Managing Motivation: A Manager's Guide to Diagnosing and Improving Motivation


This slim motivation guidebook was written to bridge the gap between the academic research on motivation and to present it in a form that is useful to the practicing manager. In essence, the book presents a theory of motivation and how to use it without ever mentioning the word "theory". The goal of the book is to give managers a kind of mental model to use in thinking about motivation and to show them how to use this mental model for practical management actions to diagnose and improve motivation of subordinates. The book is written in three sections: Understanding Motivation, Diagnosing Motivation and Improving Motivation. The book incorporates case studies and many examples of how to successfully manage motivation.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The authors have done an excellent job translating the massive scientific literature on motivation into a more concise practical guidebook describing how to identify and address motivation challenges. The literature review is quite current. It is easy to follow and understand, with many examples." - Rob Ployhart, University of South Carolina

"The proposed book would be appropriate for a lower level college readership and possibly a management development course on work motivation. The principles described are well grounded in scientific research[,] but the book does not read like an advanced text. It is well written, free of jargon, with clear examples, brief overviews of concepts, and helpful charts." -Craig C. Pinder, Distinguished Professor of Organizational Behavior, University of Victoria, Canada

"Finally, a no nonsense book on motivation that is based on solid scientific principles that HRM can give to their line managers." -Gary Latham, Secretary of State Professor of Organizational Effectiveness Rotman School of Management University of Toronto

"When it comes to managing motivation, all too often managers rely on fads and half-truths to make critical decisions that can impact the entire organization. This book presents a logical framework for understanding motivation within organizations – one based on years of research and that will stand the test of time. Leaders who want to increase alignment, persistence and intensity will find that they will make better decisions using the insights Pritchard and Ashwood have described." -Pete Ramstad, Vice President, The Toro Company

"This slim volume provides a literal roadmap for managers to follow, beginning with a lucid discussion of what exactly is meant by motivation. The book then takes managers through a step by step process of how to identify behaviors that need to change, and then how to go about changing those behaviors. The steps are clearly laid out and a continuing case helps make the discussion even more concrete. The suggestions and recommendations are based on years of theoretical development and subsequent research, yet Pritchard and Ashwood discuss conepts clearly and systematically, in terms that any manager can understand and follow. I would recommend this book to any manager who has ever faced a problem trying to motivate employees,or any student who wanted a quick review of the practical side of theories of motivation" -Angelo DeNisi, Dean, A. B. Freeman School of Business, Tulane University

"Bob Pritchard and Elissa Ashwood have done a terrific job in capturing the fundamental truths of what we know about motivating people. Bob Pritchard is a well known expert on motivation in organizations. They provide a very useful roadmap to diagnosing and addressing motivation issues at work. Managers will learn a practical and straightforward approach to motivating people. This book should be included in any course or training program that discusses employee motivation." -Rob Silzer, Managing Director, HR Assessment and Development, Inc.

"This excellent book should help first-line supervisors and managers to use concepts in motivation to help their employees and organizations to succeed. The theory and conceptual treatment in the book are sound, but what's different here is the academic foundation gets nicely translated into highly practical and actionable suggestions." -Wally Borman, CEO, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Professor, University of South Florida

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781135419325
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis, Inc.
  • Publication date: 5/12/2008
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eTextbook
  • Pages: 152
  • File size: 3 MB

Meet the Author

Robert D. Pritchard is currently Professor of Psychology and Management at the University of Central Florida. His PhD is from the University of Minnesota in Industrial /Organizational Psychology. He recently won the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award at the SIOP meeting (2002) and is a Fellow of APS and APA .He has been the series editor for the Society for Organizational Psychology Frontiers Book Series since 2003. He is currently a board member of the following journals:

Organizational Behavior and Human Performance

Motivation and Emotion

Journal of Applied Psychology

Elissa L . Ashwood is currently Director , Organizational Development and Training for AIG Retirement Services, Los Angeles. Formerly she was Vice president, Finance for Citibank in New York.

She has an MBA from William E Simon Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Rochester and is currently studying for a Certificate in Organization Design from U of Southern California, Marshall School of Business.

