Machinery Vibration and Rotordynamics / Edition 1

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An in-depth analysis of machine vibration in rotating machinery

Whether it's a compressor on an offshore platform, a turbocharger in a truck or automobile, or a turbine in a jet airplane, rotating machinery is the driving force behind almost anything that produces or uses energy. Counted on daily to perform any number of vital societal tasks, turbomachinery uses high rotational speeds to produce amazing amounts of power efficiently. The key to increasing its longevity, efficiency, and reliability lies in the examination of rotor vibration and bearing dynamics, a field called rotordynamics.

A valuable textbook for beginners as well as a handy reference for experts, Machinery Vibration and Rotordynamics is teeming with rich technical detail and real-world examples geared toward the study of machine vibration. A logical progression of information covers essential fundamentals, in-depth case studies, and the latest analytical tools used for predicting and preventing damage in rotating machinery. Machinery Vibration and Rotordynamics:

  • Combines rotordynamics with the applications of machinery vibration in a single volume
  • Includes case studies of vibration problems in several different types of machines as well as computer simulation models used in industry
  • Contains fundamental physical phenomena, mathematical and computational aspects, practical hardware considerations, troubleshooting, and instrumentation and measurement techniques

For students interested in entering this highly specialized field of study, as well as professionals seeking to expand their knowledge base, Machinery Vibration and Rotordynamics will serve as the one book they will come to rely upon consistently.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471462132
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 5/24/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. JOHN M. VANCE was professor of mechanical engineering atTexas A&M University, retiring in 2007. He received his PhD(1967) degree from The University of Texas at Austin. His bookRotordynamics of Turbomachinery (Wiley) has sold more than3,000 copies and is used by turbomachinery engineers around theworld. He is an inventor on several patents relating to rotatingmachinery and vibration reduction. His patented TAMSEAL has beenretrofitted to solve vibration problems in a number ofhigh-pressure industrial compressors. He is an ASME Fellow and aregistered professional engineer in the state of Texas.

Dr. FOUAD Y. ZEIDAN is the President of KMC, Inc., andBearings Plus, Inc., two companies specializing in the supply ofhigh-performance bearings, flexible couplings, and seals. Dr.Zeidan holds nine U.S. patents for integral squeeze film dampersand high-performance journal and thrust bearings. He has publishedmore than thirty technical papers and articles on variousturbomachinery topics and has been lecturing at the AnnualMachinery Vibrations and Rotordynamics short course since 1991. Dr.Zeidan holds a BS, MS, and PhD degrees in mechanical engineeringfrom Texas A&M University.

BRIAN T. MURPHY, PhD, PE, is a senior research scientistwith the Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas atAustin. He is also president of RMA, Inc., which develops andmarkets the Xlrotor suite of rotordynamic analysis software usedworldwide by industry and academia. Dr. Murphy is the creator ofthe polynomial transfer matrix method, which is the fastest knownmethod of performing rotordynamic calculations. He has authorednumerous technical papers on rotordynamics and machinery vibration,and is also caretaker of the Web site

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Table of Contents


1 Fundamentals of Machine Vibration and ClassicalSolutions.

The Main Sources of Vibration in Machinery.

The Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) Model.

Using Simple Models for Analysis and Diagnostics.

Six Techniques for Solving Vibration Problems with ForcedExcitation.

Some Examples with Forced Excitation.

Illustrative Example 1.

Illustrative Example 2.

Illustrative Example 3.

Illustrative Example 4.

Some Observations about Modeling.

Unstable Vibration.



2 Torsional Vibration.

Torsional Vibration Indicators.

Objectives of Torsional Vibration Analysis.

Simplified Models.

Computer Models.

Kinetic Energy Expression.

Potential Energy.

Torsional Vibration Measurement.

French’s Comparison Experiments.

Strain Gages.

Carrier Signal Transducers.

Frequency-modulated Systems.

Amplitude-modulated Systems.

Frequency Analysis and the Sideband System.

French’s Test Procedure and Results.

A Special Tape for Optical Transducers.

Time-interval Measurement Systems.

Results from Toram’s Method.

Results from the Barrios/Darlow Method.



3 Introduction to Rotordynamics Analysis.

Objectives of Rotordynamics Analysis.

The Spring–Mass Model.

Synchronous and Nonsynchronous Whirl.

Analysis of the Jeffcott Rotor.

Polar Coordinates.

Cartesian Coordinates.

Physical Significance of the Solutions.

Three Ways to Reduce Synchronous Whirl Amplitudes.

Some Damping Definitions.

The "Gravity Critical".

Critical Speed Definitions.

Effect of Flexible (Soft) Supports.

Rotordynamic Effects of the Force Coefficients—ASummary.

The Direct Coefficients.

The Cross-coupled Coefficients.

Rotordynamic Instability.

