen children, five of whom died in infancy, he was educated at Dhaka University and was awarded a Fulbright scholarship to study economics at Vanderbilt University. In 1972 he became the head of the economics department at Chittagong University. He is the founder and managing director of the Grameen Bank.

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MA'AIKACIN BANKI DON TALAKAWA


By MUHAMMAD YUNUS

AuthorHouse

Copyright © 1998 Muhammad Yunus da Alan Jolis
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-1-4520-5421-6


Chapter One

Kauyen Jobra: Daga Littafi Zuwa Ga Aiwatarwa

Shekara ta 1974 ita ce shekarar da ta ba ni tsoro matuka har cikin zuciyata. Bangladesh ta fada matsanancin bala'in yunwa.

Jaridu sun fitar da munanan labarai a kan mace-mace da yunwa a cikin kauyukan da suke can nesa da kuma garuruwan lardina na Arewaci. Jami'ar da nake koyarwa a cikinta da kasantuwa shugaban sashen ilimin tattalin Arziki ta kasance a Kudu-maso-Gabashin kasar ne, kuma da farko ba mu bayar wa abin kulawa ta kwarai da ta dace ba. Amma ga shi mutane masu kamar kwarangwal sun fara bayyana a tashoshin jiragen kasa da tashoshin mota da ke Dhaka. Nan da nan aka bayar da rahoton samun gawawwakin mutane a irin wadannan wuraren. Abin da ya fara kamar zurara, sai ga shi ya zame dalilin ambaliyar shigowar mutane mayunwata zuwa cikin Dhaka.

Ta ko'ina ga su nan. Ba za ka iya hakikancewa waye a raye ba ko waye ya mutu. Duk kamanninsu iri guda: maza, mata ko yara, kuma ba za ka iya kiyasin yawan shekarunsu ba. Tsofaffin sun yi kama da yara, sannan yara sun yi kama da tsofaffin mutane.

Gwamnatin kuwa bu]e wuraren girka kunu ta yi don jawo mutane zuwa wasu kebabbun matattaru na cikin gari. Amma kawai kowane ]akin girka kunu sai ya zama ba ya isar da abin da ake bukata.

Masu bayar da rahotanni a jaridu suna ta kokarin jan-kunnen kasa a kan abin da ke faruwa. Cibiyoyin bincike suna ta kokarin tara bayanai a kan wuraren da wadannan mutane mayunwatan ke ta fitowa. Shin za su koma kuwa inda suka fito, idan ma har sun rayu? Kuma wacce irin sa'a suke da ita ta rayuwa?

Kungiyoyin addini kuwa sun himmatu ne wajen tsince gawawwakin don binnewa cikin tsarin jana'izar da ta dace. Amma nan da nan, aiki mai sauki na tsincewar matattun, sai ya zama mai wahala sosai fiye da yadda za su iya yi.

Mutum ba zai iya guje wa wadannan mutane mayunwata ba, idan ma yana so. Ta ko'ina ga su nan, a kwance shiru.

Ba sa yin wasu maganganu. Ba sa kuma neman wani abu a wurinmu. Ba su kuma aibanta mu saboda muna da abinci mai dadi a gidajenmu yayin da suke kwance a bakin kofofinmu ba.

Akwai hanyoyi da mutane za su mutu, amma mutuwa ta sanadin yunwa ita ce ba za mu taba yarda da ita ba. Kaiton wannan mummunar hanya ta mutuwa. Tana faruwa a hankali. Dakika bayan dakika, nisan tsakanin rayuwa da mutuwa karancewa yake yi ka]an-kadan. A wani bigiren, rayuwa da mutuwa sukan zama kusa kwarai ta yadda mutum zai ma gagara gane bambancin. A takaice mutum ba zai gane ba, idan uwar da ]anta suka yi sujada a kasa, a nan duniyar suke ko a lahira ba. Mutuwa takan zo a hankali, a boye matuka, ba za ma ka ji wucewarta ba.

Dukan wannan kuwa yana faruwa ne, saboda mutum ba shi da ]an abincin da zai ci a kowane kumallo. Kowane mutum kuwa a kewayen yana ci, amma wannan ko waccan ba mai ci. Karamin yaro, wanda ma bai fahimci matsalar duniya ba, yana ta kuka, daga karshe ma har ya yi barci ba tare da ya sha nono da yake matukar so ba. Gobe kuwa kila ma ba zai sami karfin damar yin kukan ba.

