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Make Money with Condominiums and Townhouses

Overview

In the Make Money series, renowned real estate investor and bestselling author Gary W. Eldred shows you how to profit from the safest, most reliable wealth builder in the world-real estate. With coverage of all the fundamentals-from finding the right properties to financing and managing them-Eldred shows you the ropes so you don't have to learn important lessons the hard way. Unlike general guides to investing in real estate, each title in the Make Money series gives you the specialized expertise necessary to ...

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Overview

In the Make Money series, renowned real estate investor and bestselling author Gary W. Eldred shows you how to profit from the safest, most reliable wealth builder in the world-real estate. With coverage of all the fundamentals-from finding the right properties to financing and managing them-Eldred shows you the ropes so you don't have to learn important lessons the hard way. Unlike general guides to investing in real estate, each title in the Make Money series gives you the specialized expertise necessary to fully profit from a select investment strategy.

Make Money with Condominiums and Townhouses shows homebuyers and investors how to travel the road to real estate wealth-often with little or nothing down. As an affordable investment vehicle, condominiums and townhouses offer numerous advantages over other types of rental property-they require relatively little day-to-day management, they tend to attract more desirable tenants than other rental properties, and they offer low risk and high returns. Full of time-tested techniques and proven money-making strategies, Make Money with Condominiums and Townhouses will show you how to:
* Relax while you put your money to work
* Find properties with high rates of appreciation
* Evaluate homeowner association finances
* Choose profitable locations
* Understand the changing demographics that may affect your investment
* Finance your properties with little or no money down
* Achieve positive cash flow quickly
* Build up equity
* Understand by-laws, disclosure statements, and management contracts

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"...But if you know nothing about finding, buying and selling property or little about finance...author Gary Eldred is your guy." (Miami Herald, October 8, 2003)

Gary W. Eldred, in his Make Money With Condominiums and Townhouses, differs from those get-rich-quick types who imply that all it takes to be a landlord-tycoon is creative financing and chutzpah.
Real estate can be rewarding, but you have to do your homework. Lots of it. This is where Eldred - a Realtor who has taught at Stanford University and the University of Illinois and co-wrote the thorough Investing in Real Estate with Andrew McLean - comes in.
How do you choose the right condo or town house? The due diligence you have to exercise is considerable. When you are negotiating to buy a unit, the seller has to show you legal and financial documents about the homeowner's association. Read them closely. A homeowner's association that is in financial trouble is more likely to levy special assessments on homeowners to cover deficits or pay for maintenance or repairs.
Other questions: Does the association carry enough insurance? Is it suing or being sued? (Guess who'll pay the legal bills.) Know that sellers and Realtors must disclose any serious defects of a property that they are aware of.
Does a condo development have too many renters? That could harm property values. How do you evaluate unit location, density, size (measurement errors happen frequently), livability, security, parking, amenities and so forth? If your eyes glaze over at all the detail Eldred provides, you may not be cut out to be a real estate investor.
Why invest in condos and town houses? Because in many areas, single-family homes have become too expensive relative to the rental income they can bring.
Eldred gives a good overview of what you need to know before you plunge into the exciting (but perilous) world. Read Make Money With Condominiums in conjunction with his earlier book, Investing in Real Estate, for more insight into how to find bargains and obtain financing from less-known channels. (USA TODAY, October 20, 2003)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471433446
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 7/11/2003
  • Series: Make Money in Real Estate Series , #3
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 312
  • Sales rank: 609,391
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.28 (h) x 0.69 (d)

Meet the Author

GARY W. ELDRED, PhD, has been involved in more than a hundred real estate projects as a buyer, seller, or investment consultant. Dr. Eldred has also taught numerous graduate courses in real estate at America’s top universities, including Stanford, the University of Virginia, and the University of Illinois. He is also the author of Make Money with Small Income Properties and Make Money with Fixer-Uppers and Renovations, and coauthor of the bestseller Investing in Real Estate, Fourth Edition, all published by Wiley.

