Major Problems in American Foreign Relations, Volume II: Since 1914 / Edition 7

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Designed to encourage critical thinking about history, this reader uses a carefully selected group of primary sources and analytical essays to allow students to test the interpretations of distinguished historians and draw their own conclusions about the history of American foreign policy. This text serves as an effective educational tool for courses on U.S. foreign policy, recent U.S. history, or 20th Century U.S. history. Some of the new literature spotlights cultural relations, and the ways in which culturally constructed attitudes about class, gender, race, and national identity have shaped American's perceptions of the world and subsequently its overseas relationships.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780547218236
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 9/10/2009
  • Series: Major Problems in American History Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 624
  • Sales rank: 432,067
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Dennis Merrill, a professor of history and department chair at the University of Missouri-Kansas City, received his Ph.D. from the University of Connecticut. He is the author of Bread and the Ballot: The United States and India's Economic Development, 1947-1963. The Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations honored him with a Stuart L. Bernath Article Prize, and he has received two Fulbright awards to India. His current research interests focus on U.S.-Third World relations during the Cold War and the history of international tourism.

Thomas G. Paterson, professor emeritus of history at the University of Connecticut, graduated from the University of New Hampshire (B.A., 1963) and the University of California, Berkeley (Ph.D., 1968). He is the author of Soviet-American Confrontation (1973), Meeting the Communist Threat (1988), On Every Front (1992), Contesting Castro (1994), America Ascendant (with J. Garry Clifford, 1995), and A People and a Nation (with Mary Beth Norton et al., 2001). Tom is also the editor of Cold War Critics (1971), Kennedy's Quest for Victory (1989), Imperial Surge (with Stephen G. Rabe, 1992), The Origins of the Cold War (with Robert McMahon, 1999), Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations (with Michael J. Hogan, 2004), and Major Problems in American Foreign Relations (with Dennis Merrill, 2010). With Bruce Jentleson, he served as senior editor for the Encyclopedia of American Foreign Relations (1997). A microfilm edition of The United States and Castro's Cuba, 1950s-1970s: The Paterson Collection appeared in 1999. He has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of American History and Diplomatic History. A recipient of a Guggenheim fellowship, he has directed National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminars for College Teachers. In 2000 the New England History Teachers Association recognized his excellence in teaching and mentoring with the Kidger Award. Besides visits to many American campuses, Tom has lectured in Canada, China, Colombia, Cuba, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Russia, and Venezuela. He is a past president of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, which in 2008 honored him with the Laura and Norman Graebner Award for "lifetime achievement" in scholarship, service, and teaching. A native of Oregon, Tom is now informally associated with Southern Oregon University.

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Table of Contents

