Mainstreams of American Media History: A Narrative and Intellectual History / Edition 1 by Hiley H. Ward | 9780205149223 | Paperback | Barnes & Noble
Mainstreams of American Media History: A Narrative and Intellectual History / Edition 1

Mainstreams of American Media History: A Narrative and Intellectual History / Edition 1

by Hiley H. Ward

ISBN-10: 0205149227

ISBN-13: 9780205149223

Pub. Date: 11/27/1996

Publisher: Pearson

This introduction to media history captures the excitement and personality of ideas, events, and people who made it happen. With a chronology that emphasizes a narrative style, anecdotes, and a selection of ideas, the chapters of this book are devoted to certain movements in American history and the role of media in them. Events and personalities


This introduction to media history captures the excitement and personality of ideas, events, and people who made it happen. With a chronology that emphasizes a narrative style, anecdotes, and a selection of ideas, the chapters of this book are devoted to certain movements in American history and the role of media in them. Events and personalities are interpreted in the context in which they existed. Therefore, both the negative and positive aspects of issues, events, and people who influenced media history are presented. Selection of subjects is made on the basis of what is significant, interesting, and worth remembering. Students will find, for example, the “Yes, Virginia, There Is a Santa Claus” column as well as William Allen White's tribute to his daughter at her death. Basic themes that run through the course of media history are identified by subheads in each chapter, and questions for discussion and research are at the end of each chapter.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Origins of Modern Media.

Early Development of Ways to Disseminate News.

Ancient Roman News Board Era of Printing Begins Pictorial Passionals and Calendars News Books Corantos Defining a Newspaper Diurnals Mercuries The First Newspaper.

Monarchs and Censorship.

Media Background: The English Civil Wars.

What's in a Name?

Questions for Discussion and Research.

2. English Roots: Ideas that Persist.

Covering Battles and Disasters.

Let Truth Compete, and You Have a Winner.

The Influence of Cato's Letters.

Helping to Steer the Ship of State.

Wilkes' Poisoned Pen Hancock's Editorial in England.

Investigative Reporting Plays a Role.

People in Every Age Who Boil People.

Putting on the Pot.

How Idealistic Can an Editor Be?

First English Daily Pledges Objectivity Applying the Ideal Perpetuating Biases.

The Little Shops Around the Corner.

Front Page Ads.

“Fourth Estate:” Who Used the Term First?

A Martyr for His Sources.

Questions for Discussion and Research.

3. The First Hundred Years — Section One.

Censorship and Trials: Beginnings and Early Years of American Media.

First Printing Press in Colonies.

Classless Communities New Americanese Language Quakers Harass a Printer From Witchcraft to a Libel Trial.

“First” Papers in the Colonies.

Enter the Franklins The Small Pox Controversy James Franklin Banned Ben Franklin Befriended Martha Careful and Caelia Shortface First Published American Cartoon “The Delight of All That Knew Him.”

The Lighter Side: Ben Had a Word for It.

Nuggets of News Among Trivia.

Breaking Police, Fire Stories Franklin, the Educator.

They Came out Swinging: The Poor Printer vs. the Governor.

A Faction Signs up Zenger Zenger Arrested Bradford Criticizes Zenger Interpreting the Media Trial of the Century A Cheering Courtroom.

Questions for Discussion and Research.

4. The First Hundred Years — Section Two.
Revolution and Restrictions: Rounding out the Century.

Beating the Drums of Revolution.

Catalyst of Dissent Wordsmith of the Revolution Paine in Danger in Europe Traitor or Double Agent?

A Pioneer of Modern Investigative Reporting.

Blood-Letting Cure Exposed.

Death of a Queen Makes a Front Page.

Entertainment Reviews.

Traditions Upheld by Women Printers.

Male Oriented Values and Biases.

Making Money on “Throwaway Material.”

Slaves Included in Press Sale.

A War Waged Among Party Papers.

Background on Party Differences “Lightning Rod, Junior” Jefferson's Editor Freneau.

Curbing Political Expression — The Abominable Acts.

The “Lyon” That Roared Legacy of Alien and Sedition Acts.

Doctrine of Limited Prosecution/Persecution of the Press.

Croswell “Stings” Jefferson Croswell Arrested The Six Cent Libel Case.

George Washington and the Press.

The Lighter Side: Was Washington a Woman?

Questions for Discussion and Research.

5. Rendezvous with Destiny (1800-1850).

Call of the Frontier.

