Machinery's Handbook Pocket Companion

Overview

Machinery's Handbook Pocket Companion puts all the basic information you need right at your fingertips. Extremely concise yet authoritative, this valuable tool draws on Machinery's Handbook's wealth of tables, charts and text to provide quick and easy access to the most basic data. Practitioners and students of the machine trades will find the Pocket Companion to be the best little helper yet!

"...a concise & authoritative ready-reference which draws its content largely from 'Machinery's ...

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Overview

Machinery's Handbook Pocket Companion puts all the basic information you need right at your fingertips. Extremely concise yet authoritative, this valuable tool draws on Machinery's Handbook's wealth of tables, charts and text to provide quick and easy access to the most basic data. Practitioners and students of the machine trades will find the Pocket Companion to be the best little helper yet!

"...a concise & authoritative ready-reference which draws its content largely from 'Machinery's Handbook'...provides convenient access to the most basic data in the machine trades."

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780831130893
  • Publisher: Industrial Press, Inc.
  • Publication date: 9/1/1999
  • Edition description: POCKET
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 317
  • Product dimensions: 4.34 (w) x 6.84 (h) x 0.51 (d)

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Machining Operations

Machining Aluminum.-Some of the alloys of aluminum have been machined successfully without any lubricant or cutting compound, but some form of lubricant is desirable to obtain the best results. For many purposes, a soluble cutting oil is good.

Tools for aluminum and aluminum alloys should have larger relief and rake angles than tools for cutting steel. For high-speed steel turning tools the following angles are recommended: relief angles, 14 to 16 degrees; back rake angle, 5 to 20 degrees; side rake angle, 15 to 35 degrees. For very soft alloys even larger side rake angles are sometimes used. High silicon aluminum alloys and some others have a very abrasive effect on the cutting tool. While these alloys can be cut successfully with high-speed-steel tools, cemented carbides are recommended because of their superior abrasion resistance. The tool angles recommended for cemented carbide turning tools are: relief angles, 12 to 14 degrees; back rake angle, 0 to 15 degrees; side rake angle, 8 to 30 degrees.

Cut-off tools and necking tools for machining aluminum and its alloys should have from 12 to 20 degrees back rake angle and the end relief angle should be from 8 to 12 degrees. Excellent threads can be cut with single-point tools in even the softest aluminum. Experience seems to vary somewhat regarding the rake angle for single-point thread cutting tools. Some prefer to use a rather large back and side rake angle although this requires a modification in the included angle of the tool to produce the correct thread contour. When both rake angles are zero, the included angle of the tool is ground equal to the included angle of the thread. Excellent threadshave been cut in aluminum with zero rake angle thread-cutting tools using large relief angles, which are 16 to 18 degrees opposite the front side of the thread and 12 to 14 degrees opposite the back side of the thread. In either case, the cutting edges should be ground and honed to a keen edge. It is sometimes advisable to give the face of the tool a few strokes with a hone between cuts when chasing the thread to remove any built-up edge on the cutting edge.

Fine surface finishes are often difficult to obtain on aluminum and aluminum alloys, particularly the softer metals. When a fine finish is required, the cutting tool should be honed to a keen edge and the surfaces of the face and the flank will also benefit by being honed smooth. Tool wear is inevitable, but it should not be allowed to progress too far before the tool is changed or sharpened. A sulphurized mineral oil or a heavy-duty soluble oil will sometimes be helpful in obtaining a satisfactory surface finish. For best results, however, a diamond cutting tool is recommended. Excellent surface finishes can be obtained on even the softest aluminum and aluminum alloys with these tools.

Although ordinary milling cutters can be used successfully in shops where aluminum parts are only machined occasionally, the best results are obtained with coarse-tooth, large helix-angle cutters having large rake and clearance angles. Clearance angles up to 10 to 12 degrees are recommended. When slab milling and end milling a profile, using the peripheral teeth on the end mill, climb milling (also called down milling) will generally produce a better finish on the machined surface than conventional (or up) milling. Face milling cutters should have a large axial rake angle. Standard twist drills can be used without difficulty in drilling aluminum and aluminum alloys although high helix-angle drills are preferred. The wide flutes and high helix-angle in these drills helps to clear the chips. Sometimes split-point drills are preferred. Carbide tipped twist drills can be used for drilling aluminum and its alloys and may afford advantages in some production applications. Ordinary hand and machine taps can be used to tap aluminum and its alloys although spiral-fluted ground thread taps give superior results. Experience has shown that such taps should have a right-hand ground flute when intended to cut right-hand threads and the helix angle should be similar to that used in an ordinary twist drill.