Effect of Cross-Coupled Stiffness on Unbalance Response.

Added Complexities.

Gyroscopic Effects.

Effect of Support Asymmetry on Synchronous Whirl.

False Instabilities.



4 Computer Simulations of Rotordynamics.

Different Types of Models.

Bearing and Seal Matrices.

Torsional and Axial Models.

Different Types of Analyses.


Linear Forced Response (LFR).

Transient Response.

Shaft Modeling Recommendations.

How Many Elements.

45-Degree Rule.

Interference Fits.



Impeller Inertias via CAD Software.

Stations for Added Weights.

Rap Test Verification of Models.

Stations for Bearings and Seals.

Flexible Couplings.

Example Simulations.

Damped Natural Frequency Map (NDF).

Modal Damping Map.

Root Locus Map.

Undamped Critical Speed Map.

Mode Shapes.

Bode/Polar Response Plot.

Orbit Response Plot.

Bearing Load Response Plot.

Operating Deflected Shape (ODS).

Housing Vibration (ips and g’s).


5 Bearings and Their Effect on Rotordynamics.

Fluid Film Bearings.

Fixed-geometry Sleeve Bearings.

Variable-geometry Tilting Pad Bearings.

Fluid Film Bearing Dynamic Coefficients and Methods of ObtainingThem.

Load Between Pivots Versus Load on Pivot.

Influence of Preload on the Dynamic Coefficients in Tilt PadBearings.

Influence of the Bearing Length or Pad Length.

Influence of the Pivot Offset.

Influence of the Number of Pads.

Ball and Rolling Element Bearings.

Case Study: Bearing Support Design for a Rocket EngineTurbopump.

Ball Bearing Stiffness Measurements.

Wire Mesh Damper Experiments and Computer Simulations.

Squeeze Film Dampers.

Squeeze Film Damper without a Centering Spring.

O-ring Supported Dampers.

Squirrel Cage Supported Dampers.

Integral Squeeze Film Dampers.

Squeeze Film Damper Rotordynamic Force Coefficients.

Applications of Squeeze Film Dampers.

Optimization for Improving Stability in a Centrifugal ProcessCompressor.

Using Dampers to Improve the Synchronous Response.

Using the Damper to Shift a Critical Speed or a Resonance.

Insights into the Rotor–Bearing Dynamic Interaction withSoft/Stiff Bearing Supports.

Influence on Natural Frequencies with Soft/Stiff BearingSupports.

Effects of Mass Distribution on the Critical Speeds withSoft/Stiff Bearing Supports.

Influence of Overhung Mass on Natural Frequencies withSoft/Stiff Supports.

Influence of Gyroscopic Moments on Natural Frequencies withSoft/Stiff Bearing Supports.



Appendix: Shaft With No Added Weight.

6 Fluid Seals and Their Effect on Rotordynamics.

Function and Classification of Seals.

Plain Smooth Seals.

Floating Ring Seals.

Conventional Gas Labyrinth Seals.

Pocket Damper Seals.

Honeycomb Seals.

Hole-pattern Seals.

Brush Seals.

Understanding and Modeling Damper Seal Force Coefficients.

Alford’s Hypothesis of Labyrinth Seal Damping.

Cross-coupled Stiffness Measurements.

Invention of the Pocket Damper Seal.

Pocket Damper Seal Theory.

Rotordynamic Testing of Pocket Damper Seals.

Impedance Measurements of Pocket Damper Seal Force Coefficients(Stiffness and Damping) and Leakage at Low Pressures.

The Fully Partitioned PDS Design.

Effects of Negative Stiffness.

Frequency Dependence of Damper Seals.

Laboratory Measurements of Stiffness and Damping from PocketDamper Seals at High Pressures.

The Conventional Design.

The Fully Partitioned Design.

Field Experience with Pocket Damper Seals.

Two Back-to-Back Compressor Applications.

Case 1.

Case 2.

A Fully Partitioned Application.

Designing for Desired Force Coefficient Characteristics.

The Conventional PDS Design.

The Fully Partitioned Pocket Damper Seal.

Leakage Considerations.

Some Comparisons of Different Types of Annular Gas Seals.


7 History of Machinery Rotordynamics.

The Foundation Years, 1869–1941.

Shaft Dynamics.


Refining and Expanding the Rotordynamic Model,1942–1963.

Multistage Compressors and Turbines, Rocket Engine Turbopumps,and Damper Seals, 1964–Present.

Stability Problems with Multistage Centrifugal Compressors.

Kaybob, 1971–72.

Ekofisk, 1974–75.

Subsequent Developments.

New Frontiers of Speed and Power Density with Rocket EngineTurbopumps.

The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME).

High-pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP).

Rotordynamic Instability Problem.

Noncontacting Damper Seals.

Shaft Differential Heating (The Morton Effect).



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