MacArthur in Asia: The General and His Staff in the Philippines, Japan, and Korea

Overview

General Douglas MacArthur's storied career is inextricably linked to Asia. His father, Arthur, served as Military Governor of the Philippines while Douglas was a student at West Point, and the younger MacArthur would serve several tours of duty in that country over the next four decades, becoming friends with several influential Filipinos, including the country's future president, Emanuel L. Quezon. In 1935, he became Quezon's military advisor, a post he held after retiring from the U.S. Army and at the time of ...

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MacArthur in Asia: The General and His Staff in the Philippines, Japan, and Korea

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Overview

General Douglas MacArthur's storied career is inextricably linked to Asia. His father, Arthur, served as Military Governor of the Philippines while Douglas was a student at West Point, and the younger MacArthur would serve several tours of duty in that country over the next four decades, becoming friends with several influential Filipinos, including the country's future president, Emanuel L. Quezon. In 1935, he became Quezon's military advisor, a post he held after retiring from the U.S. Army and at the time of Japan’s invasion of 1941. As Supreme Commander for the Southwest Pacific, MacArthur led American forces throughout the Pacific War. He officially accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and would later oversee the Allied occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951. He then led the UN Command in the Korean War from 1950 to 1951, until he was dismissed from his post by President Truman.

In MacArthur in Asia, the distinguished Japanese historian Hiroshi Masuda offers a new perspective on the American icon, focusing on his experiences in the Philippines, Japan, and Korea and highlighting the importance of the general’s staff—the famous "Bataan Boys" who served alongside MacArthur throughout the Asian arc of his career—to both MacArthur’s and the region’s history. First published to wide acclaim in Japanese in 2009 and translated into English for the first time, this book uses a wide range of sources—American and Japanese, official records and oral histories—to present a complex view of MacArthur, one that illuminates his military decisions during the Pacific campaign and his administration of the Japanese Occupation.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"Masuda offers a fresh, scholarly, Japanese perspective on the full range of the general's career. In what is more a collective biography of MacArthur and the important staff officers around him (the 'Bataan Boys' who escaped the Philippines with him in the spring of 1942), Masuda succeeds in demonstrating how these 15 loyal subordinates were essential to MacArthur's command and eventual success, both in wartime and in the occupation of Japan. . . . The book's unique perspective and thorough research make it an invaluable contribution to the body of scholarship on General MacArthur and, in particular, his service in Asia. Highly recommended."—Choice (1 October 2013)

"Although Masuda finds much to admire, citing MacArthur's bravery, strong convictions, and intelligence, he also notes that the general could be arbitrary and vain. Masuda’s observations create a picture of a flawed but admirable individual."— Marc Gallicchio, American Historical Review (April 2014)

"Hiroshi Masuda reinterprets MacArthur by going back to his years in the Philippines. In particular, this book focuses on the 'Bataan Boys,' the group of subordinates who accompanied MacArthur in his 1942 evacuation from the Philippines, and their views of MacArthur. MacArthur in Asia offers valuable insights into not only MacArthur’s public persona but also his personal and human characteristics, demonstrating the strengths of the biographical approach to historical scholarship."—Asahi Shimbun (reviewing the Japanese edition)

"This book offers an integrated view that links wartime and postwar Japan through the figure of one person, Douglas MacArthur. The Occupation appears as an extension of the war, and we are left with the historical awareness that, in East Asia, war continued even after 1945."—Tokyo Shimbun (reviewing the Japanese edition)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780801449390
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • Publication date: 11/27/2012
  • Pages: 304
  • Sales rank: 967,539
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Hiroshi Masuda is Dean of the Faculty of Social Science and Professor of Japan's Diplomatic History at Toyo Eiwa University.

Reiko Yamamoto is a diplomatic historian and lives in Yokohama.

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Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments vii

1 Encounter with the Philippines 1

Before His Appointment to the Philippines

Army Chief of Staff

From Quezon's Military Advisor to Commander of the United States Army Forces in the Far East

2 Origins of the Bataan Boys 9

The Upper Level Group

The Middle and Lower Groups

The Other Group

3 From the Approach of War to the Evacuation from Manila, October to December 1941 27

Washington before the Outbreak of War

Preparations in Manila before the Outbreak of War

The Attack on Pearl Harbor

The Attack on Clark Field

Washington's Modification of the Military Strategy

The Japanese Military Landing Operation in the Philippines

The Evacuation from Manila to Corregidor

4 The Fall of Manila and the First Offensive and Defensive Battles, Early January to Early February 1942 51

The Corregidor Fortress

The Japanese Military Landing on Luzon

Withdrawal to the Bataan Peninsula

The Fall of Manila and the First Bataan Operation

The Good Fight and the Hardships of MacArthur's Troops 51

5 Planning the Escape from Corregidor, Early February to Late February 1942 73

Quezon's Anti-Americanism and Demand for Neutrality

The Evacuation of Quezon and Sayre

MacArthur's Authorization to Evacuate

6 The Evacuation of MacArthur from Corregidor, Late February to the Middle of March 1942 93

The Means of Evacuation and the Accompanying Persons

Evacuation Dates and Route

Evacuation Day

From Corregidor to Tagauayan

From Tagauayan to Mindanao

From Mindanao to Australia

7 The Second Bataan Operation and the Death March, Early February to Early May 1942 121

Preparing for Battle

The Battle Unfolds

The Fall of Corregidor

The Bataan "Death March"

8 From Australia to the Philippines, March 1942 to October 1944 149

The Beginning of the Counterattack

The Battle in New Guinea

Teamwork in MacArthur's Inner Circle

Conflict with the U.S. Navy Leadership

"I Shall Return"

9 From the Philippines to Japan, October 1944 to August 1945 169

Control over Leyte Island

Advanced toward Manila

Recapture of Bataan and Corregidor

De-Japanization and Democratization of the Philippines

The Rise of Whitney

Japanese Surrender

Arrival at Atsugi Airfield

10 The Demilitarization of Japan, August 1945 to December 1947 193

The Surrender of Japan and the Beginning of the Occupation

The Establishment of GHQ/SCAP and the Departure of Sutherland

The Disarmament of the Japanese Military and the Arrest of War Criminals

The Meeting between MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito

Disease and Food Shortages in Japan

11 The Democratization of Japan, August 1945 to April 1950 209

The Purge

The New Japanese Constitution

Dissolution of the Zaibatsu and Land Reform

Educational Reforms

The First Postwar General Election

Dissolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs

12 Washington's Policy Shift on Japan and MacArthur's Resistance, January 1948 to June 1950 229

Failure of the Proposal for an Early Peace Treaty with Japan

Washington's Review of the Japan Occupation Policy

MacArthur's Opposition

NSC 13/2 and Mac Arthur's Resistance

Conflict within GHQ/SCAP: GS vs. G-2

The Proxy War for GS vs. G-2: Ashida vs. Yoshida

The "Cold War" between MacArthur and Washington

13 The Korean War and the Dismissal of MacArthur, June 1950 to April 1951 249

Outbreak of the Korean War and MacArthur's Appointment as Commander of the United Nations Command

MacArthur's Directive for Japan's Rearmament

Secret Activities of Japanese Minesweepers

The Sneak Landing Operation on Inchon

China's Entry into War

The dismissal of MacArthur

"Old Soldiers Just Fade Away"

Conclusion 275

Notes 287

Bibliography 307

Index 313

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