* * *

Nakan ji dadin koyar da dalibaina yadda dabaru masu zurfi na ilimin tattalin Arziki suka bayar da amsoshi ga matsalolin tattalin Arziki kowa]anne iri. Nakan ji nishadin daukar kewa saboda kyau da burgewar wa]annan dabaru masu zurfi. Kawai a yanzu, kwatsam, sai na fara jin babu komai, soki-burutsu ne kawai. Wane kyau ne ga wadannan dabaru masu zurfi ga shi mutane suna mutuwa saboda rashin abinci a gefen tituna da farfajiyar kofofi?

Ajina sai yanzu ya zame min kamar silima inda za ka zauna a sakankance saboda ka san wanda ake so a cikin shirin fim shi ne zai samu nasara daga karshe. A ajin na sani, cewa tun daga farko, duk wata matsala ta tattalin Arziki za ta samu kyakkyawan karshe. Amma bayan na fito daga aji, sai na ha]u da zahirin abin da duniya take ciki. A nan, wadanda ake so an yi musu dukan rashin imani kuma an murkushe su. Ina ganin yadda rayuwar yau da kullum sai tabarbarewa take yi kuma matalauta sai kara talaucewa suke yi, a gare su mutuwa, saboda rashin abinci, ta zama tamkar makomarsu kawai.

Ina dabara mai zurfin ta tattalin Arziki da ta yi bayani a kan zahirin rayuwarsu? Yaya ni kuwa zan ci gaba da fada wa dalibaina labarai na shaci-fadi a matsayin ilimin tattalin Arziki?

Na so guje wa irin wadannan dabaru masu zurfi, gujewa daga littafaina. Na ji kawai ya kamata ne na gudu daga rayuwar koyarwa. Na so ne na fahimci hakikanin abin da yake kewaye da kasantuwar mutum matalauci da kuma gano hakikanin rayuwar tattalin Arzikin da ake yi kowace rana a kauyukan makwabta—Jobra.

Na yi sa'a da cewa Jobra tana kusa da filin makaranta. Fil Mashal Ayub Khan, a lokacin shi ne Shugaban Kasar Pakistan, ya karbi mulki ke nan a wani juyin mulkin soja a 1958 inda ya yi shugabanci har 1969 a matsayin soja mai mulkin kama-karya; saboda tsananin kiyayyarsa ga dalibai, domin ya dauke su a matsayin masu tayar da zaune-tsaye, sai ya yanke cewa dukan jami'o'in da aka kirkiro a lokacinsa, dole a kafa su nesa da birane saboda kar dalibai su sami damar gurbata wuraren dandazon jama'a da bukatunsu na siyasa.

Jami'ar Chittagong ta kasance daya cikin irin wa]annan jami'o'i da aka kafa lokacin mulkinsa. Filin da aka yi ta yana sashen wani tsauni ne na Gundumar Chittagong daga kauyen Jobra.

* * *

Sai na yanke shawarar sake zama dalibi gaba ]aya, kuma Jobra ta kasance jami'ata. Sannan mutanen Jobra su zama malamaina.

Na yi alkawari a kaina zan yi kokari wajen koyon dukan wani abu dangane da kauyen. Na yi tunanin zan yi nasara idan har zan fahimci, ko da daya ne tilo, talaka. Wannan zai zama babban canji ne daga karatun littafi da aka saba. Ta hanyar himmatuwa wajen samar wa dalibai fahimta ta sama-sama, jami'o'in da aka sani sun haifar da nisa mai tsananin yawa a tsakanin dalibai da hakikanin rayuwa. Idan za ka iya daukar duniya a tafin hannunka ka dube ta sama-sama, to za ka kasance mai dagawa—don ba za ka fahimta cewa yayin kallo da kake yi mata daga matsananci nesan nan, komai zai zama ne bambarakwai, domin za ka kare ne a zato maimakon hakikanin kallon abubuwan.

Sai na zabi abin da na kira 'kallo irin na ambuwa'. Na yi tunanin abin da ya fi shi ne kallon abubuwa kusa-da-kusa da idon basira. Idan na sami wata tunga a kan hanyar, kamar ta ambuwa, to zan zo kusa da shi ne a kewaye, domin ta wannan hanyar ce zan sami cin nasarar manufata sannan na kuma cimma burin wani abu.

Na fara jin ba wata mafita yayin da mutane masu yawa suka ci gaba da yin tururuwa zuwa cikin Dhaka. Kungiyoyin taimako na al'umma sun kafa cibiyoyi a bangarori daban-daban na birnin. Makwabta sai kokari suke yi na musamman wajen samar da abinci ga masu fama da yunwa. Amma nawa ne mutum zai ciyar a kowace rana? Bala'in yunwa sai mamaya yake yi, muna gani da idanunmu duk da muninsa.