The Country as “Temple of Freedom” Editor Creates “Manifest Destiny.”

Widening Coverage on the Domestic Scene.

Cultivating Celebrities Reporting Straw Polls.

Media Apply Manifest Destiny to the West.

Boosting the Outsider and Underdog.

Suddenly, New Personalities Amos Kendall and Mrs. Clay.

Editors See “Spoils System“ as Reform.

Anne Royall's Independent Voice.

Minority Media Pioneers: Their Cause Was Clear.

Founding of Freedom's Journal The Cherokee Phoenix Appears Mexican War Restrictions.

Editors Needed Extra Income.

In Debt to Bank of U.S.

Turning an Insult into a Campaign Slogan.

The “Log Cabin” Candidate “Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too” “A Barrel of Hard Cider.”

New Anti-Intellectualism: Love Letters, Funeral Parades

Beginnings of Photography.

A Showman's Daguerreotype First Use of Halftones.

The Lighter Side: “Major Jack Downing” and Manifest Destiny.

Questions for Discussion and Research.

6. The Wave of Cheap Penny Papers (1833-1851).

A Dawning Liberation.

Reasons for the Penny Press.

Origins of the Penny Press.

The Penny Papers in New York.

Nuggets of Humor in Police Stories.

A Bull Battles a Train.

The Race to Be First.

Genesis of the Associated Press The First Interview Article The Ellen Jewett Murder Mystery.

Bennett Plays Detective in Early Interview.

Telling a Good Story.

The Great Moon Hoax Bennett Counters with “Hi” and “Ho.”

The Irreverent Mr. Bennett.

Clergy Boycott the Herald.

The Slavery Question Looms.

Elijah Lovejoy Martyred.

Partisan Views Abound.

Lincoln Attracts Media Abolitionist Editors Suffrage Publications.

A New Power Base.

Making Ads Fresh and Profitable.

Sounding Off for Justice.

What Happened to the Big Penny Papers?

“Is There a Santa Claus?” A Regrettable Incident Munsey Buys Herald Ochs Revives Times.

The Lighter Side: They Knew of “Batman” in the 1830s.

Questions for Discussion and Research.

7. A Divided Nation and Media.

Roots of the Conflict.

Editorial Voices in the Confederacy Lincoln's Objectives.

Saturation On-the-Spot Journalism.

Reporter Finds His Own Dead Son In the Speaker's Chair Sing Sing Alumni and Scholars New Era of Reporters Dependence on Sources A Changed Style.

“Important, If True … .”

A Fabricated Battle.

New Shared Ways to Cover News.

Birth of Syndication.

The Press Sets the Agenda.

The Copperheads.

Controls and a Court-martial.

No Formal Legal Censorship Military Closes Paper Bypassing Telegraph Censors Only Reporter Ever Court-Martialed in U.S. On Word of Honor.

If the Partisan Label Fits, Wear It.

The Two-Face Image of Chicago's Medill First Black-Owned Daily Influence of Frederick Douglass Printing Patronage in South.

Some In-depth Reporting Surfaced.

Cincinnati Papers Expose Army Abuses.

Meaning in the Valley of Shadow of Death.

Role of the Deity A Matter of Principle.

Journalism Coming of Age.

Civil War Pictorials.

Posing Lincoln Dragging Bodies into Picture Enduring Symbols of Thomas Nast Opposes “Peace at Any Price” The Carnage of a Tiger.

The Lighter Side: How the Press Made Fun of Ol' Abe.

Questions for Discussion and Research.

8. Grassroots Voices: The Spawning of Populism.

The Rise of the Grange Movement.

Leftist Label Rejected Chicago Editor Creates Alliance.

Scripture Fuels Populist Zeal.

Women's Farm Paper Launched A Dark Side of Populism Nativism Journalism Still Abounds.

“Sockless Jerry,” “Mary 'Yellin'” and “Little Annie.”

A Chauvinistic William Allen White Where the Setting Sun Makes News.

The People's Party and a Cross of Gold.

The Metal Currency Debate William Jennings Bryan Nominated.

One Woman Not Politically Correct.

Editor Groups Wield Power.

Paying Attention to Advertising.

A Look at Advertising Ethics.

He Tangled with a Circular Saw.

In-depth Sensationalism.

An Uncommon Man: Chain Builder E.W. Scripps.

A Simple Editing Formula Scripps Wins in Racy Libel Case.