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Read an Excerpt


Make Money with Condominiums and Townhouses



By Gary W. Eldred


John Wiley & Sons



Copyright © 2003

Gary W. Eldred
All right reserved.



ISBN: 0-471-43344-6



Chapter One


The Lazy Investor's
Way to Wealth


If you're like most people these days, you would like to find a safe
investment that yields high returns. You probably know that you
could profit big in real estate, but you hesitate to take on the part-time
job of landlording. What to do? Invest in condominiums.

In the beginning you will need to put forth some effort to
learn the market. Once you're past that step, though, the condos
will operate on automatic pilot most of the time. Most condo investors
I know put in less than 10 to 20 hours per year for each
unit they own.

How can condo owners earn high real estate returns with
minimum hassle? It's easy: Because the condominium association
takes care of all exterior (and maybe some of
the interior) maintenance for the units.


Condominiums Attract Better Tenants

You will gain a partner to help manage your
tenants. The homeowners' association (HOA), as
well as the individual homeowners who live in
the other units, will keep an eye on the behavior
of your tenants. Even better, as it turns out,
well-run condo and townhouse developments
actually attract a better class of tenants than
comparablypriced single-family houses and
apartment buildings.


Why Condos Attract Better Tenants

Condos and townhouses tend to attract low-maintenance tenants
because these residents actually prefer to live under the strict
rules and more pleasant environment of a home-owning community.
Think about it. If you were the type of person who likes to
hang out at the swimming pool on Sunday afternoons and get
rowdy, would you choose to live in a home-owning community or
an apartment complex? If you plan to ask six of your closest
friends to move in with you to help pay the rent, do you choose to
rent in a townhouse community of homeowners, or would you try
to rent a single-family house?

Experience shows that trouble-making tenants avoid well-run
condo and townhouse developments because they know that
they will not be able to get away with their antics.


Well-run HOAs Take note that I emphasize well-run associations.
To gain the "association effect," you must carefully select
the projects and buildings in which to buy your units (a topic that
will be covered in later chapters).

Early on, I learned this lesson when I invested
in a cheap condo unit in a building that
had slid downhill. Apathy and lack of care prevailed.
Rules went unenforced. Owners moved
out. More unruly tenants moved in. Property
values stagnated. Vacancies and turnover increased.


Happy Ending Fortunately, my mistake turned a remarkable
profit. Eventually, the investors and homeowners elected a
new board of directors for the HOA. We hired a new management
company. We developed new rules with teeth in them (daily accelerating
fines for repeated offenses). Within three years of our project
turnaround, our units had appreciated by 40 percent. In fact,
for investors who are willing to accept a little more risk and put in
a little more effort, the turnaround play can yield big profits within
a period of a few years.


The One Easy Test: Who's Moving In, Who's
Moving Out

How can you tell whether a project offers a
promising future? How can you tell before you
buy whether the HOA will prove to be an asset
that helps you attract and retain good tenants? Again, I will go into
this topic in more detail later. But one helpful way is to learn who's
moving in, who's moving out, who's selling, and who's buying. In
other words, before you commit to a building or development, review
the demographics (age, occupation, incomes, and household
composition) of the owners and the residents. From these data
you can figure out whether the project is moving upscale, holding
its own, or sliding down.


Your Procedures Count, Too!

Of course, even with a watchful and well-run
HOA, you can't just rent to the first person
who's willing to write you a check. Later I'll tell
you exactly what you need to do to enjoy care-free
rent collections from the perfect tenant.


Can Investors (Lazy or Not) Really Build Wealth with Condos and
Townhouses?

William Nickerson wrote the all-time classic get-rich-in-real-estate
book (How I Turned $1,000 into a Million in My Spare Time)
more than 45 years ago. Since then, hundreds of similar books have
promised to show readers how to build wealth in real estate. These
authors have urged their readers to buy fixer-uppers, foreclosures,
apartment buildings, and single-family houses.

