Making Sense of Media: An Introduction to Mass Communication / Edition 1

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Overview

This dynamic new book on introductory mass communication uses a unique narrative approach to help readers understand a broad and constantly changing field while encouraging them to become critical consumers of media. Where did the media come from? Why do media industries do what they do? And why do some of these actions cause controversies? Making Sense of Media employs a three-part narrative framework in every chapter that examines history, industry, and controversies. Important topics such as new technology, globalization, diversity, convergence, and conglomeration are integrated throughout. For anyone interested in learning more about mass communication on an introductory level.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780801332067
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
  • Publication date: 11/28/2000
  • Edition description: 1ST ED..
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 560
  • Product dimensions: 8.00 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.75 (d)

Table of Contents

I. OVERVIEW.

1. INTRODUCTION: Making Sense of the World of Media.

Studying Media.

Basic Terms.

Mediated Communication.

Mass Communication.

Mediated Interpersonal Communication.

Converging Communications Media.

A Brief History of the Media Gutenberg Revolution.

Early America.

The Industrial Revolution.

The Wireless Era.

The Global Information Age.

Understanding Media Industries.

Freedom, Diversity, and Big Business.

Reasons for Corporate Media Growth.

Economies of Scale.

Synergy.

Global Competition.

Patterns of Ownership.

Groups and Chains.

Conglomerates.

Monopolies.

Oligopolies.

Entrepreneurial Start-Ups.

Media and Governments Around the World.

Media and the Audience.

Controversies.

Impact Issues.

Legal Issues.

Ethical Issues.

II. THE PRINT INDUSTRIES.

2. BOOKS: The Durable Medium.

A Brief History of Books.

Early Forms.

The Print Revolution.

The Book in America.

Early Publishing Houses.

The Industrial Revolution.

The Mass Market Paperback.

Conglomeration and Globalization.

New Forms of the Book.

Understanding Book Publishing.

Types of Books.

Trade.

Educational.

Reference.

Professional and Other.

The Players.

The Author.

The Editors.

The Publisher.

The Bookseller.

The Reader.

Controversies.

Book Censorship.

The Blockbuster Syndrome.

3. NEWSPAPERS: Where Journalism Begins.

A Brief History of Newspapers.

The Newspaper in Early America.

Colonial Newspapers and Freedom of the Press.

Newspapers and the American Revolution.

The Beginnings of the Ethnic Press.

The Penny Press.

Yellow Journalism.

The Making of the Modern Press.

Investigative Journalism.

Responsibility and Respectability.

Jazz Journalism.

Concentration into Chains.

Leading the News Process.

Changing Publication Patterns.

Understanding Newspaper Publishing.

The Owners.

The Newspapers.

Dailies.

Local Dalies.

Weeklies.

Special Interest Newspapers.

The Staff.

The Editorial Staff.

Business Staff.

Support Services.

Wire Services.

Feature Syndicates.

Audit Bureau of Circulation.

The Reader.

Controversies.

Concentration of Ownership.

Lack of Diversity in the Newsroom.

Other Controversies.

4. MAGAZINES: Something for Everyone.

A Brief History of Magazines.

The Magazine in America.

Women's Magazines.

General Interest Magazines.

The Muckrakers.

Mass Circulation Magazines.

The Rise of Specialized Magazines.

Adapting to New Media.

Global Endeavors.

Understanding Magazine Publishing.

Types of Magazines.

Consumer Magazines.

Trade Magazines.

Public Relations Magazines.

Journals, Comic Books and Zines.

The Players.

The Publisher.

The Staff.

Editorial Staff.

Advertising.

Circulation.

Production, Promotion and New Products.

The Reader.

Controversies.

The Impact of Images.

Truth and Accuracy.

Editorial Independence.

Marketing Schemes.

III. THE ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES.

5. MOVIES: Magic from the Dream Factory.

A Brief History of Movies.

Early Movie Technology.

The Move West.

Global Influence on the Art of Film.

The Star System.

The Golden Age.

Reacting to TV.

Changing Technology.

Global Dimensions.

Understanding the Movie Industry.

Production.

The Production Company.

The Major Studies: The Big Six.

The Independents: Creative Freedom.

The People in the Credits.

The Producer.

The Director.

The Writer.

The Star.

The Editor.

Other Members of the Production Team.

Distribution.

Marketing Windows.

Domestic Theatrical.

Home Media.

Television.

The Studio Library.

Publicity and Promotion.