The Lighter Side: Twain's Petrified Man.

William Allen White: Great Editorials.

“Mary White”

Questions for Discussion and Research.

9. Pulitzer and Hearst: The Roar of the Crowd.
I. The Wide World of Joseph Pulitzer.

Creating Mass Communication.

Pulitzer, the Teacher.

The Early Pulitzer.

The Brunt of Jokes Mule Driver, Gravedigger Pulitzer Shoots a Critic Pulitzer in Politics Was the Young Candidate Corrupt?

The Brothers Pulitzer.

Sibling Rivalry.

Tale of Two Cities.

Editor Kills Lawyer Charities and a Special Friend Suddenly Darkness Albert's Suicide.

A Spicy Formula: Telling It Like It Is.

Enter “The Yellow Kid” Around the World in 72 Days “Baked Babies” and “Lines of Little Hearses” Exposing Gambling Dens The “Crazy” Reporter.

“Indegoddampendent” Editorials.

Pulitzer's Role in Electing a President.

The Mulligan Letters “Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion.”

Politics for Profit.

The Newsboys Strike Ads in Bad Taste.

Right Out of a Horatio Alger Book.

A Quiet End on a Yacht.

Beginnings of Journalism Education.

History of the Pulitzer Prizes.

II. William Randolph Hearst — “Gee Whiz” Journalism.

A Hell-Raiser Youth.

Alligators and Roosters A Dream Come True.

Getting the Most Out of a News Event.

“Mistress of the Castle” Seeking Women Readers Puffing Billy Graham.

Explosive Design and the Ridiculous.

Brontosaurus in the Window Fascination with Fireworks.

Stay Put: “I'll Furnish the War.”

Shipboard Strip Search Smaller Heartland Papers Delay War Cry Manifest Destiny Again, and Racism Hearst Wades into the War — Literally.

“A Sad White City” of Trolley Car Dead.

“Annie Laurie” Exposes Hospital Abuses Fisherman Overboard.

Barred by the British.

Americanism Was His Religion Distinctly Anti-British Always Pro-German Limits of Creativity.

Docudramas and Doctored Pictures Today.

Capitalizing on Populism.

Circulation Wars with Pulitzer In Hearst Style, Defender Debuts Role of Department Store Ads Blessed Are the Pure of Heart.

He Could Be Found on Both Sides.

Quiet Style in Congress Almost Mayor of New York Blamed for McKinley's Assassination Theodore Roosevelt's “Torpedo” Barrage of Shots from the Times Maneuvering FDR's Nomination.

An Appraisal.

Citizen Hearst Becomes “Citizen Kane.”

The Lighter Side: When Casey Struck Out.

Questions for Discussion and Research.

10. Media and the Idea of Progress.

Progressivism vs. Populism.

“Just the Facts, Ma'am.”

Magazines Lead the Way.

Raking the “Filth” Off of the Floor.

A Complex Role The Illustrious Muckrakers.

Muckraking's Religious Roots.

The Idea of Progress.

The Muckraking Score Card.

Did They Really Succeed?

Were the Muckrakers Sensationalists?

Stories Appealing to the Senses The Muckraking Novelists.

Advertising Control of News.

Brand Names Catch On Trailblazing Ad Agencies.

Partisan Politics Alive and Well.

La Follette: Progressive Maverick The Courageous Independent.

Censoring Muckrakers.

The Ultimate Censor New York Associated Press Restraints Newspaper Publicity Act of 1912 FDR's Blue Eagle Restraints.

Focusing on Public Relations.

Role of Women's Rights Agenda White House Press Relations FDR's Public Relations Finesse PR Pioneer Ivy Lee PR Revives the KKK.

Photo Realism: FDR's Documentary Photographers.

The Migrant Mother Case of the Moving Skull.

The Beginning of Movies.

How Does a Horse Run? The Nickelodeons “Keystones Kops.”

The Lighter Side: “Token” for a Ride.

Questions for Discussion and Research.

11. The Emerging Fast Media: Radio.

The Roots of Radio.

Wireless Between Mountains First Disc Jockey.

From School Kid's Hobby to Intrigue.

Boy Scouts and Morse Code The First Station News Broadcasts Begin Potential for Propaganda.

Quest for Ways to Pay for Radio.

The New “Monster” Attracts Ads Movies, Television Pose Threat.

War Fought in the Air.

