This text presents a carefully selected group of readings, on topics such as European encounters and contemporary Native American activism, that allow students to evaluate primary sources, test the interpretations of distinguished historians, and draw their own conclusions.
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Meet the Author
ALBERT L. HURTADO, now retired, was professor of history at the University of Oklahoma, where he taught courses on American Indian history and the American West. He is past president of the Western History Association and the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association. His prize-winning books include Indian Survival on the California Frontier (1988), and Intimate Frontiers: Sex, Gender, and Culture in Old California (1999). He has published many articles. Hurtado's most recent book is Herbert Eugene Bolton: Historian of the American Borderlands (2012).
PETER IVERSON is Regents' Professor of History (Emeritus) at Arizona State University. He received his PhD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Iverson has written many books in modern American Indian history, including The Navajo Nation (1981), Carlos Montezuma (1982), When Indians Became Cowboys (1994), "We Are Still Here" (1999), Dine: A History of the Navajos (2002), and, with former Navajo Nation president, Peterson Zah, We Will Secure Our Future (2012). His work has been supported by fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation and the National Endowment For the Humanities. At Arizona State University Iverson directed or co-directed 51 Ph.D. students to completion of their programs. He served as president of the Western History Association in 2004-2005.
1. Interpreting the Indian Past ESSAYS Donald L. Fixico, Ethics and Responsibilities in Writing American Indian History Richard White, Indian Peoples and the Natural World: Asking the Right Questions 2. Indian History Before Columbus DOCUMENTS 1. A Pueblo Song of the Sky Loom, n.d. 2. Maidu Account of the Beginning of the World, n.d. 3. A Skagit Belief About the Origins of the World, n.d. 4. The Arikaras Describe Their Origins, n.d. 5. The Iroquois Depict the World on the Turtle's Back, n.d. ESSAYS Neal Salisbury, The Indians' Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans Stephen Plog, Towns, Mounds, and Kachinas 3. Indians and Europeans Meet DOCUMENTS 1. Columbus on the Indians' "Discovery" of the Spanish, 1492 2. Spain Requires the Indians to Submit to Spanish Authority, 1513 3. Augustin Rodriguez Describes the Rio Grande Pueblos, 1581-1582 4. Jacques Cartier on the Micmacs Meeting the French, 1534 5. Powhatan Speaks to Captain John Smith, 1609 6. William Bradford on Samoset, Squanto, Massasoit, and the Pilgrims, 1620 ESSAYS Bruce G. Trigger, Early Native North American Responses to European Contact James H. Merrell, The Indians' New World: The Catawba Experience 4. The Southern Borderlands DOCUMENTS 1. Pedro Naranjo's (Keresan Pueblo) Explanation of the 1680 Pueblo Revolt, 1681 2. Juan (Tiwa Pueblo) Explains the Pueblo Revolt, 1681 3. A Luiseno Recollection of Mission Life, 1835 4. A Costanoan Account of the Murder of a Missionary, 1812 ESSAYS Stefanie Beninato, Pope, Pose-yemu, and Naranjo: A New Look at Leadership in the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 Steven W. Hackel, The Staff of Leadership: Indian Authority in the Missions of Alta California 5. The Northern Borderlands DOCUMENTS 1. Joseph Fish Preaches to the Narragansett Indians, 1768 2. Samson Occom (Mohegan) Gives a Short Narrative of His Life, 1768 3. Christien LeClerq (Micmac) Responds to the French, 1677 4. J. B. Truteau's Description of Indian Women on the Upper Missouri, 1794 5. James Sutherland Notes Canadian Traders Who Wish to Buy an Indian Slave, 1797 ESSAYS Sylvia Van Kirk, The Role of Native American Women in the Fur Trade Society of Western Canada, 1670-1830 Jean M. O'Brien (Ojibwe), Changing Conditions of Life for Indian Women in Eighteenth-Century New England 6. New Nations, New Boundaries: American Revolution in Indian Country DOCUMENTS 1. Speech of Congress to Visiting Iroquois Delegation, 1776 2. Nathaniel Gist of Virginia Addresses Cherokee Chiefs, 1777 3. Dragging Canoe (Cherokee) Replies to Nathaniel Gist, 1777 4. Mary Jemison's (Seneca) Memory of the Revolution in Indian Country, 1775-1779 5. Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 1784 ESSAYS Colin Calloway, The Aftermath of the Revolution in Indian Country Ruth Wallis Herndon and Ella Wilcox Sekatau (Narragansett), The Right to a Name: The Narragansett People and Rhode Island Officials in the Revolutionary Era 7. Domestic Dependent Nations: Tribes in the New Republic DOCUMENTS 1. Northwest Ordinance, 1787 2. Little Turtle (Miami) on the Treaty of Greenville, 1795 3. Tecumseh (Shawnee) Speaks Out Against Land Cessions, 1810 4. Indian Commissioner Thomas L. McKenney Explains Removal, 1828 5. Speckled Snake's (Cherokee) Reply to President Jackson, 1830 6. Cherokee Editor Elias Boudinot Opposes Removal, 1828 7. Pierre Chardon on Sex and Marriage with Indians on the Upper Missouri River, 1836-1839 8. Friederich Kurz Gives a Romantic View of Indian-White Love, 1849 ESSAYS Daniel H. Usner, Jr., American Indians on the Cotton Frontier Tanis Thorne, Multiple Marriages, Many Relations: Fur Trade Families on the Missouri River 8. The Trans-Mississippi West Before 1860 DOCUMENTS 1. Joseph Antonio Flores Describes the Comanche Destruction of the San Saba Mission in Texas, 1758 2. A Spanish Official Gives an Analysis of Comanche Power, 1758 3. Chief Sharitarish Foretells the End of the Pawnee Way of Life, 1822 4. A California Law for the Government and Protection of the Indians, 1850 5. William Joseph (Nisenan) Describes the Gold Rush, c. 1849 6. An Indian Agent Describes Conditions in the California Mines, 1854 ESSAYS Pekka Hämäläinen, The Western Comanche Trade Center: Rethinking the Plains Indian Trade System Albert L. Hurtado, Indian and White Households on the California Frontier, 1860 9. Indian Perspectives on the Civil War DOCUMENTS 1. Wabasha (Dakota) Explains How Nefarious Trading Practices Caused the 1862 Minnesota War, 1868 2. Letter from Sarah C. Watie (Cherokee) to Her Husband, Stand Watie, During the Civil War, 1863 3. Letter from Stand Watie (Cherokee) to His Wife, Sarah C. Watie, 1863 4. Act of Conscription, Chickasaw Nation, 1864 5. Proclamation Ordering Conscription in the Chickasaw Nation, 1864 6. Commissioner of Indian Affairs Dennis N. Cooley on the Consequences of the Civil War, 1865 ESSAYS Ari Kelman, Deadly Currents: John Ross's Decision of 1861 Gary Clayton Anderson, Dakota Sioux Uprising, 1862 10. Resistance and Transition, 1865-1886 DOCUMENTS 1. Allen P. Slickpoo (Nez Perce) Reviews the Nez Perce War (1877), Recorded 1973 2. James Harris Guy (Chickasaw), "The White Man Wants the Indians' Home," 1878 3. Luther Standing Bear (Lakota) Recalls His Experiences at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 1879 4. Ace Daklugie, Charlie Smith, and Jasper Kanseah (Chiricahua Apaches) Remember Geronimo, n.d. ESSAYS David D. Smits, Indian Scouts and Indian Allies in the Frontier Army Tracy Neal Leavelle, "We Will Make It Our Own Place": Agriculture and Adaptation at the Grande Ronde Reservation, 1856-1887 11. Restrictions and Renewals, 1887-1928 DOCUMENTS 1. The General Allotment Act (Dawes Act) of 1887 2. Cherokee Delegates Defend Their Land and Institutions, 1895 3. The U.S. Supreme Court Supports Indian Water Rights: Winters v. United States, 1908 4. James Mooney and Francis La Fleschè (Omaha) Testify About Peyote, 1918 5. Carlos Montezuma (Yavapai) on Indian Service in World War I and the Ongoing Struggle for Freedom and Citizenship, 1919 ESSAYS Brenda Child (Ojibwe), Ojibwe Children and Boarding Schools Frederick E. Hoxie, Crow Families in Transition 12. Efforts at Reform, 1928-1941 DOCUMENTS 1. Lewis Meriam Summarizes the Problems Facing American Indians, 1928 2. The Indian Reorganization Act (Wheeler-Howard Act), 1934 3. Rupert Costo (Cahuilla) Condemns the Indian New Deal, 1986 4. Ben Reifel (Brule Lakota) Praises the Legacy of John Collier, 1986 ESSAYS John R. Finger, The Eastern Cherokees and the New Deal D'Arcy McNickle (Salish-Kutenai), The Indian New Deal as Mirror of the Future 13. World War II, Termination, and the Foundation for Self-Determination, 1914-1960 DOCUMENTS 1. Ella Deloria (Yankton Dakota) on Indian Experiences During World War II, 1944 2. Ruth Muskrat Bronson (Cherokee) Criticizes the Proposed Termination of Federal Trusteeship, 1955 3. John Wooden Legs (Northern Cheyenne) Outlines the Fight to Save the Land, 1960 4. Mary Jacobs (Lumbee) Relates How Her Family Made a Home in Chicago, n.d. ESSAYS Harry A. Kersey, Jr., The Florida Seminoles Confront Termination Peter Iverson, Building Toward Self-Dertermination: Plains and Southwestern Indians in the 1940s and 1950s 14. Taking Control of Lives and Lands, 1961-1980 DOCUMENTS 1. Clyde Warrior (Ponca) Delineates Five Types of Indians, 1965 2. A Proclamation by the Indians of All Tribes, Alcatraz Island, 1969 3. The Native Alaskan Land Speaks, 1969 4. Ada Deer (Menominee) Explains How Her People Overturned Termination, 1974 ESSAYS Laurence M. Hauptman and Jack Campisi, Eastern Indian Communities Strive for Recognition Troy R. Johnson, The Roots of Contemporary Native American Activism 15. Continuing Challenges, Continuing Peoples, 1981-1999 DOCUMENTS 1. Philip Martin (Choctaw) Discusses the Challenges of Economic Development, 1988 2. James Riding In Presents a Pawnee Perspective on Repatriation, 1996 3. Charlene Teters (Spokane) Asks "Whose History Do We Celebrate?" 1998 4. Ben Winton (Yaqui) Delineates the Significance of the Mashuntucket Pequot Museum, 1998 5. Liz Dominguez (Chumash/Yokuts/Luiseno) Hears Ishi's Voice, 1998 ESSAYS Steve Larese, Contemporary Indian Economies in New Mexico Arvo Quoetone Mikkanen (Kiowa-Comanche), Coming Home Angela Cavender Wilson (Wahpatonwan Dakota), Grandmother to Granddaughter: Generations of Oral History in a Dakota Family