Na yi kokarin magance abin da nake ji na rashin mafita ta hanyar sake bayar da ma'anar abin da zan iya yi. Sai na ce wa kaina, ai kuwa ba zan iya taimakon mutane da yawa ba, amma dai hakika zan iya amfanar da kaina na rana daya, ko dai wasu sa'o'i kadan, watau ga wani dan Adam. Wannan kuwa zai zama babban abin cimmawa a gare ni. Wannan tunani na samar da karamin tsari, amma taimako na hakika, ba kawai dabara mai zurfi ba, don isarwa ga wani mutum wanda yake raye, ya ba ni karfin gwiwa sosai. Sai na ji na rayo, har ila yau. Lokacin da na fara ziyartar gidajen talakawa a cikin Jobra, na san hakikanin abin da nake nema, da kuma dalili. Abin da ke samun karfin gwiwa kuwa bai taba zama bayyananne ba.

* * *

Sai na fara ziyartar gidajen talakawa a cikin Jobra domin ganin abin da, kila, zan iya taimakawa kai tsaye ta kowace irin hanya. Abokin aikina, Farfesa Latifee, kullum yakan raka ni. Ya san mafi yawan gidajen kuma yana da wata baiwa ta sa mutanen kauye su ji sun sake.

Akwai sassa guda uku a kauyen: Musulmai da 'yan Hindu da 'yan Buda. Idan mun ziyarci bangaren 'yan addinin Buda mukan tafi ne da dalibinmu Dipal Chandra Barua, tare da mu. Ya zo ne daga wani gidan matalauta a cikin Jobra kuma a ko da yaushe cikin shiri yake don taimakawa da kowane aiki.

Wata rana, yayin da Latifee da ni muna zagaye-zagayenmu a Jobra, mun tsaya a wani mummunan gida, sai muka ga wata mata tana aikin kujerar zama ta itacen kwangwala. Ba mu sha wahalar da tunaninmu ba wajen zaton cewa iyalanta suna fama da matsananciyar wahala wajen rayuwa.

'Ina son yi mata magana', na ce wa Latifee.

Shi ke nan sai ya wuce gaba ta tsakiyar kaji da shuke-shuken tsirrai. 'Akwai mutum ne a gidan?' Latifee cikin murya mai taushi, sai ya tambaya.

Matar tana sabure ne a kan daben barandarta karkashin rubabben rufin bukkar gidanta, ta dukufa gaba daya a cikin aikinta, tana rike da rabin kujerar da take yi a tsakanin gwiwowinta sannan kuma tana kitsa mursalolin itacen kwangwala din.

Daga jin maganar Latifee, sai ta yi maza-maza ta bar aikinta, ta tashi a kan tafukanta zumbur ta bace a cikin gidan.

'Kar ki ji tsoro', sai Latifee ya ce mata haka. 'Mu ba baki ne ba. Gaba dayanmu muna koyarwa ne a jami'a. Mu makwabta ne. Muna so ne mu yi tambayoyi kadan, abin ke nan kawai.'

Saboda tabbacin da ta samu daga halayya da irin sigar Latifee, sai ta amsa da murya kasa-kasa, 'Ba kowa a gidan?'

Abin da take nufi shi ne ba wani namiji a gidan. A Bangladesh, mata bai dace su yi magana da maza wa]anda ba dangoginsu ne na kusa ba.

Ga yara suna ta wasansu tsirara a filin gida. Makwabta kuwa sai kallonmu suke yi a tsaye suna tunanin mene ne muke yi a wurin.

A bangarorin Musulmai da suke cikin kauyen, mafi yawanci muna yin magana ne ta tsakanin katangar itacen kwangwala wacce ta raba mu da matan da muke yi musu tambayoyi. Al'adar nan ta Musulmai ta purdah (ma'anarta a zahirance shi ne 'kulle' ko 'hijabi'), a inda mata masu aure za su kasance kusan har abada cikin kulle daga harkokin duniya, to irin ]abi'ar da ake aiwatarwa ke nan a Gundumar Chittagong. Shi ya sa a wani lokacin sai na yi amfani da mace 'yar aika kuma ]aliba ko kuma wata 'yar makarantar karkarar, domin saurin aikawa da dawowa da sakonni.