Presidential Censorship Taming the Jungle of Sound FCC: Commercialism Wins Equal Time Certifying Crackpots Fairness Doctrine Axed.

No Place for the Political “Twanger.”

Hoover Comfortable with Radio FDR's Intimate Chats. Eleanor on Radio, Too.

Networks Unity with Power.

Birth of RCA The Big Three: NBC, CBS, ABC.

Prime Value: Entertainment.

Racial and Ethnic Stereotyping When “Closet” Meant “Closet” Little Violent Annie Cleansing the “Children's Hour.”

Radio's “Breathless” News.

“Oh, My! It's Terrible!” When Martians Came Visiting Fiction on Documentaries “Rat-a-Tat” Winchell “Shock Jock Stern Two Who Were Murdered.

In-depth Radio Documentaries.

The Lighter Side: Will Rogers — A Humorist's Report on Life in the Windy City.

Questions for Discussion and Research.

12. The Small Screen: Seeing Is Believing.

Experimental Stages.

First Television Programming Growth After World War II.

How Television Started.

“Mechanical Television” The Russian and the Idaho Farm Boy “The Damned Thing Works!” He Regretted Role in Creating Television Over the Hills with Cable.

Evolution of Television News.

Visual Reality Slighting Foreign News Rituals of Sameness PBS and “Idea” News Effect on Newspapers.

Trend Toward “Cheap News.”

Disposable Networks Televised Sports Big Business Big Events and O.J.

Turning on Titillating Trash.

Kissing a Pet Pig “Reality Shock” News On Camera Murder Learning From the Movies.

Scanning a Vast Wasteland.

Watching 25,000 Murders Pantheon of Celebrities.

Battling Tyranny and Demagogues.

Murrow vs. McCarthy Case of Lt. Radulovich “This is No Time to Keep Silent.”

The FCC Sits Back.

Looking to Voluntary Regulation Stereotypes Developed.

Durable Documentaries.

Genesis of “60 Minutes” At First, “Barely Grazing the Skin” Mike Wallace, an Actor Spinoffs of “60 Minutes.”

A Handy Medium to Control.

Nixon's “Checkers Speech” The “Daisy Ad” The Impact of Willie Horton.

Television Who's Who of Anchors and News Stars.

The Lighter Side: Television's Interview Twists.

Television's Greatest Ads.

Questions for Discussion and Research.

13. Media and Twentieth Century Wars and Protest Movements.

Dr. King Links Vietnam War and Lack of Rights.

Assailed by the Press Freedom and Rights Issues Persist.

Elite Groups Compel Conformity.

The (Bad) Luck of the Irish Press Boosts Vigilantism Irish Papers Curbed.

The Lighter Side: Broadcasting Fun Fostered Stereotypes — Abbott and Costello.

Espionage and Sabotage Acts Effective.

IWW Journal Banned The Prison Candidate.

Press Control Agencies in the Two World Wars.

World War I.

World War II.

Censorship and the “Other” Wars.

The Korean War.

The Vietnam War.


The Persian Gulf War.

Role of Alternative Media.

Media Critics and Gadflies Dorothy Day's Catholic Worker Dissent Goes “Underground.”

The New “Alternatives.”

A Dramatic “New Journalism.”

Story-Telling Techniques Influence of Novelists Classifying the New Journalists Woodward and Bernstein.

War Event Itself May Be Sensational.

Subliminal Sensationalism.

Advertising in Wartime.

Joining Hands in Advertising.

An Agenda Beyond Integration.

Reasons for a Black Radicalism The Nation of Islam Facing a Manifesto's Demands.

Another Voice: The Black Cartoonists.

Questions for Discussion and Research.

14. Magazines, Mergers and Moguls.

Appetite for the American Way.

The DeWitt Wallace Condensed Way The News Summary Magazines.

The Future of Magazines.

Old Magazines with New Life Magazines You Watch Selective Targeting.

Merging: Bigger, for Better or Worse.

Global Trends Cross Media Developments Blurred Mega-Giants.

Global Moguls of Modern Media.

Questions for Discussion and Research.

15. Old Media Meet the New.

Birth of the Computer.

Father of Modern Computer The Monster ENIAC.

The Shape of Media in a New Age.




Radio and Television.

Regulation and the New Media Technology.

FCC Faces a New World Licenses Sales Profitable “A New Day Is Dawning.”

A New Roster of Moral and Legal Concern.

Questions for Discussion and Research.

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