Note: All chapters close with a conclusion and a full-page Chapter Review section.
Prologue: The Beginnings of Human Society
The Paleolithic Age, 200,000–10,000 B.C.E.
The Neolithic Age, 10,000–4000 B.C.E.
New Sources, New Perspectives: Daily Bread, Damaged Bones, and Cracked Teeth
1. Early Western Civilization, 4000–1000 B.C.E.
The Controversial Concept of Western Civilization
Mesopotamia, Home of the First Civilization, 4000–1000 B.C.E.
Egypt, the First Unified Country, 3050–1000 B.C.E.
The Hittites, Minoans, and Mycenaeans, 2200–1000 B.C.E.
Terms of History: Civilization
Document: Hammurabi’s Laws for Physicians
Document: Declaring Innocence on Judgment Day in Ancient Egypt
2. The Near East and the Emergence of Greece, 1000–500 B.C.E.
From Dark Age to Empire in the Near East, 1000–500 B.C.E.
Remaking Greek Civilization, 1000–750 B.C.E.
The Creation of the Greek Polis, 750–500 B.C.E.
New Directions for the Polis, 750–500 B.C.E.
Document: Homer’s Vision of Justice in the Polis
Seeing History: Shifting Sculptural Expression: From Egypt to Greece
Document: Cyrene Records Its Foundation as a Greek Colony
Taking Measure: Greek Family Size and Agricultural Labor in the Archaic Age
Contrasting Views: Persians Debate Democracy, Oligarchy, and Monarchy
3. The Greek Golden Age c. 500–c. 400 B.C.E.
Wars between Persia and Greece, 499–479 B.C.E.
Athenian Confidence in the Golden Age, 478–431 B.C.E.
Tradition and Innovation in Athens’s Golden Age
The End of the Golden Age, 431–403 B.C.E.
Document: Athenian Regulations for a Rebellious Ally
Contrasting Views: The Nature of Women and Marriage
Document: Sophists Argue Both Sides of a Case
Taking Measure: Military Forces of Athens and Sparta at the Beginning of the Peloponnesian War (431 B.C.E.)
4. From the Classical to the Hellenistic World, 400–30 B.C.E.
Classical Greece after the Peloponnesian War, 400–350 B.C.E.
The Rise of Macedonia, 359–323 B.C.E.
The Hellenistic Kingdoms, 323–30 B.C.E.
Document: Aristotle on the Nature of the Greek Polis
Document: Epigrams by Women Poets
New Sources, New Perspectives: Papyrus Discoveries and Menander’s Comedies
5. The Rise of Rome, 753–44 B.C.E.
Roman Social and Religious Traditions
From Monarchy to Republic
Roman Imperialism and Its Consequences
Upheaval in the Late Republic
Document: The Rape and Suicide of Lucretia
Taking Measure: Census Records during the First and Second Punic Wars
Document: Polybius on Roman Military Discipline
Contrasting Views: What Was Julius Caesar Like?
6. The Roman Empire, 44 B.C.E.–284 C.E.
Creating the Pax Romana
Maintaining the Pax Romana
The Emergence of Christianity
The Third-Century Crisis
Document: Augustus, Res Gestae (My Accomplishments)
Document: The Scene at a Roman Bath
Contrasting Views: Christians in the Empire: Conspirators or Faithful Subjects?
Taking Measure: The Value of Roman Imperial Coinage, 27 B.C.E.–300 C.E.
7. The Transformation of the Roman Empire, 284–600 C.E.
Reorganizing the Empire, 284–395
Christianizing the Empire, 312–c. 540
Non-Roman Kingdoms in the West, c. 370-550s
The Roman Empire in the East, c. 500-565
Document: Diocletian’s Edict On Maximum Prices and Wages
Taking Measure: Peasants’ Use of Farm Produce in the Roman Empire
Document: The Edict of Milan on Religious Liberty
Seeing History: Changing Religious Beliefs: Pagan and Christian Sarcophaguses
New Sources, New Perspectives: Was There a Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire?