Note: Each chapter concludes with Further Reading. 1. APPROACHING THE STUDY OF AMERICAN FOREIGN RELATIONS. Essays. Thomas J. McCormick: The World-System, Hegemony, and Decline. Walter L. Hixson: Culture, National Identity, and the Myth of America. Laura McEnaney: Gender Analysis and Foreign Relations. Michael L. Krenn: The Adaptable Power of Racism. Melvyn P. Leffler: National Security, Core Values, and Power. J. Garry Clifford: Bureaucratic Politics and Policy Outcomes. Further Reading. 2. WOODROW WILSON, THE FIRST WORLD WAR, AND THE LEAGUE FIGHT. Documents. 1. The First Lusitania Note Demands That Germany Halt Submarine Warfare, 1915. 2. President Woodrow Wilson Asks Congress to Declare War Against Germany, 1917. 3. Senator Robert M. La Follette Voices His Dissent, 1917. 4. Wilson Proclaims U.S. War Aims: The Fourteen Points, 1918. 5. Articles 10 Through 16 of the League of Nations Covenant, 1919. 6. Wilson Defends the Peace Treaty and League, 1919. 7. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Proposes Reservations to the League Covenant, 1919. 8. The Chinese Reformer Tsi C. Wang Recalls the Shandong Question and China's May Fourth Movement, 1927. Essays. Thomas J. Knock • From Peace to War: Progressive Internationalists Confront the Forces of Reaction. Robert W. Tucker • A Passionate Visionary Stumbles Into War. Erez Manela: Wilsonianism and Anti-Colonial Nationalism: A Dream Deferred. Further Reading. 3. THE INTERNATIONAL HISTORY OF THE TWENTIES. Documents. 1. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes Advocates Naval Disarmament, 1921. 2. The Isolationist Chicago Tribune Denounces Europe's Folly, 1921. 3. Debts and German Reparations: Hughes Calls on Private Experts for Help, 1922. 4. The Argentine Writer Manuel Ugarte Identifies the United States as the "New Rome," 1923. 5. "Trade Follows the Film," 1925. 6. Journalist Carlton Beals Reports on Augusto Cesar Sandino's Revolution, 1928. 7. U.S. Advertisers Pedal America's Big Brands to Europe, 1929. 8. The U.S. Department of Commerce Maps the European Market, 1933. Essays. Frank Costigliola • U.S. Cultural Expansion in an Era of Systemic Upheaval. Victoria de Grazia• Empire by Persuasion: American Mass Consumption in Europe. Thomas F. O'Brien: Empire by Coercion: U.S. Corporate and Military Power in Latin America. Further Reading. 4. U.S. ENTRY INTO WORLD WAR II. Documents. 1. Senator Gerald P. Nye Cites the Lessons of History and Advocates Neutrality, 1936. 2. President Franklin D. Roosevelt Proposes to "Quarantine" Aggressors, 1937. 3. Japan Envisions a "New Order" in Asia, 1938. 4. Stanley K. Hornbeck Urges Economic Sanctions Against Japan, 1938. 5. Ambassador Joseph C. Grew Warns Against Economic Sanctions, 1939. 6. FDR Proposes Lend-Lease Aid to Great Britain, 1940. 7. Roosevelt Orders the U.S. Navy to "Shoot on Sight," 1941. 8. Japan Proposes Two Diplomatic Options to the United States, November 1941. 9. Washington Reject Japan's Proposals and Reaffirms the Open Door, November 1941. 10. Roosevelt Delivers His War Message to Congress, 1941. Essays. Gerhard Weinberg • The Global Threat and the Case for War. Walter LaFeber • The Economic Origins of the Pacific War. Further Reading. 5. DEFEATING THE AXIS, PLANNING THE PEACE: THE SECOND WORLD WAR. Documents. 1. Roosevelt Promises a Second Front, 1942. 2. Marshal Joseph Stalin Conveys Impatience over a Second Front, 1943. 3. Roosevelt and Stalin Discuss the "Four Policemen" at the Teheran Conference, 1943. 4. British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill and Stalin Cut Their Percentages Deal, 1944. 5. The Yalta Protocol of Proceedings, 1945. 6. The Yalta Agreement on Soviet Entry into the War Against Japan, 1945. 7. Roosevelt's Anger with Stalin, 1945. 8. Roosevelt's Last Letter to Churchill, 1945. Essays. Warren F. Kimball • Franklin D. Roosevelt's Successful Wartime Diplomacy. John Harper • The Failure of Roosevelt's Wartime Diplomacy. Further Reading 6. THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR. Documents. 1. The Franck Committee Predicts a Nuclear-Arms Race If the Atomic Bomb Is Dropped on Japan, 1945. 2. Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson Appeals for Atomic Talks with the Soviets, 1945. 3. Attache George F. Kennan Critiques Soviet Foreign Policy in His "Long Telegram," 1946. 4. Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill Declares an "Iron Curtain" Has Descended on Europe, 1946. 5. Soviet Ambassador Nikolai Novikov Identifies a U.S. Drive for World Supremacy, 1946. 