Exhibition.

The Theater.

The Audience.

Controversies.

Violence.

Stereotyping.

The Effects of Movie Viewing.

Censorship.

Movie Ratings.

6. RADIO: The Hits Keep Coming.

A Brief History of Radio.

Early Development.

The First Broadcasters.

The Rise of the Networks.

Early Programming.

Regulation.

The Golden Age of Radio.

Reacting to TV.

The Transistor Portable.

Format Radio.

Concentration and Fragmentation.

Digital Radio.

Understanding the Radio Industry.

Formats.

Ratings.

Industry Structure.

The Local Stations.

Groups.

Networks.

Public Radio.

Syndicators.

Station Personnel.

On-Air Talent.

The Program Director.

Other Station Personnel.

The Audience.

Controversies.

The Effects of Concentration.

Homogenized Programming.

Shock Radio.

Hate Radio.

Diversity and Censorship.

7. RECORDINGS: The Great Format Wars.

A Brief History of Recording.

Early Technology.

An Industry Develops.

Enter Radio.

Stereo and High Fidelity.

Rock and Roll Redefines the Industry.

The Format Wars Intensify.

Audio Formats.

Video Formats.

Understanding the Recording Industry.

The Major Labels: Global Goliaths.

Independents: Developing Talent.

The Players.

Promotion.

Distribution and Sales.

The Audience.

Controversies.

The Effects.

Censorship.

8. TELEVISION: Reflecting and Affecting Society.

A Brief History of Television.

Early Technology.

Development of Technical Standards.

The Beginning of Network Television.

Television's Golden Age.

Programming Growth.

Enter Cable.

Emerging Networks.

New Technologies.

Understanding the Television Industry.

Delivery Systems.

Broadcast Television.

Local Stations.

Independent Stations.

Station Groups.

Public Television.

The Cable Industry.

Alternative Delivery Systems.

Program Providers.

The Ratings.

Controversies.

The Nature of Programming.

Perpetuating Violence.

Reinforcing Stereotypes.

The Style of the News.

Lack of Educational Programming.

Parental Advisory Ratings.

Excessive Viewing.

9. THE INTERNET: Weaving the Web of the Future.

A Brief History of the Net.

Going Digital.

The World Wide Web.

Expanding Into the Public Sector.

Becoming a Mass Medium.

Global Dimensions.

Cultural Diversity on the Web.

Understanding the Internet Industry.

The Architecture of the Net.

Access Providers.

Internet Addresses.

Browsers.

Search Engines.

Interpersonal Channels.

The Economics of the Net.

Ownership Patterns.

Employment Patterns.

Revenue Sources.

Online Costs.

Controversies.

Reliability of Information.

Censorship.

Privacy.

Time Management.

IV. THE PERSUASION INDUSTRIES.

10. ADVERTISING: Feeding the Media Monster.

A Brief History of Advertising.

Advertising Comes to America.

Ads and the Industrial Revolution.

The Advent of Advertising Agencies.

Early Industry Control.

Ads Take to the Airwaves.

Diversity and Target Marketing.

Globalization.

Understanding the Advertising Industry.

The Client.

The Agency.

Account Management.

Research Departments.

Creative Departments.

Media Departments.

Newspapers.

Television.

Direct Mail.

Specialty Ads.

Radio.

Yellow Pages.

Magazines.

Outdoor Advertising.

The Internet and World Wide Web.

Advertising Objectives.

Name Recognition.

Spreading News about a Product.

Promoting an Image.

Adding Value to the Product.

Advocacy Ads.

Corrective Advertising.

Promoting the Public Interest.

Controversies.

Advertising and Freedom of Speech.

Truth in Advertising.

Ads Directed at Children and Teens.

Advertiser Influence on Editorial Content.

11. PUBLIC RELATIONS: Good Spin, Bad Spin.

A Brief History of Public Relations.

Precursors of Public Relations.

Public Relations Becomes a Profession.

Ivy Lee.

PR Goes to War.

The Industry Matures.

Edward and Doris Bernays.

The Great Depression.

World War II.

Public Relations and Diversity.

Public Relations Goes Global.

Embracing the New Technology.

Understanding the Public Relations Industry.

The Scope of the Industry.

PR Activities.

Research.

Counseling.

Communication.

PR Functions.

News Management.

Community Relations.

Crisis Management.

Lobbying.

Some Public Relations Tools.

Press Releases.

Video News Releases.

Press Kits.

Special Events.

