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Controlling allergens in food is a matter of increasing importance, especially in the light of recent legislation. Effective control of allergens depends on identifying allergenic ingredients, creating separate production lines for allergen-free products and effective labelling to inform consumers which products are safe to eat. In addition there is great interest in managing allergens, for example by reducing the allergenicity of foods through appropriate choice of raw food materials, post-harvest storage and food processing options. This book presents a cohesive summary of recent research undertaken to contribute to safer food production regarding food allergens.
PART 1: WHAT ARE FOOD ALLERGENS AND FOOD ALLERGIES?
FOOD ALLERGY: DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT, M. Fernandez-Rivas and B. Ballmer-Weber Introduction Offending Foods Clinical Manifestations Clinical Diagnosis of Food Allergy Management of Food Allergy Key Issues in Diagnosis and Management Future Trends Sources of Further Information and Advice References
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM AND ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO FOOD, C. Nicletti and K. Ivory Introduction The Physiological Immune Response Types of Allergic Reactions Oral Tolerance The Role of the Gut Immune System in Food Allergic Reactions Crossing the Barrier Altered Immunoregulation in Allergy Conclusions References
IMPACT OF FOOD ALLERGIES ON QUALITY OF LIFE, J. O'B Hourihane, B.M.J. de Blok, and A.E.J. Dubois Introduction Approaches to Study Quality of Life Current Knowledge Regarding Food Allergy and Quality of Life Future Trends References
ALLERGENS IN FOOD, H. Breiteneder, J.A. Jenkins, and E.N.C. Mills Introduction The Major Plant and Animal Food Allegen Protein Families Cross-Reactivity between Protein Families Protein Structure and Allergenic Potential of Proteins Structural Approaches to Reducing Allergenic Potential Foods Conclusions References
CROSS-REACTIVITY OF PLANT ALLERGENS, R. de Rees Introduction Analysing Cross-Reactivity Applications: Anticipating Risks from Cross Reactivity Future Trends References
INTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND ALLERGIC RESPONSE TO FOOD, C.A. Edwards, S. Khanna, S. Amari, J. Dore, A. Gil, R. Adam, and E. Norrin Introduction Infection and Allergy Intestinal Microbiota in Allergic Infants Modifying the Gut Microbiota in Infants to Prevent the Development of Allergenicity and Symptoms of Allergy Future Trends Sources of Further Information and Advice References
PART 2: ALLERGENS IN FOODS - FROM RAW TO PROCESSED FOODS
THE EFFECTS OF FOOD PROCESSING ON ALLERGENS, E.N.C. Mills, A.I. Sancho, J. Moreno, and H. Kostyra Introduction Effects of Food Processing on Allergen Structure and Interactions between Food Components Processing - Induced Covalent Modification of Proteins Food Processing, the Matrix, and Allergenic Potential References
IDENTIFYING FRUIT, NUT, AND VEGETABLE CULTIVARS WITH LOW ALLERGENIC LEVELS AND EFFECTS OF POST-HARVEST TREATMENTS, K. Hoffman-Sommergruber, A.I. Sancho, and L.J.W. Gilissen Introduction Apple as a Model Techniques for Detecting and Measuring Allergen Levels Identification of Cultivars Low in Allergenicity Post-Harvest Treatments and Allergen Levels Future Trends References
DEVELOPING ALLERGEN-FREE FOODS BY GENETIC MANIPULATION, P.R. Shewry and H.D. Jones Introduction Manipulation of Gene Expression in Crop Plants The Application of GM Technology to Allergen Removal Why has GM Technology not been Adapted for Commercial Production?
REDUCING ALLERGENS IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS, L. Schutte and A. Paschke Cow's Mild Proteins Factors Affecting Cow's Milk Allergenicity Milk Products Future Trends References
REDUCING ALLERGENS IN EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS, S. Gremmel and A. Paschke Egg Proteins Egg White Egg Yolk Bird-Egg Syndrome Cross Reactivity Factors Affecting Allergenicity Conclusions References
MINIMAL PROCESSING AND THE ALLERGENIC PROPERTIES IN FOOD, H. Wichers Introduction Examples of the Impact of Traditional Processing on Allergenicity Options for Novel Processing Technology to Reduce Allergenicity The Need for Standardization of an Assessment System to Evaluate Processing Effects Conclusions References
PART 3: ASSESSING ALLERGENIC RISKS AND PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGENS IN FOOD
INTEGRATIVE APPROACHES TO ASSESSING THE ALLERGENICITY IN FOODS, J.M. Wal and M. Lovik Introduction Allergenic Foods vs Allergens in Foods Effects of Processing and Digestion on the Structure of the Allergens and on the Allergenicity Factors Influencing the Development of Allergic Reactions Measure of Allergenicity (In Vitro and In Vivo Tests)
Assessing Individual Thresholds Post Market Monitoring as an Additional Step to Increase the Evidence of Non-Allergenicity Conclusions References
DETECTING ALLERGENS IN FOODS, S. Baumgartner, R. Krska, and E. Welzig Introduction Methods for Analysing Allergenic Proteins Methods for Detecting Food Allergens Developing New Rapid Tests: Dipsticks and Biosensors Future Trends References
PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF ALLERGENIC RISK ASSESSMENT OF PROTEINS, L.K. Poulson and C. Bindslev-Jensen Introduction Qualitative Considerations-Should the Protein in Question Be Considered as an Allergen?
Quantitative Considerations - Is the Protein in Question Present in Concentrations that May Elicit Symptoms in Sensitized People?
Case Studies Relating to Fish Allergy Trends in Risk Evaluation References
ALLERGEN MANAGEMENT IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY, R. Crevel Introduction Principles Objectives Issues Associated with Allergen Management Application Future Trends Sources of Further Information and Advice References
RISK COMMUNICATION ISSUES IN FOOD ALLERGY, L. Frewer and S. Pfaff Introduction Effective Communication About Food Allergy Risk Communication-An Overview Communication with Food Allergic Patients Communication with the Population in General Communication with Health Professionals Communication with Food Authorities Communication with Food Retailers Communication with Food Manufacturers Conclusions Future Trends Sources of Further Information and Advice References
CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANIPULATING ALLERGENS IN FOOD, S. Miles Introduction Key Factors Determining Consumer Acceptance of New Technologies Strategies to Improve Acceptance of New Technologies to Manipulate Allergens in Food Future Trends Sources of Further Information and Advice References