6. The Truman Doctrine Calls for Aid to Greece and Turkey to Contain Totalitarianism, 1947. 7. The Marshall Plan (Economic Cooperation Act) Provides Aid for European Reconstruction, 1948. 8. The National Security Council Paper No. 68 (NSC-68) Reassesses the Soviet Threat and Recommends a Military Buildup, 1950. ESSAYS Andrew J. Rotter• Atomic Bomb: Wartime Endgame and Cold War Catalyst Arnold A. Offner • Provincialism and Confrontation: Truman's Responsibility John Lewis Gaddis • Further Reading with Two Cold War Empires: Imposition vs. Multilateralism Further Reading 7. THE KOREAN WAR AND CONTAINMENT IN ASIA. Documents. 1. U.S. Ambassador John Leighton Stuart Reports Mao's Overture, 1949. 2. The National Security Council Extends Containment to Asia, December 1949. 3. Secretary of State Dean Acheson Defines the Defense Perimeter in Asia, 1950. 4. North Korean Leader Kim Il Sung Pleads for Soviet Support, January 1950. 5. President Harry S. Truman and His Advisers Confer at the "Blair House Meeting," June 26, 1950. 6. Chinese Leader Mao Zedong Informs Joseph Stalin of China's Decision to Enter the Korean War, 1950. 7. General Douglas MacArthur Dismisses the Likelihood of Chinese Intervention, 1950. 8. MacArthur's "No Substitute for Victory" Speech, 1951. Essays. David Halberstam • Kim's Civil War, Stalin's Opportunism, and Truman's Containment. Chen Jian • Mao's Unalterable Decision to Enter the Korean War. Thomas R. Christensen: The Lost Chance for Peace: Washington Rejected Chinese Communist Overtures. Further Reading. 8. DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV, AND NUCLEAR ARMS. Documents. 1. National Security Council Paper No. 162/2 (NSC-162/2) Promotes Atomic Power, 1953. 2. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and President Dwight D. Eisenhower Threaten to Use Nuclear Weapons: The Taiwan Strait Crisis, 1955. 3. The National Security Council Discusses the Ramifications of Sputnik, 1957. 4. The National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) Protests the Nuclear Arms Race, 1957. 5. Khrushchev Explains His Berlin Strategy to Allies, 1958. 6. Khrushchev Reflects on the Nuclear Arms Race, 1970. 7. Senator John F. Kennedy Presses for More Military Spending to Close the Missile Gap, 1960. 8. Eisenhower Warns Against the "Military-Industrial Complex," 1961. Essays. Michael S. Sherry • Eisenhower's Heroic but Failed Crusade Against Militarization. Vladislav M Zubok • Khrushchev's "New Look": Brinksmanship and Bluff. Further Reading. 9. CULTURE AND U.S.-THIRD WORLD RELATIONS DURING THE COLD WAR. Documents. 1. Time Showcases the New Israelis: Pioneering and Pragmatic, 1948. 2. President Chaim Weizmann Requests U.S. Help for Israel's "Pioneers," 1948. 3. U.S. Aid Officials Liken Asia's Developing Nations to Headstrong Youths, 1950. 4. Egypt's Gamel Abdel Nasser Justifies Nationalizing the Suez Canal, 1956. 5. State Department Planners Assess the Nasser Threat, 1956. 6. Congress Backs the Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957. 7. 'The King and I' Tells a Tale of Sentimental Modernization, 1956. 8. W.W. Rostow Theorizes the Five Stages of Modernization, 1960. 9. A Peace Corps Volunteer Describes Life in Ghana, 1964. Essays. Michelle Mart• The Special U.S.-Israeli Relationship: Cultural Affinity and Cold War Alignment. Christina Klein • Musical Modernization: "The King and I". Elizabeth Cobbs Hoffman: Cultural Cooperation: The Peace Corps in Ghana. Further Reading. 10. CUBA AND THE MISSILE CRISIS. Documents. 1. CIA Assassination Plots Against Cuban Leader Fidel Castro (1960-1965), 1975. 2. Guidelines for Operation Mongoose, 1962. 3. Missiles Photographed in Cuba: President John F. Kennedy Meets with His Advisers, October 16, 1962. 4. Kennedy Addresses the Nation, October 22, 1962. 5. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev Asks for a U.S. No-Invasion Pledge, October 26, 1962. 6. Khrushchev Requests U.S. Removal of Jupiter Missiles from Turkey, October 27, 1962. 7. Kennedy and ExComm Consider Trading the Jupiter Missiles in Turkey, October 27, 1962. 