Corporate Sponsorship.

Controversies.

The Ethics of PR.

Tactics.

The Big Lie.

Greenwashing.

Lobbying.

Freebies.

Lack of Attribution.

Accountability.

IV. MEDIA ISSUES.

12. MEDIA IMPACT: Making Sense of Research and Effects.

A Brief History of Media Research.

Early Studies.

The Payne Fund Studies.

The "Invasion From Mars" Study.

"The People's Choice" Study.

"The American Soldier" Studies.

Studies into the Effects of Television.

Television and Children.

Marshall McLuhan and Cultural Studies.

Television and Violence.

Current Research.

Understanding and Research Theory.

Social Science Perspectives.

Social Learning Theory.

Individual Differences.

Cultivation Theory.

Agenda Setting.

Uses and Gratifications.

Cultural Studies.

Gender Analysis.

Political-Economic Analysis.

Controversies in Media Impact.

Research vs. Conventional Wisdom.

Limitations of Research.

Replicability.

Conflicting Interpretations.

Causation and Correlation.

The Industry's Response.

13. MEDIA LAW: It Starts with the First Amendment.

A Brief History of Media Law.

The Development of a Free Speech Philosophy.

The First Amendment.

Defining Limits.

The Government's Role.

Global Media Law.

Concentration on Ownership.

New Technology.

Understanding Media Law.

The Legal System.

Personal Rights.

Defamation.

Libel.

Privacy.

Intellectual Property Rights.

Copyright.

Trademarks.

Patents.

Newsgathering Rights.

Controversies in Media Law.

Censorship.

Conflicting Rights.

14. MEDIA ETHICS: Doing Well by Doing Good.

A Brief History of Media Ethics.

The Print Era.

The Electronic Era.

Politics and Media Ethics.

Media Hoaxes.

The Digital Era.

Understanding Media Ethics.

Basic Ethical Orientations.

Absolutist Ethics.

Situation Ethics.

Philosophical Backgrounds.

Aristotle and the Golden Mean.

Machiavellian Ethics.

Kant's Categorical Imperative.

Mill's Utilitarian Principle.

Rawl's Veil of Ignorance.

Conflicting Loyalties.

Duty of Personal Conscience.

Duty to One's Organization or Firm.

Duty to One's Profession or Art.

Duty to One's Society.

Truthtelling and Its Complications.

Controversies in Media Ethics.

Bias.

Bias in Entertainment.

Conflicts of Interest.

Accountability.

CHAPTER NOTES.

APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS.

APPENDIX B. AN INTEGRATED TIMELINE OF MEDIA DATES.

INDEX.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Making Sense of the World of Media.
Studying Media.
Basic Terms.
Mediated Communication.
Mass Communication.
Mediated Interpersonal Communication.
Converging Communications Media.
A Brief History of the Media Gutenberg Revolution.
Early America.
The Industrial Revolution.
The Wireless Era.
The Global Information Age.
Understanding Media Industries.
Freedom, Diversity, and Big Business.
Reasons for Corporate Media Growth.
Economies of Scale.
Synergy.
Global Competition.
Patterns of Ownership.
Groups and Chains.
Conglomerates.
Monopolies.
Oligopolies.
Entrepreneurial Start-Ups.
Media and Governments Around the World.
Media and the Audience.
Controversies.
Impact Issues.
Legal Issues.
Ethical Issues.

II. THE PRINT INDUSTRIES.

2. BOOKS: The Durable Medium.
A Brief History of Books.
Early Forms.
The Print Revolution.
The Book in America.
Early Publishing Houses.
The Industrial Revolution.
The Mass Market Paperback.
Conglomeration and Globalization.
New Forms of the Book.
Understanding Book Publishing.
Types of Books.
Trade.
Educational.
Reference.
Professional and Other.
The Players.
The Author.
The Editors.
The Publisher.
The Bookseller.
The Reader.
Controversies.
Book Censorship.
The Blockbuster Syndrome.

3. NEWSPAPERS: Where Journalism Begins.
A Brief History of Newspapers.
The Newspaper in Early America.
Colonial Newspapers and Freedom of the Press.
Newspapers and the American Revolution.
The Beginnings of the Ethnic Press.
The Penny Press.
Yellow Journalism.
The Making of the Modern Press.
Investigative Journalism.
Responsibility and Respectability.
Jazz Journalism.
Concentration into Chains.
Leading the News Process.
Changing Publication Patterns.
Understanding Newspaper Publishing.
The Owners.
The Newspapers.
Dailies.
Local Dalies.
Weeklies.
Special Interest Newspapers.
The Staff.
The Editorial Staff.
Business Staff.
Support Services.
Wire Services.
Feature Syndicates.
Audit Bureau of Circulation.
The Reader.
Controversies.
Concentration of Ownership.
Lack of Diversity in the Newsroom.
Other Controversies.