Yet not one such book tells readers how to
build wealth with condos and townhouses. Indeed,
I plead guilty to this neglect. My own best-selling
book, Investing in Real Estate, Fourth
Edition
(Wiley, 2003) focuses exclusively on
single-family houses and small apartment buildings.


Why Such Neglect?

Why have real estate authors shied away from recommending condos
and townhouses as investments? Presumably condos usually do
not appreciate as fast as houses. "When condos become in short
supply in an area and prices start to appreciate, more complexes
are built and the oversupply cycle begins again.
Houses, however, can't be built quickly (if at all)
in most areas because very little land remains."
Although this quotation was written by
other authors, it's similar to the explanation I
have given over the years when my readers and
seminar attendees ask about condos and townhouses.
"Condos don't appreciate as fast as
houses. Condo prices can suffer when a glut of new apartments
floods the market." Okay, that's the bad news.

Experience Trumps Cliche Now here's the good news.
When I reviewed the actual experience of investors (including myself),
I found that total returns have often exceeded the returns from
owning single-family houses. Why? How? Here are the reasons.

* Because of periodic oversupply, it's easier to buy condos at
a steeply discounted bargain price.

* In nearly all markets, condos yield more cash flow than
houses for each dollar invested.

* Condos typically yield more tax shelter for each dollar invested.

* Condos present less risk of cash flow shock (i.e., new roof,
exterior paint job, major electrical upgrade, etc.).

* Condos/townhouses often prove easier to rent and consequently
suffer lower vacancies.

* Condos require much less managerial time and effort.

When you compare investment choices, you must compare the
total returns, not just the so-called average rate of appreciation.
You must also compare the time, trouble, and energy that you will
put forth to oversee and look after the investment. When you look
at this total picture, you will find (as I have) that
condos and townhouses can help you achieve
very strong returns, an inflation-protected
stream of income, and a multimillion-dollar net
worth.

It's Your Choice! By pointing out the
fact that you can make money with condos and
townhouses, I am not urging you to forgo single-family
houses or apartment buildings. I am not arguing
that you will necessarily earn more with
condos than you could with other types of real estate.
No one can say for sure how you will do with any type of investment-real
estate or anything else.

However, I am urging you to weigh the merits of condo investing
against your financial goals and personal resources. Too
many investors pass up real estate because they don't want the
supposed hassle of landlording. Other investors who choose real
estate pass up condos and townhouses because they erroneously
believe that a low appreciation will make condos an inferior investment.
Do you hold either of these beliefs?

If so, you're in for a pleasant surprise. In the following pages,
you will gain a newfound appreciation (no pun intended) for condos
and townhouses. In the end, you may
choose not to follow through. But if you do pass
up this opportunity, you will not be able to justify
your decision with the usual reasons.
There's simply no question that over the next 5
to 15 years, well-selected condos and townhouses
will reward investors with very handsome
returns for relatively little effort.


How You Will Profit with Condos

In the remainder of this chapter, I detail more closely the how and
why of the rewards of investing in condos. Essentially, you can
profit in six ways.

1. Appreciation

2. Mortgage paydown

3. Cash flow

4. Tax shelter

5. Value creation

6. Diversification

Now we look at each of these sources of profit with more
precision.


Appreciation

The evidence clearly shows that over the long term, condos do appreciate.
Those who argue in favor of houses over condos only allege
that houses appreciate at a faster pace. No one claims that
condos won't appreciate at all.


The Historical Record

I traced some condo and townhouse prices back to the 1970s and
then compared the same units to the prices at which they're selling
today.

As you can see from Figure 1.1, the least appreciating complex
tripled in value, whereas several others have multiplied in
value four to eight times over. In fact, although I researched
records from all over the country, I could not find any units that
had not at least doubled in value since 1980. In other words, the
absolute worst record equaled an average rate of appreciation of
about 3 percent a year.

