Each topic in this text is covered by both secondary readings and a wide variety of primary source documents, including legal decisions, diary entries, newspaper reports, literary accounts, government hearings, and advertisements for athletic equipment.
Steven A. Riess (Ph.D., U. of Chicago, 1974) formerly the Bernard Brommel Distinguished Research Professor in the Department of History at Northeastern Illinois University is the author of several books, three of which were cited by CHOICE as "Outstanding Academic Books." Other awards include the Webb-Smith Prize and fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities. Among the founding members of the North American Society for Sport History, he edited the Journal of Sport History from 1985 to 1992.
I. What Is Sport History? ESSAYS Elliott Gorn and Michael Oriard, "Taking Sports Seriously" Allen Guttmann, "Capitalism, Protestantism, and the Rise of Modern Sport" Stephen Hardy, "Urbanization and the Rise of Sport" II. Sport in Colonial America DOCUMENTS King James I Identifies Lawful Sports in England, 1618 Restrictive Sabbath Statutes of Colonial Massachusetts, 1658 An Henrico County, Virginia Horse Race Contract, 1698 An Englishman's Positive Impressions of Virginia Racing, 1772 Elkanah Watson's Misgivings on Cockfighting, 1787 George Catlin Describes a Choctaw Lacrosse Match, c. 1830s ESSAYS Timothy H. Breen, "The Cultural Significance of Gambling Among the Gentry of Virginia" Nancy Struna, "The Sporting Life in Puritan America" III. Traditional Sport, Modern Sport, and the Male Bachelor Subculture, 1800-1860 DOCUMENTS A Traveler Belittles Hunting in Virginia, 1799, and the Carolinas, 1800 James Hall Depicts a Low-life Billiard Parlor, 1828 The Great Foot Race of 1835 Horace Greeley Decries the Slaughter of Boxer Thomas McCoy, 1842 A Policeman Visits the Dissipating Rat Pits of Boston, c. 1860 The New York Herald Reports on "The Great Contest: Fashion v. Peytona," 1845. ESSAYS Elliott J. Gorn, "The Social Significance of Gouging in the Southern Backcountry" Melvin L. Adelman, "Harness Racing: The First Modern American Sport, 1825-1870" IV. The Making of a Modern Sporting Culture, 1840-1870 DOCUMENTS Thomas W. Higginson Analyzes American Saints and Their Need for Physical Fitness, 1858 Catharine Beecher Criticizes Women's Frailty, and Recommends What Should Be Done About It, 1855 American Agriculturist Applauds Ladies on Horseback, 1862 The New York Times Surveys the Skating Scene at Central Park, 1859 The New York Herald Compares Cricket and Baseball, 1859 The Spirit of the Times Examines the Founding of the New York Athletic Club, 1868 ESSAYS Linda J. Borish, "Catharine Beecher and Thomas W. Higginson on the Need for Physical Fitness" George B. Kirsch, "Baseball Spectators, 1855-1870" V. Sport and Higher Education in America, 1865-1910 DOCUMENTS The New York Times Reports on an International Match: The Harvard-Oxford Boat Race, 1869 Coach Walter Camp on Sportsmanship, 1893 Richard Harding Davis Scrutinizes The Rituals of the Thanksgiving Day Football Game, 1893 Henry Beach Needham Decries the Professionalization of College Athletes, 1905 ESSAYS Ronald L. Smith, "Amateurism in Late Nineteenth-Century College Sports" Robin D. Lester, "The Rise of the Spectator, the Coach and the Player at the University of Chicago, 1895-1905" VI. Sport and the Rise of the Industrial Radial City 1870-1920 DOCUMENTS The New York Times Evaluates the Accessibility and Utility of Central Park, 1873, 1875 The New York Clipper Comments the Opening of Jerome Park Race Track and the Revitalization of the Turf, 1866 The New York Clipper Reports on the Astley Belt Race of 1879 The New York Times Lauds Baseball and Community Pride, 1888 The New York Times Considers Madison Square Garden as a Civic Institution, 1900 Harper's Weekly Examines New York City's Athletic Clubs, 1892 ESSAYS Stephen Hardy, "Parks for the People: The Rise of Public Parks in Boston, 1869-1900" Steven A. Riess, "Professional Sports and New York's Tammany Machine, 1870-1920" VII. Sport and Class, 1870-1920 DOCUMENTS Caspar W. Whitney Probes the Evolution of the Country Club, 1894 The Chicago Daily News Describes a Paradise for Hunters, 1895 Philip G. Hubert, Jr., Reflects on "The Bicycle, the Marvel of Its Day," 1895 The Spirit of the Times Demeans the Printer's Benevolent Association Games, 1887 Charles J. Lucas Criticizes the Commer-cializing of Amateur Athletics, 1905 ESSAYS Donald Mrozek, "Sporting Life as Consumption: Fashion, and Display—The Pastimes of the Rich at the Turn of the Century" Steven A. Riess, "Sport and the Redefinition of American Middle-Class Masculinity, 