Tun da ni ma ]an Chittagong ne kuma ina magana da yanayin harshen wurin, sai ya kasance min na sami sauki wajen samun yardarsu, idan an kwatanta da a ce bako ne. Amma, har yanzu dai, akwai wahala.

Ina son yara, kuma yabon uwa a kan danta ya kasance halayyata wajen sa kwanciyar hankali a gare ta ko da yaushe. Mahaifiyata tana da 'ya'ya goma sha hudu (tara daga cikinsu ne suka rayu), sannan ni ne na uku mafi shekaru kuma na girma, ina ba su abinci da canja wa kannena maza da mata bantuna. Duk lokacin da na samu sarari a gida, nakan dauki jariri a hannuwana na rungume shi. Wannan sabo da na yi ya taimaka min sosai a lokacin da nake fita dagar aiki.

Kawai sai na dauki wani karamin yaro da ke tsirara, amma sai ya fara fashewa da kuka, shi ke nan sai na yi sauri na mika shi ga mahaifiyarsa. Sai ta kyale shi ya hau kan hannuwanta.

'Ya'ya nawa kike da su?' Latifee ya ce.

'Uku.'

'Kyakkyawa ne shi, wannan kuwa,' in ji ni.

Da ta sami sake tabbaci, mahaifiyar sai ta saki jikinta ta bayyana a bakin hanyar kofa tana ]auke da jaririnta. Tana cikin shekarun farko na ashirin ne, ba ta da jiki, tana da duhun fata, kuma da idanu bakake. Tana sanye da wani sari mai launin ja kuma kila ta iya kasancewa daya daga cikin miliyoyin mata wa]anda suke aikin shan wahala tun daga dare har karshen rana a cikin matsiyacin hali.

'Mene ne sunanki?'

'Sufia Begum.'

'Shekarunki nawa?'

'Ashirin da ]aya.'

Ban yi amfani da alkalami ko takardar rubutu ba da kila yin hakan ya tsoratar da ita – Nakan bar ]alibaina su yi haka idan sun sake komawa.

'Naki ne wannan itacen kwangwalar?' Sai na tambaye ta.

'Eh.'

'Ta yaya kike samun sa?'

'Saye nake yi.'

'Nawa ne kudin itacen kwangwalar?'

'Taka biyar.' A lokacin rubu'in Dalar Amurka sentin 22 ke nan.

'Shin kina da taka biyar din?'

'A'a, bashi nake karba a wurin paikar.'

'Ta hannun masu shiga tsakani wajen bayar da bashi? Wane tsari kike yi da su?'

'Dole ne na sayar musu da kujerun itacen kwangwalata a karshen ranar, domin na iya biyan bashina. Ta wannan tsarin abin da kawai nake tsira da shi ribata ke nan.'

'Nawa kike sayarwa?'

'Taka biyar da paisa 50.'

'Watau kina samun ribar paisa 50 ke nan?'

Sai ta girgiza kai. Wannan kiyasin ya yi kusa da rubu'in Dalar Amurka sentin 2.

'Shin za ki so karbar ku]i domin ki sayi kayan da kanki?'

'Eh, amma shi mai bayar da bashin zai bukaci abu da yawa. Kuma duk mutanen da suka fara hidima da su kullum talaucewa za su yi ta yi.'

'Nawa ne masu bayar da bashin suke caji?'

'Ya danganta. Wani lokaci sukan caji karin kashi 10 daga cikin ]ari a mako. Ina da ma makwabciya da take biyan karin kashi 10 daga cikin dari a duk rana!'

'Kuma shin wannan ne abin da kike samu kawai daga yin wa]annan kyawawan kujeru, paisa 50?

'Eh'.

Yawan yanayin kare-karen ku]in ruwa sun zama tabbatattu kuma sun sami karbuwa a tsarin zamantakewar al'umma a dukan kasashen da ba su ci gaba ba, har ta kai shi mai karbar bashin ba zai ma gane irin yanayin zaluncin harkar ba. A karkarar Bangladesh, mudu guda na shinkafa da ba a cashe ba (watau kwano guda mai bawo) wanda aka karba bashi a farkon lokacin shukar, dole a biya da mudu biyu da rabi (kwano 2 da rabi) a lokacin girbewa.

