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Tracing the historical development of American constitutional thought, this distinctive anthology presents the documents critical to constitutional development, including actual legal texts as well as the reactions of prominent legal minds.
VOLUME I 1. Constitutional History and Constitutionalism ESSAYS Hendrik Hartog, A History of Rights Consciousness Herman Belz, In Defense of Liberal Pluralism and Constitutionalism 2. Constitutionalism Before the Constitution DOCUMENTS Magna Carta, 1215 The Virginia Charter, 1606 Articles, Laws, and Orders, Divine, Politic, and Martial for the Colony of Virginia, 1610-1611 An Ordinance and Constitution...for a Council of State and General Assembly in Virginia, 1621 The Mayflower Compact, 1620 The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, 1639 William Penn's Preface to the Frame of Government of Pennsylvania, 1682 Pennsylvania Charter of Liberties, 1701 ESSAYS Gary B. Nash, Expediency and Early Constitutionalism Donald S. Lutz, The Idealism of Early Constitutionalism 3. The Rise of Republican Constitutionalism DOCUMENTS John Locke on the Ends of Political Society and Government, 1690 James Otis Argues Against the Writs of Assistance, 1761 Farmers Demand "Liberty and Property, Without Oppression": Grievances of Monmouth County, East Jersey, 1769 Thomas Paine Calls for a Break with England, 1776 The Declaration of Independence, 1776 The Pennsylvania Constitution, 1776 The Massachusetts Bill of Rights, 1780 ESSAYS Bernard Bailyn, The Birth of Republican Constitutionalism Isaac Kramnick, John Locke and Liberal Constitutionalism Pauline Maier, Insurrection as a Step to Constitutionalism 4. Creating the American Republic, 1787 DOCUMENTS Proposed Plans for the National Government: (a) The Virginia, or Randolph, Plan, May 29, 1787; (b) The New Jersey, or Paterson, Plan, June 15, 1787; (c) The Hamilton Plan, June 18, 1787 The Debate over Establishing Legislature, May-June 1787 The Debate over Slavery and Representation in the Constitution, June-July 1787 The Northwest Ordinance, 1787 ESSAYS John P. Roche, The Practical Democracy of the Framers Forrest McDonald, The Power of Ideas in the Convention Gordon Wood, Virtue and Politics in the Convention 5. Ratification and the Bill of Rights DOCUMENTS Robert Yates and John Lansing of New York Urge Against Ratification of the Constitution, 1787 The Albany Anti-Federal Committee Outlines the Weaknesses of the Constitution, 1788 George Mason's Objections to the Proposed Constitution, 1787 "Brutus" Blasts the New National Government, 1787 Patrick Henry and John Marshall Debate Judicial Authority, 1788 James Madison on Representation and Sovereignty, 1788 James Madison on the Bill of Rights, 1789 ESSAYS Murray Dry, The Anti-Federalists and the American Constitutional Tradition David F. Epstein, How to Understand the Federalists 6. Freedom of Expression in the New Republic DOCUMENTS The Sedition Act, 1798 The Kentucky Resolutions, November 16, 1798 The Virginia Resolutions, December 24, 1798 The Kentucky Resolutions, February 22, 1799 Rhode Island Reply to the Virginia Resolution, 1799 New Hampshire Reply to the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1799 Lyon's Case Republican Lawyer George Hay on the Liberty of the Press, 1799 Federalist Editor Harry Croswell Lambastes President Thomas Jefferson, 1802 ESSAYS Leonard W. Levy, The Republicans and the Transformation of Libertarian Thought Walter Berns, The Federalists and the Transformation of Libertarian Thought 7. The Establishment of Federal Judicial Review DOCUMENTS Alexander Hamilton Defends Judicial Review, 1788 Marbury v. Madison, 1803 Articles of Impeachment Against Samuel Chase, 1803 M'Culloch v. Maryland, 1819 Niles' Weekly Register Assails the Court, 1819 Eakin v. Raub, 1825 Justice Joseph Story Defends Judicial Standards of Interpretation, 1833 ESSAYS Francis N. Stites, John Marshall and Constitutional Adaptation Christopher Wolfe, John Marshall and the Faithful Interpretation of the Constitution 8. Andrew Jackson, the Presidency, and Separation of Powers DOCUMENTS President Andrew Jackson on the People's Rights, 1829 President Jackson Vetoes the Maysville Road Bill, 1830 President Jackson Vetoes the Second Bank of the United States, 1832 Senator John Tyler on "King Andrew," 1834 Senator Daniel Webster on Responsibility in Government, 1834 Alexis de Tocqueville Contrasts Presidency and Monarchy, 1840 Whig Charles Francis Adams on the Ascendancy of the President, 1841 ESSAYS Edward Pessen, The Constitutional Expediency of Andrew Jackson Robert V. Remini, Andrew Jackson as Liberator of the People and the Presidency 9. Nullification, States' Rights, and