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Chapter 1. Teaching Science
This chapter reviews the 5 Es approach to science instruction and shows how three modes of instruction apply to English learners. The concept of differentiation for English learners is introduced.
Chapter 2. Understanding Language Development
Three theories of first- and second-language acquisition are succinctly defined. The three theories have practical implications for how teachers instruct English learners in their classrooms.
Chapter 3. Understanding Five Levels of English Language Development
When teachers know how to judge English learners' English proficiency levels, they can provide appropriate support. This chapter defines student skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and critical thinking at five levels of English language development, and at grade spans 6-8 and 9-12.
Chapter 4. Teaching the Language of Scientists
Powerful strategies for helping English learners learn and use academic language are described. These strategies support students to engage in the discourse of science.
Chapter 5. Scaffolding Science Learning
Scaffolds are temporary supports that can enable English learners to grasp concepts otherwise beyond their reach. Seven instructional strategies to scaffold students' understanding of science are introduced.
Chapter 6. Assessing English Learners
This chapter explains how to use assessment accommodations to more accurately and fairly assess English learners' understanding of sciencecontent.
Chapter 7. Applying Strategies in the Classroom
Excerpts from two series of lessons demonstrate how to integrate tools and strategies from each of the previous chapters. The first model, from a grade 9 integrated earth science course, focuses on the visual and experiential supports that teachers can provide to English learners. Excerpts from grade 6 lessons about soil highlight teacher-student dialogues that demonstrate differentiated language use with English learners.
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