4. MAGAZINES: Something for Everyone.
A Brief History of Magazines.
The Magazine in America.
Women's Magazines.
General Interest Magazines.
The Muckrakers.
Mass Circulation Magazines.
The Rise of Specialized Magazines.
Adapting to New Media.
Global Endeavors.
Understanding Magazine Publishing.
Types of Magazines.
Consumer Magazines.
Trade Magazines.
Public Relations Magazines.
Journals, Comic Books and Zines.
The Players.
The Publisher.
The Staff.
Editorial Staff.
Advertising.
Circulation.
Production, Promotion and New Products.
The Reader.
Controversies.
The Impact of Images.
Truth and Accuracy.
Editorial Independence.
Marketing Schemes.

III. THE ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES.

5. MOVIES: Magic from the Dream Factory.
A Brief History of Movies.
Early Movie Technology.
The Move West.
Global Influence on the Art of Film.
The Star System.
The Golden Age.
Reacting to TV.
Changing Technology.
Global Dimensions.
Understanding the Movie Industry.
Production.
The Production Company.
The Major Studies: The Big Six.
The Independents: Creative Freedom.
The People in the Credits.
The Producer.
The Director.
The Writer.
The Star.
The Editor.
Other Members of the Production Team.
Distribution.
Marketing Windows.
Domestic Theatrical.
Home Media.
Television.
The Studio Library.
Publicity and Promotion.
Exhibition.
The Theater.
The Audience.
Controversies.
Violence.
Stereotyping.
The Effects of Movie Viewing.
Censorship.
Movie Ratings.

6. RADIO: The Hits Keep Coming.
A Brief History of Radio.
Early Development.
The First Broadcasters.
The Rise of the Networks.
Early Programming.
Regulation.
The Golden Age of Radio.
Reacting to TV.
The Transistor Portable.
Format Radio.
Concentration and Fragmentation.
Digital Radio.
Understanding the Radio Industry.
Formats.
Ratings.
Industry Structure.
The Local Stations.
Groups.
Networks.
Public Radio.
Syndicators.
Station Personnel.
On-Air Talent.
The Program Director.
Other Station Personnel.
The Audience.
Controversies.
The Effects of Concentration.
Homogenized Programming.
Shock Radio.
Hate Radio.
Diversity and Censorship.

7. RECORDINGS: The Great Format Wars.
A Brief History of Recording.
Early Technology.
An Industry Develops.
Enter Radio.
Stereo and High Fidelity.
Rock and Roll Redefines the Industry.
The Format Wars Intensify.
Audio Formats.
Video Formats.
Understanding the Recording Industry.
The Major Labels: Global Goliaths.
Independents: Developing Talent.
The Players.
Promotion.
Distribution and Sales.
The Audience.
Controversies.
The Effects.
Censorship.

8. TELEVISION: Reflecting and Affecting Society.
A Brief History of Television.
Early Technology.
Development of Technical Standards.
The Beginning of Network Television.
Television's Golden Age.
Programming Growth.
Enter Cable.
Emerging Networks.
New Technologies.
Understanding the Television Industry.
Delivery Systems.
Broadcast Television.
Local Stations.
Independent Stations.
Station Groups.
Public Television.
The Cable Industry.
Alternative Delivery Systems.
Program Providers.
The Ratings.
Controversies.
The Nature of Programming.
Perpetuating Violence.
Reinforcing Stereotypes.
The Style of the News.
Lack of Educational Programming.
Parental Advisory Ratings.
Excessive Viewing.

9. THE INTERNET: Weaving the Web of the Future.
A Brief History of the Net.
Going Digital.
The World Wide Web.
Expanding Into the Public Sector.
Becoming a Mass Medium.
Global Dimensions.
Cultural Diversity on the Web.
Understanding the Internet Industry.
The Architecture of the Net.
Access Providers.
Internet Addresses.
Browsers.
Search Engines.
Interpersonal Channels.
The Economics of the Net.
Ownership Patterns.
Employment Patterns.
Revenue Sources.
Online Costs.
Controversies.
Reliability of Information.
Censorship.
Privacy.
Time Management.

