Machine Learning of Inductive Bias / Edition 1

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1.1 Machine Learning.- 1.2 Learning Concepts from Examples.- 1.3 Role of Bias in Concept Learning.- 1.4 Kinds of Bias.- 1.5 Origin of Bias.- 1.6 Learning to Learn.- 1.7 The New-Term Problem.- 1.8 Guide to Remaining Chapters.- 2 Related Work.- 2.1 Learning Programs that use a Static Bias.- 2.1.1 Vere’s Thoth without Counterfactuals.- 2.1.2 Vere’s Thoth with Counterfactuals.- 2.1.3 Mitchell’s Candidate Elimination.- 2.1.4 Michalski’s STAR Algorithm.- 2.2 Learning Programs that use a Dynamic Bias.- 2.2.1 Waterman’s Poker Player.- 2.2.2 Lenat’s EURISKO.- 3 Searching for a Better Bias.- 3.1 Simplifications.- 3.1.1 Original Bias.- 3.1.2 Representation of Bias.- 3.1.3 Formalism for Description Language.- 3.1.4 Strength of Bias.- 3.1.5 When to Shift to a Weaker Bias.- 3.2 The RTA Method for Shifting Bias.- 3.2.1 Recommending New Descriptions for a Weaker Bias.- 3.2.2 Translating Recommendations into New Concept Descriptions.- 3.2.3 Assimilating New Concepts into the Hypothesis Space.- 4 LEX and STABB.- 4.1 LEX: A Program that Learns from Experimentation.- 4.1.1 Problem Solver.- 4.1.2 Critic.- 4.1.3 Generalizer.- 4.1.4 Problem Generator.- 4.1.5 Description Language.- 4.1.6 Matching Two Descriptions.- 4.1.7 Operator Language.- 4.2 STABB: a Program that Shifts Bias.- 5 Least Disjunction.- 5.1 Procedure.- 5.1.1 Recommend.- 5.1.2 Translate.- 5.1.3 Assimilate.- 5.2 Requirements.- 5.3 Experiments.- 5.3.1 Experiment #1.- 5.3.2 Experiment #2.- 5.4 Example Trace.- 5.5 Discussion.- 5.5.1 Language Shift and Version Spaces.- 5.5.2 Obsolete Descriptions: Strengthening Bias.- 5.5.3 Choosing Among Syntactic Methods.- 6 Constraint Back-Propagation.- 6.1 Procedure.- 6.1.1 Recommend.- 6.1.2 Translate.- 6.1.3 Assimilate.- 6.2 Requirements.- 6.3 Experiments.- 6.3.1 Experiment #1.- 6.3.2 Experiment #2.- 6.3.3 Experiment #3.- 6.4 Example Trace.- 6.5 Discussion.- 6.5.1 Knowledge Based Assimilation.- 6.5.2 Knowledge Based Set Equivalence.- 6.5.3 Bias in Formalism of Description Language.- 6.5.4 Interaction of Operator Language and Description Language.- 6.5.5 A Method for Computing a Strong and Correct Bias.- 6.5.6 Regressing Sub-Goals.- 7 Conclusion.- 7.1 Summary.- 7.2 Results.- 7.3 Issues.- 7.3.1 Role of Bias.- 7.3.2 Sources of Bias.- 7.3.3 When to Shift.- 7.3.4 Strength of Bias.- 7.3.5 How to Shift Bias.- 7.3.6 Recommending New Descriptions.- 7.3.7 Translating Recommendations.- 7.3.8 Assimilating New Descriptions.- 7.3.9 Side Effects.- 7.3.10 Multiple Uses of Concept Description Language.- 7.4 Further Work.- Appendix A: Lisp Code.- A.1 STABB.- A.2 Grammar.- A.3 Intersection.- A.4 Match.- A.5 Operators.- A.6 Utilities.
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