But before you shout, "Three percent? That's lousy!" you need to
consider that the rewards of 3 percent appreciation are really quite
generous. That's because nearly all investors leverage their returns.

To buy a $100,000 condo, an investor might invest
only $20,000 of his or her own money
(often less). When that $100,000 unit moves up
to $103,000, the investor has actually experienced
a 15 percent return on invested cash-and
that's just from first-year appreciation:

15% = $3,000/$20,000

After five years, still assuming 3 percent a year, the property is then
worth $115,900.Therefore, year six appreciation equals

0.03 X $115,900 = $3,477

And the rate of return on original cash invested increases to

17.38% = $3,477/$20,000

When I read in the financial press that by registering
a total return of 10 to 12 percent a year,
"stocks outperform all other types of investments,"
I don't know whether to laugh or cry. As
you can see, the weakest performing condo
record in the country has out-earned stocks by
a wide margin-just from appreciation!


What Does the Future Hold?

"Okay, Eldred," you might say, "you're talking history. I want to
know what's going to happen in the future. Don't you understand
that we're in a real estate bubble? All of the financial press is talking
about it."

I realize the financial journalists are trying to compare real estate
prices to the inflated high-tech stock prices of early 2000. Infact,
I am interviewed by such journalists almost
weekly. I will tell you from firsthand knowledge
that the great majority of these journalists
couldn't value a property or calculate an investment
return if their lives depended on it.

I have attempted many times to explain that
the values of rental real estate are supported by a
real and provable stream of income, whereas
many of the high-flying tech stocks never earned a nickel of profits.
Even solid companies like Microsoft, Intel, and Cisco Systems were
valued at absurd multiples of 60, 80, or 100 times actual earnings.
The term bubble means no underlying fundamentals to support the
price of the investment-as in the Florida land boom of the 1920s
that the Marx Brothers spoofed in their movie Coconuts.

Will today's housing prices stall (or even drop some) within
the next year or two? Possibly. Will condo and house prices crash,
as did the NASDAQ and S&P 500? Absolutely not. Will condo and
home prices continue to set record high prices 5, 10, and 20 years
from now? Barring economic or national collapse of the United
States, positively, yes.

More Historical Perspective With talk about a housing
bubble, or as the Wall Street Journal recently wrote, "Homes no
longer are the place to put your money," you need to gain more
historical perspective on the decade-by-decade performance of
home prices since the end of World War II.

Among all of the lessons history teaches, none is more certain
than the fact that home prices will go up. Regardless
of how high you think prices are today,
they will be higher 10 years from now and
much higher 20 or 30 years into the future.
Don't make the mistake of believing that home
prices have reached their peak. Before you put
faith in the naysaying of so-called economic experts,
take a quick trip through some of their
faulty predictions from years past:

* "The prices of houses seem to have reached a plateau, and
there is reasonable expectancy that prices will decline"
(Time, December 1, 1947).

* "Houses cost too much for the mass market. Today's average
price is around $8,000-out of reach for two-thirds of
all buyers" (Science Digest, April 1948).

* "If you have bought your house since the War ... you have
made your deal at the top of the market.... The days when
you couldn't lose on a house purchase are no longer with
us" (House Beautiful, November 1958).

* "The goal of owning a home seems to be getting beyond
the reach of more and more Americans. The typical new
house today costs about $28,000" (Business Week, September
4, 1969).

* "Be suspicious of the 'common wisdom' that tells you to
'Buy now ... because continuing inflation will force home
prices and rents higher and higher'"(NEA Journal, December
1970).

* "The median price of a home today is approaching
$50,000.... Housing experts predict that in the future
price rises won't be that great" (Nations Business, June
1977).

* "The era of easy profits in real estate may be drawing to a
close" (Money, January 1981).

* "In California ... for example, it is not unusual to find families
of average means buying $100,000 houses.... I'm confident
prices have passed their peak" (John Wesley English
and Gray Emerson Cardiff, The Coming Real Estate Crash,
1980).