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Table of Contents

Preface     xiii
Understanding Motivation
Motivation and Management     3
Basic Assumptions About People     4
People Have a Fundamental Need to Do a Good Job     4
People Want Control at Work     5
People Do Not Want to Be Held Accountable for Things They Cannot Control     5
People Want Feedback but Don't Like to Be Evaluated     5
People Want to Be Valued     6
People Do Not Want Their Time Wasted     6
So What Is Motivation?     6
Why Is Understanding Motivation So Important?     7
Motivation Is Understandable     8
Motivation Is a Process     8
Motivation Is a Fundamental Issue, Not a Fad     8
Motivation Is a Long-Term Issue     8
Motivation Is Logical     8
Motivation Is Manageable     9
Motivation Is Also Work Strategy     9
Motivation Is a Collaboration     9
With High Motivation, Everybody Wins     9
Using This Book     10
One-Minute Assessment     10
Symptoms of Low Motivation     10
Scoring     10
Key Points     12
Understanding Needs and Energy     13
TheEnergy Pool     13
Needs     14
How Strong Is a Need?     14
Need Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction     16
Need Strength Versus Need Satisfaction     16
Actual Versus Anticipated Need Satisfaction     17
Using What We Know About Needs     17
Key Points     18
Understanding Motivation     19
The Five Components of Motivation     19
Actions     19
Results     20
Evaluations     21
Outcomes     23
Need Satisfaction     23
Maximizing Motivation     24
Key Points     24
Dynamics of the Motivation Model     25
Action-to-Results Connections     26
Results-to-Evaluation Connections     27
Evaluation-to-Outcome Connections     31
Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Connections     33
Awareness of Components of the Model     35
Motivation as a Process     37
Key Points     38
Diagnosing and Improving Motivation
An Extended Case Study     39
Planning a Motivation Improvement Project     43
Plan the Project     43
Unit Size      44
Diagnose the Group, Individuals, or Both?     44
Current Level of Motivation     44
Value of the Diagnosis     45
Set Timeline Expectations     45
Investigate the Strength of Each Connection and Possible Causes     45
Gathering Data     46
Introducing the Project to a Group or Individual     47
Identify Appropriate Solutions     48
Decide Which Problem and Solution to Tackle and Measure Results     48
Key Points     48
Extended Case: Part 2     49
Diagnosing Action-to-Results Connections     53
Understanding Action-to-Results Connections     53
Determinants of Action-to-Results Connections     57
Capabilities     57
Resources     58
Authority     59
Work Strategies     60
Action-to-Results Diagnosis Roadmap     61
Extended Case: Part 3     64
Monday, March 11, 11 a.m. Phone Meeting     64
Diagnosing Results-to-Evaluation Connections     69
Understanding Results-to-Evaluation Connections     69
Which Results Are Measured and Evaluated?     70
Simultaneous Measurement and Evaluation     71
Determinants of Results-to-Evaluation Connections     71
Knowing What Results Are Valued     72
Consistency With the Broader Organization     73
Agreement Among Evaluators     74
Effective Feedback System     76
A Good Feedback System Needs to Address All These Issues     77
Results-to-Evaluation Diagnosis Roadmap     80
Finding Unclear Connections     82
Finding Frequently Changing Connections     82
Extended Case: Part 4     85
Tuesday, March 19, 9 a.m. Regional Meeting at Headquarters     85
Diagnosing Evaluation-to-Outcomes Connections     91
Understanding Evaluation-to-Outcome Connections     91
Examples     91
Determinants of Evaluation-to-Outcome Connections     95
Outcomes     95
Consistency     96
Evaluation-to-Outcome Connection Diagnosis Roadmap     98
Accuracy     98
Extended Case: Part 5     101
Friday, April 5 Conference Call     101
Diagnosing Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Connections     103
Understanding Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Connections     103
Examples     104
Determinants of Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Connections      105
Current Need State     106
Number of Needs an Outcome Satisfies     108
Fairness     109
Expectations and Comparisons     109
Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Diagnosis Roadmap     111
Accuracy     112
Importance of Other Reward Systems     112
Extended Case: Part 6     113
Monday, April 5     113
Improving Motivation
Making Improvements     119
Action-to-Results Connection Improvements     119
Capability     120
Resources     121
Authority     121
Work Strategies     121
Results-to-Evaluation Connection Improvements     122
Knowing Valued Results     122
Consistency With Broader Organization     122
Agreement Among Evaluators     123
The Feedback System     124
Evaluation-to-Outcome Connection Improvements     128
Number of Outcomes     128
Consequences of Good and Poor Performance     129
Consistency Across People and Time     130
Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Connection Improvements     131
Current Need State     131
Number of Needs Satisfied      132
Fairness of the Reward System     132
Expectations     133
Comparison     133
Extended Case: Conclusion     134
Predicting the Effects of Changes     137
Implementing Financial Incentives     137
Financial Incentives and Motivation     138
Financial Incentives and Action-to-Results Connections     138
Capability     138
Resources     139
Authority and Work Strategies     140
Financial Incentives and the Results-to-Evaluation Connections     140
The Feedback System     140
Financial Incentives and Evaluation-to-Outcome Connections     145
Goal or Continuous Improvement Design?     146
Consistency Across People and Time     148
Financial Incentives and the Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Connection     149
Incentives and Motivation     150
Some Concluding Comments     153
Our Approach to Assessing Motivation     155
Overall Connections     155
Conclusions: Overall Connections     155
Determinants     156
Action-to-Results Determinants     156
Conclusions: Action-to-Results Determinants      156
Results-to-Evaluation Determinants     156
Conclusions: Results-to-Evaluation Determinants     160
Evaluation-to-Outcome Determinants     160
Conclusions: Evaluation-to-Outcome Determinants     160
Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Determinants     160
Conclusions: Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Determinants     160
Prioritized List of Recommendations     160
Drawing Connection Graphs     163
References and Bibliography     167
Scholarly Works on Motivation     167
Designing Feedback Systems     168
Index     169
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