Akwai zabi da yawa. Idan an yi amfani da gonar ce a matsayin jingina, akan mika ta ne ga wanda ya bayar da bashin kuma shi ne zai mallake ta har sai an biya duk bashin da aka karba. A lokuta da dama, takardar shaidar da aka rubuta (kamar irin ta Bawnanama) ana rubuta su da sigar tabbatar da 'yancin wanda ya bayar da bashi. Domin a mayar da biyan ya yi wahala, wanda ya bayar da bashin yakan ki karbar biya kadan-kadan. Bayan wucewar wani ]an lokaci, wanda ya bayar da bashin yana da damar 'sayen' gonar da irin 'farashin' da ya ga dama. Wata irin dabarar kuma ita ce ta yin kwadagon dole a gonar wanda ya bayar da bashin.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from MA'AIKACIN BANKI DON TALAKAWA by MUHAMMAD YUNUS Copyright © 1998 by Muhammad Yunus da Alan Jolis . Excerpted by permission of AuthorHouse. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Contents

Daga Mai Fassara....................xv
Gabatarwar Mawallafi....................xviii
1 Kauyen Jobra: Daga Littafi Zuwa Ga Aiwatarwa....................1
2 Bankin Duniya, Washington, Gundumar Colombia, Nuwamba 1993....................13
3 Lamba 20 Titin Boxirhat, Chittagong....................31
4 Duben Madubi: Rigimar Kuruciya....................39
5 Shekarun Zaman Makaranta A Amurka, 1965–72....................45
6 Aure Da Yakin Neman 'Yanci, 1967–71....................53
7 Jami'ar Chittagong, 1972–74....................67
8 Noma: Gwajin Gonar Raba Kayan Amfani Kashi-Uku, 1974–76....................74
9 Harkar Banki: Kubuta Daga Illar Bayar Da Kadara Kafin Rance, 1976....................85
10 Mene Ne Dalilin Bayar Da Bashi Ga Mata Maimakon A Maza?....................101
11 Isa Zuwa Ga Mata Masu Karbar Bashi....................108
12 Mata Masu Aikin Banki....................115
13 Hanyar Isar Da Bashi: Dabarun Shigowa....................121
14 Tsarin Biyan Bashi: Duniyar Ta Juye Kasa....................128
15 Kwatantawa Da Bankunan Da Aka Sani....................137
16 Grameen A Matsayin Reshen Gwaji Na Bankin Noma, 1977–79....................143
17 Eid-Ul Fitr....................150
18 Daukar Lokacinmu A Yayin Farawa, 1979–83....................157
19 Sabo, Turken Wawa....................180
20 Bala'o'i: Wasu Daga Cikin Makiyanmu....................189
21 Horar Da Ma'aikatan Grameen....................194
22 Haihuwar Grameen A Matsayin Kamfani Mai Zaman Kansa, 1982–83....................204
23 Cikakken 'Yancin Bankin, 1985–90....................213
24 Gwaje-gwaje Na Kasa-da-kasa....................219
25 Abin Da Aka Koya Na Marayar Amurka....................236
26 Abin Da Aka Koya Na Karkarar Amurka....................243
27 Gano Ilimin Tattalin Arziki: Harkar Neman Kudi Don Al'umma A Tattalin Arzikin Sake-ba-ka'ida....................257
28 Aikin Dogaro Da Kai....................269
29 Mene Ne Muhimmancin Ilimantarwa Da Koyar Da Talakawa?....................273
30 Batun Matsalar Yawan Jama'a....................279
31 Talauci: Abin Da Ba Shi A Cikin Ilimin Tattalin Arziki....................282
Gabatarwa....................289
32 Basussukan Ginin Gidaje: Wani Babban Labarin Nasara....................290
33 Kiwon Lafiya Da Ritaya....................294
34 Grameen Check: Masaka Sun Dawo Da Himma....................299
35 Gidauniyar Grameen Ta Kifaye....................305
36 Kamfanin Grameen Na Waya: Fasaha Don Talakawa....................313
37 Grameen Trust: Kudin Jama'a....................319
38 Duniyar Da Za Ta Taimaki Wadanda Suka Fi Kowa Talauci....................327
39 Taron Duniya Kan {aramin Bashi: Don A Isa Ga Mutane Miliyan Dari Nan Da Shekara Ta 2005....................333
40 Duniyar Da Babu Talauci: Ta Yaya, Kuma Yaushe?....................340
41 Yaya Al'amarin Zai Kasance?....................347
Doriya Ta I: Jadawalin Samu Da Rashi....................351
Doriya Ta II: Nazarin Wasu Daga Cikin Basussukan Grameen Da Suka Fi Sanuwa....................361
Doriya Ta III: Kamfanoni Mallakar Grameen....................365
Yadda Za A Hadu Da Bankin Grameen....................367
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