* "The golden-age of risk-free run-ups in home prices is
gone" (Money, March 1985).

* "If you're looking to buy, be careful. Rising home values are
not a sure thing anymore" (Miami Herald, October 25,
1985).

* "Most economists agree ... [a home] will become little
more than a roof and a tax deduction, certainly not the lucrative
investment it was through much of the 1980s"
(Money, April 1986).

Continues...




Excerpted from Make Money with Condominiums and Townhouses
by Gary W. Eldred
Copyright © 2003 by Gary W. Eldred.
Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

1. The Lazy Investor’s Way to Wealth.

Condominiums Attract Better Tenants.

Why Condos Attract Better Tenants.

The One Easy Test: Who’s Moving In, Who’s Moving Out.

Your Procedures Count, Too!

Can Investors (Lazy or Not) Really Build Wealth with Condos and Townhouses?

Why Such Neglect?

How You Will Profit with Condos.

Appreciation.

The Historical Record.

What Does the Future Hold?

Summing Up.

2. Bulls, Bears, and Cash Cows.

The Mortgage Paydown.

Wealth without Appreciation.

Add to Your Principal Payments.

Certainty over Uncertainty.

Plan Your Wealth Building: Stocks versus Condos.

Cash Flow.

Condo Investors Earn More Cash Flow.

How to Jump the Hurdle of Negative Cash Flows.

Shelter Your Cash from the IRS.

Depreciation.

Tax-Free Exchanges.

Homeowners Receive Tax-Free Gains.

Gain Tax-Free Cash with a Cash-Out Refinance.

Summing Up.

3. Get to Know the Development.

Condo Communities Appeal to Buyers of All Incomes.

Key Sources of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction.

Features and Price.

Your Best Opportunity.

Resale Potential.

Good Buy.

No Simple Rules.

Why Stress This Point?

The HOA.

The Organizational Structure.

The Board of Directors.

Management.

Committees.

Attorney and Auditor.

4. Do the HOA Finances Look Good?

Undisclosed Leases.

Sweetheart Contracts.

Understated HOA Fees.

The Budget.

Special Assessments.

Mandatory Payment.

“I Don’t Care! I’m Not Paying”.

HOA Boards Must Follow Specified Procedures and Forms.

Your Financial Due Diligence: Summing Up.

How Much Insurance?

The Lesson of the Oakland-Berkeley Firestorm.

Any Lawsuits?

HOA as Plaintiff.

HOA as Defendant.

Be Wary of HOAs in Litigation.

5. What Do Condo Residents Say?

What Residents Say about Their Condos/ Townhouses.

Overall Satisfaction.

Wise Investors Pay Attention to the Negatives (and Positives) of Condo Buildings and Developments.

What Features Rank Most Important?

Poor Construction, Careless Workmanship, and Unexpected Repairs and Replacements.

Government Inspectors Sometimes Fail to Do Their Jobs.

When Buying an Existing Unit, Check the Resale Package.

Seller Disclosures.

Unethical Builders and Sales Reps.

Sales Rep Disconnect.

The Documents Control.

Children: Little Monsters or Little Darlings.

Potential Problems.

A Parent Speaks.

Pets.

Problems with Renters.

Should You Buy into a Project That’s Heavy with Renters?

Exercise Investor Responsibility.

6. More Likes and Dislikes of Community Living.

Density.

People per Unit.

Project Density versus Unit Crowding.

Multiple Visits/Curb Appeal.

Unit Location.

Perimeter or Interior Building Site.

Why Underprice Preferred Locations?

Downhill or Uphill?

Sight, Sound, and Smell.

Unit Features and Design.

Uniform versus Uniformly Beautiful.

Unit Size.

Livability.

Recreational Amenities.

Will Tenants Pay Higher Rents?

What If Tenants Pay and Play?

What to Do?

Security.

