Manual of Mineral Science / Edition 23

Manual of Mineral Science / Edition 23

by Cornelis Klein, Barbara Dutrow, Barbara Dutrow

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ISBN-10: 0471721573

ISBN-13: 9780471721574

Pub. Date: 02/26/2007

Publisher: Wiley

First published in 1848, authored by J.D. Dana, the Manual of Mineral Science now enters its 23rd edition. This new edition, authored by Cornelis Klein of the University of New Mexico and Barbara Dutrow of Louisiana State continues in the tradition of its predecessors as the standard textbook in Mineralogy, Mineral Science, Earth Materials, and Rocks and Minerals


First published in 1848, authored by J.D. Dana, the Manual of Mineral Science now enters its 23rd edition. This new edition, authored by Cornelis Klein of the University of New Mexico and Barbara Dutrow of Louisiana State continues in the tradition of its predecessors as the standard textbook in Mineralogy, Mineral Science, Earth Materials, and Rocks and Minerals courses. Over the years, the Manual of Mineral Science has brought its authority and comprehensive approach to students the world over: Since the 19th edition, the Manual of Mineral Science has been translated into 4 different languages; Russian, Spanish, Chinese, and Italian, and will soon be available in Slovak.

Readable, User-friendly, and Searchable: Now organized into 22 chapters, the 23rd edition of the Manual of Mineral Science, packages coherent subject matter into smaller, more easily accessible units. Each of the 22 chapters has a new and expanded introductory statement, which gives the user a quick overview of what is to come. This feature is preceded by a new illustration that highlights some aspect of the subject in that particular chapter. Additionally, many of the first 14 chapters are independent of each other, allowing for greater flexibility in an instructor's preferred subject sequence.

Expanded CD-ROM: The accompanying Mineralogy Tutorial CD-ROM (3.0) has been expanded to include new sections on "graphical representation of mineral chemistry" and "twinning." These additions compliment the already robust CD-ROM, which includes a large number of animations that deal with three-dimensional concepts (in crystal chemistry and crystallography) that are difficult to visualize from a book illustration, aswell as brief text pages for 104 of the most common minerals, with links to crystal structure illustrations, compositional and assemblage diagrams, stability and phase diagrams, and solid solution mechanisms.

Digital Images for Classroom Presentation: PowerPoint images, organized by chapter, are now available to enhance classroom presentation. Available on the instructor's companion site, the PowerPoints include: 160 scientific illustrations, 72 color photographs of minerals in Plates I through VIII, 23 new color specimen photos, and gemstones from Plates IX through XII. Additionally, all black and white figures from the textbook are available in digital form in the online Image Gallery. The 23rd edition also offers a complete online glossary. Updated Visuals: The majority of illustrations in this edition were re-rendered and/or redesigned and many new photographs, mainly of mineral specimens, have been added.

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Revised Edition
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Table of Contents