8. Islam, Byzantium, and the West, 600–750
Islam: A New Religion and a New Empire
Byzantium: A Christian Empire under Siege
Western Europe: A Medley of Kingdoms
Terms of History: Medieval
Document: The Fatihah of the Qur’an
Seeing History: Who Conquered Whom? A Persian and an Arabic Coin Compared
Taking Measure: Church Repair, 600–900
Document: On Holy Images
New Sources, New Perspectives: Anthropology, Archaeology, and Changing Notions of Ethnicity
9. Emperors, Caliphs, and Local Lords, 750–1050
The Emperor and Local Elites in the Byzantine Empire
The Caliphate and Its Fragmentation
The Creation and Division of a New European Empire
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local Rule
Document: The Book of the Prefect
Document: When She Approached
Contrasting Views: Charlemagne: Roman Emperor, Father of Europe, or the Chief Bishop?
Terms of History: Feudalism
Taking Measure: Sellers, Buyers, and Donors, 800–1000
10. Merchants and Kings, Popes and Crusaders, 1050–1150
The Commercial Revolution
The Revival of Monarchies
Document: A Byzantine View of Papal Primacy
Contrasting Views: The First Crusade
New Sources, New Perspectives: The Cairo Geniza
Document: Penances for the Invaders, 1070
Taking Measure: Slaves in England in 1086
11. The Flowering of the Middle Ages, 1150–1215
New Schools and Churches
Governments as Institutions
The Growth of a Vernacular High Culture
Religious Fervor and Crusade
Seeing History: Romanesque vs. Gothic: The View Down the Nave
Contrasting Views: Magna Carta
Document: Frederick’s Reply to the Romans
Document: The Children’s Crusade, 1212
12. The Medieval Search for Order, 1215–1340
The Church’s Mission
The Medieval Synthesis
The Politics of Control
New Sources, New Perspectives: The Peasants of Montaillou
Taking Measure: Sentences Imposed by an Inquisitor, 1308–1323
Document: The Debate between Reason and the Lover
Document: Ausculta Fili (Listen, beloved son)
13. Crisis and Renaissance, 1340–1492
Crisis: Disease, War and Schism
The Renaissance: New Forms of Thought and Expression
Taking Measure: Population Losses and the Black Death
Contrasting Views: Joan of Arc: Who Was "the Maid"?
Document: Wat Tyler’s Rebellion, 1381
Terms of History: Renaissance
Document: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man
14. Global Encounters and Religious Reforms, 1492–1560
The Protestant Reformation
Reshaping Society through Religion
A Struggle for Mastery
Seeing History: Expanding Geographic Knowledge: World Maps in an Age of Exploration
Document: Columbus Describes His First Voyage, 1493
Contrasting Views: Martin Luther: Holy Man or Heretic?
Document: Ordinances for Calvinist Churches, 1547
15. Wars of Religion and the Clash of World Views, 1560–1648
Religious Conflicts Threaten State Power, 1560–1618
The Thirty Years’ War, 1618–1648
Economic Crisis and Realignment
The Rise of Secular and Scientific Worldviews
Document: Hans Grimmelshausen, The Horrors of the Thirty Years’ War
Taking Measure: The Rise and Fall of Silver Imports to Spain, 1550–1660
New Sources, New Perspectives: Tree Rings and the Little Ice Age
Seeing History: Religious Differences in Painting of the Baroque Period: Rubens and Rembrandt
Document: Sentence Pronounced Against Galileo
16. State Building and the Search for Order, 1648–1690
Louis XIV: Absolutism and its Limits
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
Constitutionalism in England
Outposts of Constitutionalism
The Search for Order in Elite and Popular Culture
Document: Marie de SŽvignŽ’s Description of the French Court
Taking Measure: The Seventeenth-Century Army
Contrasting Views: The English Civil War
Document: John Milton’s Defense of Freedom of the Press
17. The Atlantic System and Its Consequences, 1690–1740
The Atlantic System and the World Economy
New Social and Cultural Patterns
Consolidation of the European State System
The Birth of the Enlightenment
New Sources, New Perspectives: Oral History and the Life of Slaves
Document: The Social Effects of Growing Consumption
Taking Measure: Relationship of Crop Harvested to Seed Used, 1400–1800
Terms of History: Progress
Document: Voltaire, Letters Concerning the English Nation, 1733
Appendix: Useful Facts and Figures