Machining Magnesium.-Magnesium alloys are readily machined and with relatively low power consumption per cubic inch of metal removed. The usual practice is to employ high cutting speeds with relatively coarse feeds and deep cuts. Exceptionally fine finishes can be obtained so that grinding to improve the finish usually is unnecessary. The horsepower normally required in machining magnesium varies from 0.15 to 0.30 per cubic inch per minute. While this value is low, especially in comparison with power required for cast iron and steel, the total amount of power for machining magnesium usually is high because of the exceptionally rapid rate at which metal is removed.

Carbide tools are recommended for maximum efficiency, although high-speed steel frequently is employed. Tools should be designed so as to dispose of chips readily or without excessive friction, by employing polished chip-bearing surfaces, ample chip spaces, large clearances, and small contact areas. Keen-edged tools should always be used.

Feeds and Speeds for Magnesium: Speeds ordinarily range up to 5000 feet per minute for rough- and finish-turning, up to 3000 feet per minute for rough-milling, and up to 9000 feetper minute for finish-nvlling. For rough-turning, the following combinations of speed in feet per minute, feed per revolution, and depth of cut are recommended: Speed 300 to 600 feet per minute-feed 0.030 to 0.100 inch, depth of cut 0.5 inch; speed 600 to 1000feed 0.020 to 0.080, depth of cut 0.4; speed 1000 to 1500 - feed 0.010 to 0.060, depth of cut 0.3; speed 1500 to 2000- feed 0.010 to 0.040, depth of cut 0.2; speed 2000 to 5000 feed 0.010 to 0.030, depth of cut 0.15.

Lathe Tool Angles for Magnesium: The true or actual rake angle resulting from back and side rakes usually varies from 10 to 15 degrees. Back rake varies from 10 to 20, and side rake from 0 to 10 degrees. Reduced back rake may be employed to obtain better chip breakage. The back rake may also be reduced to from 2 to 8 degrees on form tools or other broad tools to prevent chatter.

Parting Tools: For parting tools, the back rake varies from 15 to 20 degrees the front end relief 8 to 10 degrees, the side relief measured perpendicular to the top face 8 degrees, the side relief measured in the plane of the top face from 3 to 5 degrees.

Milling Magnesium: In general, the coarse-tooth type of cutter is recommended. The number of teeth or cutting blades may be one-third to one-half the number normally used; however, the two-blade fly-cutter has proved to be very satisfactory. As a rule, the land relief or primary peripheral clearance is 10 degrees followed by secondary clearance of 20 degrees. The lands should be narrow, the width being about % to 1 1/16 inch. The rake, which is positive, is about 15 degrees.

For rough-milling and speeds in feet per minute up to 900 - feed, inch per tooth, 0.005 to 0.025 depth of cut up to 0.5; for speeds 900 to 1500 - feed 0.005 to 0.020, depth of cut up to 0.375; for speeds 1500 to 3000-feed 0.005 to 0.010, depth of cut up to 0.2.

Drilling Magnesium: If the depth of a hole is less than five times the drill diameter, an ordinary twist drill with highly polished flutes may be used. The included angle of the point may vary from 70 degrees to the usual angle of 118 degrees. The relief angle is about 12 degrees. The drill should be kept sharp and the outer corners rounded to produce a smooth finish and prevent burr formation. For deep hole drilling, use a drill having a helix angle of 40 to 45 degrees with large polished flutes of uniform cross-section throughout the drill length to facilitate the flow of chips. A pyramid-shaped "spur" or "pilot point" at the tip of the drill will reduce the "spiraling or run-off."

Drilling speeds vary from 300 to 2000 feet per minute with feeds per revolution ranging from 0.015 to 0.050 inch...

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Table of Contents

Mathematical Formulas and Tables. Measurement and Inspection. Standard Tapers. Threads. Fastener Information. Cutting Fluids. Drilling and Reaming. Tapping. Speeds and Feeds. Milling Cutters. Keys and Keyseats. Broaching. Cutting Tools for Turning. Machining Operations. Computer Numerical Control. Grinding Wheels. Gearing. Properties of Materials. Standards for Drawings. Allowances and Tolerances. Surface Texture. Conversion Factors. Index.
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