Introduction     1
What is a Mineral?     2
Defining a Mineral More Broadly     3
Where Do We Find Minerals and What Can We Learn?     3
Minerals as Integral to Earth Science     4
Mineralogy as Important to Other Fields     7
Disciplines of Mineral Science     9
History of Mineralogy     10
Minerals in Our Lives     15
Naming of Minerals     16
References and Literature of Mineralogy     16
What's to Come     17
Standard Mineralogical Reference Works and Further Reading     17
Physical Properties of Minerals     19
Crystal Shape     20
Properties Based on Interaction with Light     23
Luster     23
Color     24
Streak     24
Play of Colors     24
Chatoyancy and Asterism     26
Luminescence     26
Fluorescence and Phosphorescence     26
Mechanical Properties     28
Cleavage     28
Parting     29
Fracture     29
Hardness     30
Tenacity     31
Properties Related to Mass     32
Density and Specific Gravity     32
Factors That Affect Density and Specific Gravity     32
Average Specific Gravity     33
Measurement of Specific Gravity     33
Other Diagnostic Properties     34
Magnetism     34
Radioactivity     34
Solubility in Acids     34
Other Sensory Tests     35
Electrical Properties (of Industrial Use)     35
Piezoelectricity     35
Pyroelectricity     36
References and Further Reading     36
Elements of Crystal Chemistry     37
The Atom     37
Electron Configuration     38
Chemical Elements, Electronic Configuration, and the Periodic Table     46
Atomic and Ionic Radii     46
The Ion     51
Bonding Forces in Crystals     53
Bonds with Valence Electrons     53
Ionic Bond     53
Metallic Bond     56
Covalent Bond     58
Estimation of the Character of the Bonding Mechanism     59
Electronegativity     59
Bonds That Do Not Involve Valence Electrons     62
Van der Waals Bond     62
Hydrogen Bond     63
Crystals with More Than One Bond Type     64
References and Further Reading     64
Aspects of Crystal Structures     66
Coordination of Ions     66
Pauling's Rules     68
The Coordination Principle     69
Other Coordination Geometries     73
Coordination of Common Cations     73
The Electrostatic Valency Principle     74
Uniform Bond Strength     75
Nonuniform Bond Strength     75
Sharing of Polyhedral Elements, 1     76
Sharing of Polyhedral Elements, 2     76
The Principle of Parsimony     76
Additional Controls on Mineral Structures     78
Isostructuralism     79
Polymorphism     79
Illustration of Crystal Structures     80
Examples of Selected Common Structure Types     83
NaCl Structure     84
CsCl Structure     84
Sphalerite (ZnS) Structure     85
CaF[subscript 2] Structure     85
Rutile (TiO[subscript 2]) Structure     86
Perovskite(ABO[subscript 3]) Structure     86
Spinel (AB[subscript 2]O[subscript 4]) Structure     87
Silicate Structures     89
References and Further Reading     89
Chemical Composition of Minerals     90
Composition of the Earth     90
Composition of the Earth's Crust     91
Composition of the Mantle     93
Composition of the Core     95
Composition of the Earth     95
Variability of Mineral Compositions     96
Substitutional Solid Solution     97
Coupled Substitution     98
Interstitial Solid Solution     98
Omission Solid Solution     99
Determination of a Mineral Formula     99
Calculation of Mineral Formulae from Metal Percentages     100
Mineral Formulae from Oxide Weight Percentages     101
Mineral Formulae for Hydrous Silicates     103
Graphical Representation of Mineral Composition     104
Linear or Bar Diagrams     104
Triangular Diagrams     105
Triangular Representation of More Than Three Components     106
References and Further Reading     108
Crystallography: External Symmetry of Minerals     109
Symmetry     111
Symmetry Elements (Without Translation)     114
Rotation      114
Reflection (Mirror)     117
Center of Symmetry     118
Rotation with Inversion     118
Symmetry Notation     120
Combinations of Rotations     121
Combinations of Rotation Axes and Mirrors     123
Combinations of Symmetry Operations Without Translation     125
Crystal Systems     129
Crystallographic Axes     129
Crystallographic Notation for Planes     131
Face Intercepts     131
Miller Indices     133
Zones     134
Crystal Form     134
Names of Forms     137
Illustration and Description of Forms     138
References and Further Reading     142
Bilateral Symmetry in Humans and Architecture     112
Internal Order and Symmetry In Minerals     143
Translation Directions and Distances     144
One-Dimensional Order-Rows     145
Two-Dimensional Order-Plane Lattices     146
Rotation Angle Restrictions     150
Symmetry Content of Planar Motifs     152
Symmetry Content of Plane Lattices     153
Two-Dimensional Plane Groups     154
Three-Dimensional Order      156
Three-Dimensional Lattices     156
Symmetry Elements in 3D that Involve Translation: Screw Axes and Glide Planes     164
Space Groups     165
References and Further Reading     168
Patterns in Our Environment     151
Periodic Drawings     158
Crystal Projections     169
Spherical Projection     170
Stereographic Projection     172
Stereographic Net and the Mechanics of Plotting     174
Measuring Crystal Angles     175
Projection of an Orthorhombic Crystal     177
Projection of a Monoclinic Crystal     179
References and Further Reading     181
Selected Point Groups and Further Aspects of Space Groups     182
Nineteen of the Thirty-Two Point Groups     183
Triclinic System     185
Monoclinic System     186
Orthorhombic System     187
Tetragonal System     191
Hexagonal System     194
Isometric System     200
Characteristics of Isometric Crystals     207
Representations of Some Space Groups     208