1840-1900" Ted Vincent, "Working Class Runners in the Late Nineteenth Century" VIII. The Commercialization and Professionalization of Sport 1870-1920 DOCUMENTS The National Police Gazette Indicts Wyatt Earp as Crooked Referee, 1896 Rene Bache Computes the Cost of a Day at the Races, 1906 Josiah Flynt Delineates the Evils of Off-Track Poolrooms, 1907 Harper's Weekly Describes the New Chicago Baseball Grounds, 1883. The New York Sun's Portrayal of a Typical Baseball Crowd, 1884 John Montgomery Ward Asks, "Is the Baseball Player a Chattel?" H. Addington Bruce Analyzes Baseball and National Life, 1913 Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Explains Why Baseball Is Not Subject to Anti-Trust Laws, 1922 Sears, Roebuck Catalogue Sports Advertisements, 1897 ESSAYS Harold Seymour, "The Creation of the National League in 1876" Michael Isenberg, "The Sullivan-Corbett Championship Fight of 1892 and the Modernization of Ring Promotion" IX. Gender and Sport in Modern America 1870-1920 DOCUMENTS Woodrow Wilson Supports Football and its Promotion of Manliness, 1894 Theodore Roosevelt Examines How Sport Makes Boys Into Men, 1900 Eleanor Waddle Reports the Rise of the Berkeley Ladies' Athletic Club, 1889 Anne O'Hagan Describes the Athletic American Girl, 1901. Senda Berenson Asserts the Value of Adapted Women's Basketball, 1901 Dr. Dudley A. Sargent Asks, "Are Athletics Making Girls Masculine?" 1912 A Female Fan Asks, "Take Me Out to the Ball Game," 1908 ESSAYS Elliott Gorn, "Manliness in the Squared Circle" Roberta J. Park, "Sport, Gender and Society in the Late Nineteenth Century" X. Race and Ethnicity in American Sport, 1890-1940 DOCUMENTS The Chicago Daily News Describes the Quadrennial National Turner Festival, 1893. The National Police Gazette Supports the Rise of Italian Boxing, 1905 Richard Henry Pratt Encourages Indian Sportsmanship, c. 1894. The Outlook's Dismay with Indian Sportsman Jim Thorpe and the Forfeiture of His Olympic Medals, 1913. Prejudice Against African-American Ball-players in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1911. James "Cool Papa" Bell Remembers Negro League Baseball in the 1920s and 1930s The Chicago Commission on Race Relations Examines Racial Contacts in Recreation in the Late 1910s ESSAYS Randy Roberts, "The 1910 Jeffries-Johnson Fight and Its Impact" Peter Levine, "Basketball and the Jewish-American Community, 1920s-1930s" XI. Sports Heroes and American Culture 1909-1940 DOCUMENTS Burt Standish's Dick Merriwell Saves the Game, 1909 Commonwealth Memorializes Christy Mathewson, a Real-Life Merriwell, 1925 The Black Sox Scandal and the Fallen Hero: The Confession of Joe Jackson, 1920 Grantland Rice on John L. Sullivan and Babe Ruth as Prowess Heroes, 1925 Grantland Rice Describes the Heroic Qualities of Bobby Jones and Helen Wills, 1928 Congressman Louis Stokes Eulogizes His Hero Jesse Owens, 1980 ESSAYS Roderick Nash, "Sports Heroes of the 1920s" Chris Meade, "Joe Louis as Emerging Race Hero in the 1930s" XII. Sport and American Women, Since 1930 DOCUMENTS The Saturday Evening Post Examines Women's Softball in World War II America Billie Jean King Remembers Life as an Outsider in the 1950s and 1960s Baylor University Athletic Director Grant Teaff Criticizes the Impact of Title IX on Intercollegiate Football, 1992 Attorney Ellen J. Vargyas Analyzes the Inadequacies of Title IX, 1993 Powerlifter Tammy Thompson Identifies the Dangers of Steroids, 1987 ESSAYS Susan E. Cayleff, "Babe Didrikson: The 'Texas Tomboy' Zaharias" Susan Cahn, "Women Competing/Gender Contested, 1930s-1950s" XIII. Sport and Race in America Since 1945 DOCUMENTS Yankees President Larry McPhail's Plan to Discourage Integration of Baseball, 1945 Jackie Robinson on the Struggles of His First Spring Training, 1946 The Thoughts of Muhammed Ali in Exile, c. 1967 Harry Edwards Reviews the Making of the Black Athletic Revolt, 1967 Arthur Ashe Supports Proposition 48 ESSAYS Jules Tygiel, "A Lone Negro in the Game: Jackie Robinson's Rookies Season" Michael Oriard, "Muhammed Ali: The Hero in the Age of Mass Media" XIV. The Business of Sport, 1945-1990 DOCUMENTS Ike Williams Testifies on the Corruption of Boxing in the late 1940s Norris Poulson Reveals How Los Angeles Got the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1957 Justice Thurgood Marshall Dissents in the Curt Flood Case, 1972 Marvin Miller Analyzes the Achievement of Free Agency, 1975 Mayor Lionel J. Wilson Explains Why Oakland Needs the Raiders, 1984 ESSAYS Randy Roberts and James Olson, "The Impact of Roone Arledge on Televised Sports" Charles C. Euchner, "The Making of Baltimore's Camden Yards Stadium"