State Sovereignty DOCUMENTS Vice President John C. Calhoun Protests the "Tariff of Abominations," 1828 Calhoun Proposes Nullification, 1828 Senator Daniel Webster on the Nature of the Union, 1830 South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, 1832 President Andrew Jackson's Proclamation to the People of South Carolina, 1832 South Carolina's Ordinance to Nullify the Force Bill, 1833 Worcester v. Georgia, 1832 ESSAYS Robert V. Remini, Nullification Defeated Richard Ellis, Nullification Triumphant 10. Property, Economy, and Culture in the Marshall and Taney Eras DOCUMENTS Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 1819 Providence Bank v. Billings, 1830 Proprietors of the Charles River Bridge v. Proprietors of the Warren Bridge, 1837 ESSAYS Stanley I. Kutler, Law as an Economic Instrument R. Kent Newmyer, Law as a Cultural Delineator 11. State Sovereignty, Slavery, and Secession DOCUMENTS Prigg v. Pennsylvania, 1842 The Fugitive Slave Act, 1850 The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857 Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas Debate the Dred Scott Decision, 1858 South Carolina Declaration of Causes of Secession, 1860 President Lincoln Rejects Secession: The First Inaugural Address, 1861 The Confederate Constitution, 1861 ESSAYS Arthur Bestor, Jr., Secession and the Civil War as a Constitutional Crisis Phillip S. Paludan, Secession as a Crisis Local Authority 12. Race, Gender, and the Fourteenth Amendment DOCUMENTS The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, 1848 The Emancipation Proclamation, 1863 The Illinois State Register Denounces the Emancipation Proclamation, 1863 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 President Andrew Johnson Vetoes the Civil Rights Act, 1866 Congress Debates the Fourteenth Amendment, 1866 The Slaughterhouse Cases, 1873 The Civil Rights Cases, 1883 Minor v. Happersett, 1875 Bradwell v. Illinois, 1873 ESSAYS Robert J. Kaczorowski, A Revolution in Federal Civil Rights Michael Les Benedict, Federalism and the Limits of Civil Rights Joan Hoff Wilson, The Supreme Court's Denial of the Rights of Women Appendix The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union Constitution of the United States of America Amendments to the Constitution The Constitution of the Confederate States of America Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-1990 VOLUME II 1. Constitutional History and Constitutionalism ESSAYS Hendrik Hartog, A History of Rights Consciousness Herman Belz, In Defense of Liberal Pluralism and Constitutionalism 2. Laissez-Faire Constitutionalism and Liberty in the Late Nineteenth Century DOCUMENTS Jurist Thomas M. Cooley on Constitutional Limitations, 1869 The Slaughter-House Cases, 16 Wallace 36 (1873) Munn v. Illinois, 94 U.S. 113 (1877) United States v. E.C. Knight, 156 U.S. 1 (1895) Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Co., 158 U.S. 601 (1895) In Re Debs, 158 U.S. 564 (1895) The People's Party Platform, 1896 ESSAYS Arnold M. Paul, Traditional Legal Conservatism Michael Les Benedict, The Libertarian Foundations of Laissez-Faire Constitutionalism 3. Paternalistic Sexism and Liberty to Contract, 1873-1923 DOCUMENTS Legal Scholar Christopher G. Tiedeman on the Limitations of Police Power, 1886 Ritchie v. The People, 155 Ill. 106 (1895) Allgeyer v. Louisiana, 165 U.S. 578 (1897) Holden v. Hardy, 169 U.S. 366 (1898) Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 4 (1905) AFL Leader Samuel Gompers on Why Married Women Should Not Work, 1906 Louis D. Brandeis and Josephine Goldmark on Women in Industry, 1908 Muller v. Oregon, 208 U.S. 412 (1908) Roscoe Pound on Liberty of Contract, 1909 Adkins v. Children's Hospital, 261 U.S. 525 (1923) ESSAYS Judith A. Baer, Women Workers and Liberty to Contract Melvin I. Urofsky, The Courts and the Limits of Liberty to Contract 4. The Emergence of Modern Civil Liberties DOCUMENTS The Espionage Act, 1917/1918 Schenck v. United States, 249 U.S. 47 (1919) "Workers Wake Up," Version One, 1918 "Workers Wake Up," Version Two, 1918 Abrams v. United States, 250 U.S. 616 (1919) Legal Scholar Zechariah Chafee, Jr., Considers Freedom of Speech in Wartime, 1918 Gitlow v. New York, 268 U.S. 652 (1925) Near v. Minnesota, 283 U.S. 697 (1931) ESSAYS Walter F. Berns, The Limits of Liberty Richard Polenberg, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., and Clear and Present Danger Paul L. Murphy, Freedom of the Press and the Fourteenth Amendment 5. Presidential Leadership and Court Packing DOCUMENTS Schechter v. United States, 295 U.S. 495 (1935) Liberal Washington Journalists Drew Pearson and Robert S. Allen on the "Nine Old Men," 1936 The Judiciary Reform Act of 1937 President