Designed to encourage critical thinking about history, this reader uses a carefully selected group of primary sources and analytical essays to allow students to test the interpretations of distinguished historians and draw their own conclusions about the history of American foreign policy. This text serves as an effective educational tool for courses on U.S. foreign policy, recent U.S. history, or 20th Century U.S. history.The Sixth Edition incorporates coverage of the post-Cold War era as well as new material that examines the role of gender, race, and national identity in American foreign policy.
Dennis Merrill, a professor of history and department chair at the University of Missouri-Kansas City, received his Ph.D. from the University of Connecticut. He is the author of Bread and the Ballot: The United States and India's Economic Development, 1947-1963. The Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations honored him with a Stuart L. Bernath Article Prize, and he has received two Fulbright awards to India. His current research interests focus on U.S.-Third World relations during the Cold War and the history of international tourism.
Thomas G. Paterson, professor emeritus of history at the University of Connecticut, graduated from the University of New Hampshire (B.A., 1963) and the University of California, Berkeley (Ph.D., 1968). He is the author of Soviet-American Confrontation (1973), Meeting the Communist Threat (1988), On Every Front (1992), Contesting Castro (1994), America Ascendant (with J. Garry Clifford, 1995), and A People and a Nation (with Mary Beth Norton et al., 2001). Tom is also the editor of Cold War Critics (1971), Kennedy's Quest for Victory (1989), Imperial Surge (with Stephen G. Rabe, 1992), The Origins of the Cold War (with Robert McMahon, 1999), Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations (with Michael J. Hogan, 2004), and Major Problems in American Foreign Relations (with Dennis Merrill, 2010). With Bruce Jentleson, he served as senior editor for the Encyclopedia of American Foreign Relations (1997). A microfilm edition of The United States and Castro's Cuba, 1950s-1970s: The Paterson Collection appeared in 1999. He has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of American History and Diplomatic History. A recipient of a Guggenheim fellowship, he has directed National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminars for College Teachers. In 2000 the New England History Teachers Association recognized his excellence in teaching and mentoring with the Kidger Award. Besides visits to many American campuses, Tom has lectured in Canada, China, Colombia, Cuba, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Russia, and Venezuela. He is a past president of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, which in 2008 honored him with the Laura and Norman Graebner Award for "lifetime achievement" in scholarship, service, and teaching. A native of Oregon, Tom is now informally associated with Southern Oregon University.
Note: Each chapter concludes with Further Reading. 1. Approaching the Study of American Foreign Relations Essays Thomas J. McCormick, The World-System, Hegemony, and Decline Emily S. Rosenberg, Cultural Interactions Andrew Rotter, The Gendering of Peoples and Nations Gerald C. Horne, Race and the American Century Melvyn P. Leffler, National Security, Core Values, and Power J. Garry Clifford, Bureaucratic Politics and Policy Outcomes 2. Woodrow Wilson, the First World War, and the League Fight Documents 1. The First Lusitania Note Requests Germany to Halt Submarine Warfare, 1915 2. President Woodrow Wilson Asks Congress to Declare War Against Germany, 1917 3. Senator Robert M. La Follette Voices His Dissent, 1917 4. Wilson Proclaims U.S. War Aims: The Fourteen Points, 1918 5. Articles 10 through 16 of the League of Nations Covenant, 1919 6. Wilson Defends the Peace Treaty and League, 1919 7. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Proposes Reservations to the League Covenant, 1919 Essays Thomas J. Knock, From Peace to War: Progressive Internationalists Confront the Forces of Reaction Jan Willem Schulte-Nordholt, The Peace Advocate Out of Touch with Reality Tony Smith, Wilsonianism: A Workable Blueprint for a Broken World 3. The International History of the 1920s Documents 1. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes Advocates Naval Disarmament, 1921 2. The Isolationist Chicago Tribune Denounces Europe's Folly, 1921 3. Reformer Jane Addams Assesses the League of Nations, 1922 4. Debts and German Reparations: Hughes Calls on Private Experts for Help, 1922 5. Argentine Writer Manuel Ugarte Identifies the United States as the "New Rome," 1923 6. "Trade Follows the Film," 1925 7. Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover Extols U.S. Foreign Trade, 1926 The Kellogg-Briand Pact Outlaws War, 1928 Essays Benjamin D. Rhodes, The Republican Retreat from International Responsibilities Frank Costigliola, U.S. Cultural Expansion in an Era of Systemic Upheaval Leila J. Rupp, Women's Internationalism 4. U.S. Entry into World War II Documents 1. Senator Gerald P. Nye Cites the Lessons of History and Advocates Neutrality, 1936 2. President Franklin D. Roosevelt Proposes to "Quarantine" Aggressors, 1937 3. Japan Envisions a "New Order" in Asia, 1938 4. FDR Proposes Lend-Lease Aid to Great Britain, 1940 5. Roosevelt Orders the U.S. Navy to "Shoot on Sight," 1941 6. Japan Proposes Two Diplomatic Options to the United States, November 1941 7. Washington Rejects Japan's Proposals and Reaffirms the Open Door, November 1941 8. Roosevelt Delivers His War Message to Congress, 1941 Essays Gerhard Weinberg, The Global Threat and the Case for War Bruce M. Russett, Stalemate and the Case Against U.S. Entry into the War 5. Defeating the Axis, Planning the Peace: The Second World War Documents 1. Roosevelt Promises a Second Front, 1942 2. Marshal Joseph Stalin Conveys Impatience over a Second Front, 1943 3. Roosevelt and Stalin Discuss the "Four Policemen," at the Teheran Conference, 1943 4. British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill and Stalin Cut Their Percentages Deal, 1944 5. The Yalta Protocol of Proceedings, 1945 6. The Yalta Agreement on Soviet Entry into the War Against Japan, 1945 7. Roosevelt's Anger with Stalin, 1945 8. Roosevelt's Last Letter to Churchill, 1945 Essays Warren F. Kimball, Franklin D. Roosevelt's Successful Wartime Diplomacy Joseph L. Harper, The Failure of Roosevelt's Wartime Diplomacy 6. The Origins of the Cold War Documents 1. The Franck Committee Predicts a Nuclear-Arms Race If the Atomic Bomb Is Dropped on Japan, 1945 2. Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson Appeals for Atomic Talks with the Soviets, 1945 3. Attache George F. Kennan Critiques Soviet Foreign Policy in His "Long Telegram," 1946 4. Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill Declares an "Iron Curtain" Has Descended on Europe, 1946 5. Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace Questions the "Get Tough" Policy, 1946 6. Soviet Ambassador Nikolai Novikov Identifies a U.S. Drive for World Supremacy, 1946 7. The Truman Doctrine Calls for Aid to Greece and Turkey to Contain Totalitarianism, 1947 8. The Marshall Plan (Economic Cooperation Act) Provides Aid for European Reconstruction, 1948 9. The National Security Council Paper No. 68 (NSC-68) Reassesses the Soviet Threat and Recommends a Military Buildup, 1950 Essays Barton J. Bernstein, Secrets and Threats: Atomic Diplomacy and Soviet-American Antagonism Arnold A. Offner, Provincialism and Confrontation: President Harry S. Truman and the Origins of the Cold War John Lewis Gaddis, Two Cold War Empires: Imposition vs. Multilateralism 7. The Korean War and Containment in Asia Documents 1. U.S. Ambassador John Leighton Stuart Reports Mao's Overture, 1949 2. The National Security Council Extends Containment to Asia, December 1949 3. Secretary of State Dean Acheson Defines the Defense Perimeter in Asia, 1950 4. North Korean Leader Kim Il Sung Pleads for Soviet Support, January 1950 5. President Harry S. Truman and His Advisers Confer at the "Blair House Meeting," June 26, 1950 6. Chinese Leader Mao Zedong Informs Joseph Stalin of China's Decision to Enter the Korean War, 1950 7. General Douglas MacArthur Dismisses the Likelihood of Chinese Intervention, 1950 8. MacArthur's "No Substitute for Victory" Speech, 1951 Essays Bruce Cumings, Korea's Civil War and the Roots of U.S. Intervention Vladislov Zubok and Constantine Pleshakov, Korea: Stalin's Expansionist Gamble Thomas J. Christensen, The Lost Chance for Peace: Washington Rejected Chinese Communist Overtures 8. Dwight D. Eisenhower and Nuclear Arms Documents 1. National Security Council Paper No. 162/2 (NCS-162/2) Promotes Atomic Power, 1953 2. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and President Dwight D. Eisenhower Threaten to Use Nuclear Weapons: The Taiwan Strait Crisis, 1955 3. The National Security Council Discusses the Ramifications of Sputnik, 1957 4. The National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) Protests the Nuclear Arms Race, 1957 5. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev Reflects on the Nuclear Arms Race, 1970 6. Senator John F. Kennedy Presses for More Military Spending to Close the Missile Gap, 1960 7. Eisenhower Warns Against the "Military-Industrial Complex," 1961 Essays Michael S. Sherry, Eisenhower's Heroic but Failed Crusade Against Militarization Gordon H. Chang and He Di, Eisenhower's Reckless Nuclear Gamble over the Taiwan Strait 9. Cold War Culture and the "Third World" Documents 1. Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadeq Defends the Nationalization of Oil, 1951 2. U.S. Ambassador Loy Henderson Doubts Mossadeq's Mental Stability, 1952 3. President John F. Kennedy Launches the Peace Corps, 1961 4. JFK Enlists Youth and Idealism in the Peace Corps, 1961 5. A Peace Corps Volunteer Describes Life in Ghana, 1964 6. The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Plans for Tourism, 1949 7. Modernity Goes on Display: San Juan's Caribe Hilton Hotel, 1949 8. A Puerto Rican Cartoon Satirizes U.S. Tourists, 1960 Essays Mary Ann Heiss, Culture Clash: Gender, Oil, and Iranian Nationalism Elizabeth Cobbs Hoffman, Cultural Cooperation: The Peace Corps in Ghana Dennis Merrill, Cultural Negotiation: U.S. Tourism in Puerto Rico 10. Cuba and the Missile Crisis Documents 1. CIA Assassination Plots Against Cuban Leader Fidel Castro (1960-1965), 1975 2. Guidelines for Operation Mongoose, 1962 3. Missiles Photographed in Cuba: President John F. Kennedy Meets with His Advisers, October 16, 1962 4. Kennedy Addresses the Nation, October 22, 1962 5. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev Asks for a U.S. No-Invasion Pledge, October 26, 1962 6. Khrushchev Requests U.S. Removal of Jupiter Missiles from Turkey, October 27, 1962 7. Kennedy and ExComm Consider Trading the Jupiter Missiles in Turkey, October 27, 1962 8. Soviet Official Anastas I. Mikoyan and Fidel Castro Debate and Review the Crisis, November 4-5, 1962 Essays Robert Dallek, Patient Diplomacy and Measured Pressure: JFK's Finest Hour Thomas G. Paterson, Spinning Out of Conrol: Kennedy's War Against Cuba and the Missile Crisis 11. The Vietnam War Documents 1. The Vietnamese Declaration of Independence, 1945 2. Final Declaration of the Geneva Conference on Indochina, 1954 3. North Vietnamese General Vo Nguyen Giap Outlines His People's War Strategy, 1961 4. The Tonkin Gulf Resolution Authorizes the President to Use Force, 1964 5. A Bureaucratic Insider Laments the Momentum Against Negotiation, November 1964 6. President Lyndon B. Johnson's Advisors Chart the Path to Military Escalation, December 1964 7. Chinese Leader Mao Zedong Urges the North Vietnamese to Fight On, 1965 8. Senator J. William Fulbright Decries the "Arrogance of Power," 1966 9. Former Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara Concludes That He Erred, 1995 Essays Robert Buzzanco, International Capitalism and Communism Collide with Vietnamese Nationalism Frederik Logevall, Lyndon Johnson and His Bureaucracy Choose War Robert K. Brigham, An Unwinnable War 12. Richard M. Nixon, Henry A. Kissinger, the Grand Strategy, and Detente Documents 1. President Richard M. Nixon Recalls His Initial Goals (1968), 1978 2. The Nixon Doctrine Calls on Asian Nations to Take Responsibility for Their Own Security, 1969 3. Nixon Explains the Five Power Centers of the New Global Economy, 1971 4. Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger Defends Detente, 1974 5. U.S. Covert Action in Chile (1963-1973), 1975 6. The Journalist Anthony Lewis Blasts Kissinger's Record, 1977 Essays Joan Hoff, Nixon's Innovative Grand Design and the Wisdom of Detente Raymond L. Garthoff, Why Detente Failed Walter Isaacson, Kissinger's Realism Without Morality 13. The Cold War Ends and the Post-Cold War Era Begins Documents 1. President Ronald Reagan Denounces the Soviet Union, 1981 2. Reagan Touts U.S. Military Power and Introduces the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), 1983 3. Reagan Defends SDI After the Reykjavik Summit Meeting, 1986 4. Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev Criticizes SDI After the Reykjavik Summit Meeting, 1986 5. Soviet Reformer Georgi Arbatov Explains the "New Thinking" in the Soviet Union, 1989 6. President George Bush Proclaims Cold War Victory, 1990 7. President William J. Clinton Applauds America's Globalism and Warns Against a New Isolationism, 1995 8. President George W. Bush Jettisons the Multilateral Kyoto Protocol on the Environment, 2001 Essays Thomas G. Paterson, Superpower Decline and Hegemonic Survival John Lewis Gaddis, President Ronald Reagan's Successful Strategy of Negotiating from Strength Joseph S. Nye Jr., The Limits of American Post-Cold War Power 14. September 11, 2001, and Anti-Americanism in the Muslim World Documents 1. President Franklin D. Roosevelt Befriends King Ibn Saud, 1945 2. The National Security Council Weighs U.S. Options in the Middle East, 1948 3. Egypt's Gamel Abdel Nasser Justifies Nationalizing the Suez Canal, 1956 4. The Palestinian National Covenant Calls for the Liberation of Palestine, 1968 5. The Carter Doctrine Announces U.S. Intention to Repel Aggression in the Persian Gulf, 1980 6. President George Bush Declares a New World Order During the Persian Gulf Crisis, 1990 7. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin Pleads for Peace, 1993 8. President George W. Bush Asks, "Why Do They Hate Us?" 2001 9. Osama bin Laden Proclaims, "God Has Given Them Back What They Deserve," 2001 10. President Bush Makes the Case for War on Iraq, 2003 Essays Bernard Lewis, The Revolt of Islam Ussama Makdisi, A Cash with U.S. Foreign Policy Robert Wright, A Clash Between Globalization and Tradition