I Love “Lock and Leave”.

Play It Safe: Ask!

Summing Up: Likes and Dislikes.

7. Understand the Bylaws.

Rules Create Value.

No Supply Because There’s No Demand.

Choose the Right HOA for You.

What Will You Find in the Resale Package?

Creating Value within a Context of Fairness.

The Condo Bylaws.

Meetings of Members (Article III).

Board of Directors (Articles IV–VI).

Power and Duties (Article VII).

Association Officers and Duties (Article VIII).

Committees, Records, Assessments, and Seal (Articles IX–XII).

The Amendment Process (Article XIII).

Summing Up.

8. Understand the Declaration.

The Declaration Creates and Governs the HOA.

Don’t Rely on the Legal Opinions of a Real Estate Agent.

Not an Indictment.

The Purpose and Terms of the Declaration.

One Drawback.

Generalities or Details?

The Terms of the Declaration.

Summing Up.

9. Understand the Rules and Regulations.

Board-Issued Rules: Community Values or

Dictatorship.

What Rules and Why?

Maintenance of Unit (1).

Unit Occupancy and Use (2).

Balcony/Terrace (3).

Charcoal Grills (6).

Parking (9).

Pool/Pond Rules (11).

Pets (12).

Flip Charge (15).

Signs (23).

Guests (26).

Leases (33).

Capital Improvements (36).

Owner Additions and Alterations (37).

Utility Services (39) 204

Right of First Refusal (40).

Enforcement of Rules (42).

$50 Fine per Occurrence per Day.

10. Choose a Profitable Location.

In Which Company Should You Invest: General Motors or Microsoft?

Too Optimistic on Microsoft.

Negative Outlook on GM.

GM’s Stock Outperforms Microsoft.

Personal or Financial?

Location Incorporates a Milieu of Features.

Convenience: Easy Come, Easy Go?

Let Me Count the Ways.

Times of the Day or Week.

Bad Weather, Bridge Out, Road Work?

Environment.

Economic Base.

Demographics and Psychographics: Incomes, Lifestyles, and Attitudes.

Aesthetics: Sights, Sounds, Smell.

Zoning and Other Related Ordinances.

Safe and Secure.

Fiscal Soundness.

Political Responsiveness.

Discover Your Area’s Microclimates.

Location: Summing Up.

11. Predict the Future.

How to Define “Bargain”.

Appraisals Shortchange Fundamentals.

Focus on the Recent Past.

Appraisals Ignore Other Areas.

Appraisals Shortchange Economic Fundamentals.

Summing Up: The Market Value Mistake.

Current Market Data.

Time on Market.

Asking Price/Selling Price.

Inventory of Unsold Properties.

Properties under Contract.

Mortgage Purchase Applications, Delinquencies, and Foreclosures.

Vacancy Rates.

Summing Up: The Current Market.

Boom and Bust Cycles.

Boom and Bust Myth.

Media Distortion versus Local Market Experience.

Condos: Boom, Bust, and Recovery.

Don’t Prejudge: Weigh Risks against Potential Rewards.

How to Spot a Condo Bargain.

12. Buy and Finance Your Condominium(s).

Negotiate a Win-Win Purchase Agreement.

Win-Win Principles.

The Purchase Contract.

Maximize Your Leverage with Owner-Occupancy Financing.

Owner-Occupied Buying Strategies.

Homeowners, Too, Can Use This Method.

Why One Year?

Where Can You Find High LTV Owner-Occupied Mortgages?

High Leverage for Investor-Owned Financing.

What Underwriting Standards Do Lenders Apply?

Automated Underwriting.

13. Tailor Your Lease Agreements.

Use Your Lease in Your Market Strategy.

Competitive Advantage.

What Terms Might You Negotiate?

Lease Options.

Here’s How It Works.

Benefits to Investors.

14. Your Easier Path to Wealth and Income.

Less Risk.

Personal Opportunity.

Index.

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