Franklin D. Roosevelt Advocates Judicial Reform 1937 Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes Defends the Supreme Court's Performance, 1937 The Senate Judiciary Committee's Report Rejects FDR's Plan, 1937 West Coast Hotel v. Parrish, 300 U.S. 397 (1937) ESSAYS William E. Leuchtenburg, The Logic of FDR's Court-Packing Scheme Michael Nelson, Court Packing as a Failure of Presidential Leadership 6. The Cold War and Civil Liberties DOCUMENTS John Dewey on Liberalism and Civil Liberties, 1936 The Alien Registration Act (Smith Act), 1940 Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings on the Smith Act, 1940 Dennis et al. v. United States, 341 U.S. 494 (1951) Political Scientist John P. Roche Argues That We've Never Had More Freedom, 1956 Yates v. United States, 354 U.S. 298 (1957) Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444 (1969) ESSAYS Michal Belknap, Anticommunist Hysteria and Political Persecution Walter Berns, Free Speech Belongs to the Virtuous 7. The Modern Presidency DOCUMENTS Senator Robert A. Taft on President Harry S Truman's Power to Make War, 1950 Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. et al. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579 (1952) The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964 President Richard M. Nixon Views the Problems Before Him, 1969 The War Powers Resolution, 1973 United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974) Senator Sam Ervin on Watergate and the Presidency, 1974 ESSAYS Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Influence of Presidential Personality Alexander M. Bickel, The Vietnam War as a Failure of Congress to Act Philip B. Kurland, Watergate and Reform of the Presidency 8. Affirmative Action DOCUMENTS Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 349 U.S. 294 (1955) The Southern Manifesto, 1956 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978) Fullilove v. Klutznick, 448 U.S. 448 (1980) Black Economist Thomas Sowell Asks, "Are Quotas Good for Blacks?" 1978 ESSAYS J. Harvie Wilkinson III, The Luminous but Flawed Goal of Racial Justice J. Skelly Wright, The Morality of Affirmative Action 9. Women and Equal Rights DOCUMENTS Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 419 (1965) Frontiero v. Richardson, 411 U.S. 677 (1973) The Equal Rights Amendment, 1972 Phyllis Schlafly Opposes the ERA, 1973 Marlow W. Cook Supports the ERA, 1973 The Reverend Jerry Falwell on the ERA, 1980 Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973) Webster v. Reproductive Health Services et al., 57 L.W. 5023 (1989) ESSAYS John Hart Ely, Why Roe v. Wade Was a Mistake Sylvia Law, The Reality of Biological Differences for Gender Equality Deborah L. Rhode, Gender as Disadvantage Rather than Difference 10. Freedom of and Freedom from Religion DOCUMENTS James Madison Warns Against Religious Establishment, 1785 Everson v. Board of Education of the Township of Ewing, 330 U.S. 1 (1947) Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962) President John F. Kennedy Discusses the Supreme Court and Public-School Prayer, 1962 Ishmael Jaffree Opposes Public-School Prayer, 1985 Jaffree v. The Board of School Commissioners of Mobile County, 554 Fed. Supp. 1104 (1983) Wallace v. Jaffree, 472 U.S. 38 (1985) Senator Jesse Helms on Prayer in the Public Schools, 1985 ESSAYS James McClellan, The Supreme Court's Usurpation of Freedom of Religion Leonard W. Levy, The Supreme Court's Defense of Freedom of Religion 11. The Constitutionality of the Death Penalty DOCUMENTS Louisiana ex rel. Francis v. Resweber, 329 U.S. 459 (1947) Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972) Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976) A Sample of Georgia Murder Cases, 1960-1978 McCleskey v. Kemp, 481 U.S. 279 (1987) ESSAYS Walter Berns, The Morality of the Death Penalty Charles L. Black, The Whim and Caprice of the Death Penalty David Baldus et al., Race and the Death Penalty 12. Original Intent and Constitutional Interpretation DOCUMENTS Former Attorney General Edwin Meese III on the Wisdom of Relying on the Framers' Original Intentions, 1985 Former Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Jr., on the Failure of the Doctrine of Original Intent, 1985 Justice Thurgood Marshall on the Constitution's Bicentennial: Commemorating the Wrong Document? 1987 ESSAYS Raoul Berger, Original Intent as a Curb on Judicial Power Leonard W. Levy, The Failure of Original Intent Appendix The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union Constitution of the United States of America Amendments to the Constitution The Constitution of the Confederate States of America Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-1990