IV. THE PERSUASION INDUSTRIES.

10. ADVERTISING: Feeding the Media Monster.
A Brief History of Advertising.
Advertising Comes to America.
Ads and the Industrial Revolution.
The Advent of Advertising Agencies.
Early Industry Control.
Ads Take to the Airwaves.
Diversity and Target Marketing.
Globalization.
Understanding the Advertising Industry.
The Client.
The Agency.
Account Management.
Research Departments.
Creative Departments.
Media Departments.
Newspapers.
Television.
Direct Mail.
Specialty Ads.
Radio.
Yellow Pages.
Magazines.
Outdoor Advertising.
The Internet and World Wide Web.
Advertising Objectives.
Name Recognition.
Spreading News about a Product.
Promoting an Image.
Adding Value to the Product.
Advocacy Ads.
Corrective Advertising.
Promoting the Public Interest.
Controversies.
Advertising and Freedom of Speech.
Truth in Advertising.
Ads Directed at Children and Teens.
Advertiser Influence on Editorial Content.

11. PUBLIC RELATIONS: Good Spin, Bad Spin.
A Brief History of Public Relations.
Precursors of Public Relations.
Public Relations Becomes a Profession.
Ivy Lee.
PR Goes to War.
The Industry Matures.
Edward and Doris Bernays.
The Great Depression.
World War II.
Public Relations and Diversity.
Public Relations Goes Global.
Embracing the New Technology.
Understanding the Public Relations Industry.
The Scope of the Industry.
PR Activities.
Research.
Counseling.
Communication.
PR Functions.
News Management.
Community Relations.
Crisis Management.
Lobbying.
Some Public Relations Tools.
Press Releases.
Video News Releases.
Press Kits.
Special Events.
Corporate Sponsorship.
Controversies.
The Ethics of PR.
Tactics.
The Big Lie.
Greenwashing.
Lobbying.
Freebies.
Lack of Attribution.
Accountability.

IV. MEDIA ISSUES.

12. MEDIA IMPACT: Making Sense of Research and Effects.
A Brief History of Media Research.
Early Studies.
The Payne Fund Studies.
The "Invasion From Mars" Study.
"The People's Choice" Study.
"The American Soldier" Studies.
Studies into the Effects of Television.
Television and Children.
Marshall McLuhan and Cultural Studies.
Television and Violence.
Current Research.
Understanding and Research Theory.
Social Science Perspectives.
Social Learning Theory.
Individual Differences.
Cultivation Theory.
Agenda Setting.
Uses and Gratifications.
Cultural Studies.
Gender Analysis.
Political-Economic Analysis.
Controversies in Media Impact.
Research vs. Conventional Wisdom.
Limitations of Research.
Replicability.
Conflicting Interpretations.
Causation and Correlation.
The Industry's Response.

13. MEDIA LAW: It Starts with the First Amendment.
A Brief History of Media Law.
The Development of a Free Speech Philosophy.
The First Amendment.
Defining Limits.
The Government's Role.
Global Media Law.
Concentration on Ownership.
New Technology.
Understanding Media Law.
The Legal System.
Personal Rights.
Defamation.
Libel.
Privacy.
Intellectual Property Rights.
Copyright.
Trademarks.
Patents.
Newsgathering Rights.
Controversies in Media Law.
Censorship.
Conflicting Rights.

14. MEDIA ETHICS: Doing Well by Doing Good.
A Brief History of Media Ethics.
The Print Era.
The Electronic Era.
Politics and Media Ethics.
Media Hoaxes.
The Digital Era.
Understanding Media Ethics.
Basic Ethical Orientations.
Absolutist Ethics.
Situation Ethics.
Philosophical Backgrounds.
Aristotle and the Golden Mean.
Machiavellian Ethics.
Kant's Categorical Imperative.
Mill's Utilitarian Principle.
Rawl's Veil of Ignorance.
Conflicting Loyalties.
Duty of Personal Conscience.
Duty to One's Organization or Firm.
Duty to One's Profession or Art.
Duty to One's Society.
Truthtelling and Its Complications.
Controversies in Media Ethics.
Bias.
Bias in Entertainment.
Conflicts of Interest.
Accountability.

CHAPTER NOTES.
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS.
APPENDIX B. AN INTEGRATED TIMELINE OF MEDIA DATES.
INDEX.

Read More Show Less

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