8. Soviet Official Anastas I. Mikoyan and Fidel Castro Debate and Review the Crisis, November 4-5, 1962. Essays. Robert Dallek• Patient Diplomacy and Measured Pressure: JFK's Finest Hour. Thomas G. Paterson • Spinning Out of Control: Kennedy's War Against Cuba and the Missile Crisis. Further Reading. 11. THE VIETNAM WAR. Documents. 1. The Vietnamese Declaration of Independence, 1945. 2. Final Declaration of the Geneva Conference on Indochina, 1954. 3. North Vietnamese General Vo Nguyen Giap Outlines His People's War Stratgey, 1961. 4. President Lyndon B. Johnson Weighs the Options with Senator Richard Russell, 1964. 5. The Tonkin Gulf Resolution Authorizes the President to Use Force, 1964. 6. The Chinese Leader Mao Zedong Urges the North Vietnamese to Fight On, 1965. 7. Senator J. William Fulbright Decries the "Arrogance of Power," 1966. 8. Former Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara Concludes That He Erred, 1995. Essays. Robert Buzzanco • International Capitalism and Communism Collide with Vietnamese Nationalism. Randall B. Woods • LBJ's Reluctant Crusade to Save South Vietnam. Robert K. Brigham • An Unwinnable War. Further Reading. 12. RICHARD M. NIXON, HENRY A. KISSINGER, GRAND STRATEGY, AND DÉTENTE. Documents. 1. The Nixon Doctrine Calls on Asian Nations to Take Responsibility for Their Own Security, 1969. 2. Kissinger Advocates a Hard-line Toward Chile's Salvadore Allende, 1970. 3. Kissinger Delineates a Five-Point Covert Program for Chile, 1970. 4. Nixon Discusses "Philosophy" with Mao Zedong, 1972. 5. Nixon and Kissinger Bomb the "Bejesus" Out of North Vietnam, 1972. 6. U.N. Security Council Resolution 338 Calls for Arab-Israeli Ceasefire Negotiations, 1973. 7. Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir Stakes Out a Tough Negotiating Position, 1973. 8. PLO Chair Yasser Arafat Condemns Zionism and Western Imperialism, 1974. 9. Secretary of State Kissinger Defines and Defends Detente, 1974. Essays. Jeremi Suri • Detente: Restraining Dissent and Pursuing Peace. Carolyn Eisenberg • The Irrationality of War in Vietnam and Peace Through Detente. Salim Yaquib. • Short-term Success at the Expense of Enduring Peace. Further Reading. 13. THE COLD WAR ENDS AND THE POST-COLD WAR ERA BEGINS. Documents. 1. President Jimmy Carter Condemns the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, 1980. 2. The CIA Analyzes Soviet Prospects in Afghanistan, 1980. 3. President Ronald Reagan Denounces the Soviet Union, 1981. 4. Reagan and Gorbachev Spar Over Nuclear Weapons Reduction, 1986. 5. The Soviet Reformer Georgi Arbatov Explains the "New Thinking" in the Soviet Union, 1989. 6. Independent Counsel Lawrence E. Walsh Reports on Official Wrong-doing in Iran Contra, 1992. 7. President George H. W. Bush Proclaims Cold War Victory, 1990. 8. President William J. Clinton Applauds America's Globalism and Warns Against a New Isolationism, 1995. Essays. Melvyn P. Leffler • Reagan's Peace Through Strength and Gorbachev's Dream of World Peace. Odd Arne Westad• Reagan's Cold War Military and Anti-Americanism in Afghanistan. Michael H. Hunt • Cold War Triumphalism and U.S.-led Globalization. Further Reading. 14. GEORGE W. BUSH, 9-11, AND THE MIDDLE EAST. Documents. 1. President George W. Bush Asks, "Why Do They Hate Us?" 2001. 2. Al Qaeda's Osama bin Laden Proclaims, "God Has Given Them Back What They Deserve," 2001. 3. Bush Excoriates an Axis of Evil, 2002. 4. The Bush Administration Articulates a Strategy of Preemption, 2002. 5. French President Jacques Chirac Defends UN Multilateralism, 2003. 6. The Scholar Rashid Khalidi Explains Anti-Americanism in the Middle East, 2004. 7. Israel's Prime Minister Ehud Olmert Lauds the U.S.-Israeli Partnership and States Peace Terms, 2006. 8. Secretary of State-designate Hillary Clinton's Diplomacy and "Smart Power," 2009. 9. President Barack Obama Vows to Temper Power with Negotiation, 2009. Essays. John Lewis Gaddis• Bush's Bold Grand Strategy and Mixed Performance. George C. Herring • Bush's Ideological Excess and Scandalous Incompetence. Further Reading.
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