Space Group Derivation     208
Illustrations of Space Groups     208
References and Further Reading     216
Crystal Growth and Defects; Twinning, Color, and Magnetism     217
Crystal Growth     218
Vectorial Properties     220
Structural Complexities and Defects     222
Point Defects     222
Line Defects     223
Planar Defects     223
Other Defects     225
Mineralogic Examples of Defect Structures     225
Intergrowths of Crystals     226
Twinning     227
Twin Classification     228
Common Twin Laws     231
Triclinic System     231
Monoclinic System     231
Orthorhombic System     232
Tetragonal System     232
Hexagonal System     232
Isometric System     233
Origin of Color     234
Crystal Field Transitions     235
Molecular Orbital Transitions     239
Color Centers     239
Physical Processes as a Cause of Color     240
Origin of Magnetic Properties     241
Mineraloids (Noncrystalline Minerals)     243
References and Further Reading     244
Mineral Stability and Phase Diagrams      245
Stability, Activation Energy, and Equilibrium     245
Introductory Thermodynamics     246
Phase Diagrams     249
Components     250
Examples of Mineral Stability (Phase) Diagrams     250
One-Component Diagrams     250
Two-Component Diagrams     253
Three- or More-Component Diagrams     256
Diagrams for Mineral Reactions Involving H[subscript 2]O or CO[superscript 2]     262
Eh-pH Diagrams     263
References and Further Reading     265
Post-Crystallization Processes in Minerals     266
Polymorphic Reactions     267
Reconstructive Polymorphism     269
Displacive Polymorphism     271
Order-Disorder Polymorphism     272
Polytypism     274
Secondary Twinning     275
Exsolution     276
Radioactivity and Metamictization     282
Metamict Minerals     282
Pseudomorphism     284
References and Further Reading     285
Optical Microscopy     287
Nature of Light     288
Reflection and Refraction     289
Refractive Index and Snell's Law     289
Total Reflection and the Critical Angle     290
Isotropic and Anisotropic Crystals     290
Polarized Light     291
Polarized Light by Absorption     291
Polarized Light by Reflection     291
The Polarizing Microscope     291
Microscopic Examination of Minerals and Rocks     293
Isotropic Crystals and the Becke Line     293
Uniaxial Crystals     294
Uniaxial Crystals Between Crossed Polars     295
Extinction     295
Interference     296
Accessory Plates     297
Uniaxial Crystals in Convergent Polarized Light     297
Determination of Optic Sign     298
Sign of Elongation     299
Absorption and Dichroism     299
Biaxial Crystals     300
The Biaxial Indicatrix     300
Optical Orientation in Biaxial Crystals     301
Biaxial Crystals in Convergent Polarized Light     302
The Apparent Optic Angle     302
Determination of Optic Sign of Biaxial Crystals     303
Absorption and Pleochroism     304
Other Properties     304
Optical Properties of Opaque Minerals     304
References and Further Reading      306
Analytical and Imaging Methods in Mineral Science     307
Technique Overview     308
Techniques That Use X-rays     308
X-ray Diffraction Techniques (XRD)     308
X-ray Spectra     308
Diffraction Effects and the Bragg Equation     311
Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction and Structure Analysis     313
The Determination of Crystal Structures     314
X-ray Powder Diffraction and Mineral Identification     317
X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF)     321
Electron Beam Techniques     323
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)     323
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)     324
Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA)     326
Additional Techniques     328
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)     328
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)     329
References and Further Reading     330
Crystal Chemistry and Systematic Descriptions of Native Elements, Sulfides, and Sulfosalts     331
Mineral Classification     332
Crystal Chemistry of Native Elements, Sulfides, and Sulfosalts     333
Native Elements     333
Native Metals     333
Native Semimetals      335
Native Nonmetals     335
Sulfides     337
Sulfosalts     340
Systematic Descriptions     341
Native Metals     341
Native Nonmetals     345
Sulfides, Sulfarsenides, and Arsenides     351
Sulfosalts     366
References and Further Reading     367
Economic Geology     338
Diamond Synthesis     348
Veins and Vein Mineralization     352
Sulfide Minerals as Ores and as Mining-Related Contaminants     354
Crystal Chemistry and Systematic Descriptions of Oxides, Hydroxides, and Halides     368
Crystal Chemistry of Oxides     368
Crystal Chemistry of Hydroxides     373
Crystal Chemistry of Halides     374
Systematic Descriptions     375
Oxides     375
Hydroxides     390
Halides     393
References and Further Reading     398
Ore Minerals for the Steel Industry     380
Evaporite Minerals     394
Crystal Chemistry and Systematic Descriptions of Carbonates, Nitrates, Borates, Sulfates, Chromates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Phosphates, Arsenates, and Vanadates     399
Crystal Chemistry of Carbonates      400
Calcite Group     401
Aragonite Group     401
Dolomite Group     402
Crystal Chemistry of Nitrates     403
Crystal Chemistry of Borates     403
Crystal Chemistry of Sulfates     403
Crystal Chemistry of Tungstates and Molybdates     405
Crystal Chemistry of Phosphates, Arsenaes, and Vanadates     406
Systematic Descriptions     407
Carbonates     407
Nitrates     416
Borates     416
Sulfates and Chromates     420
Tungstates and Molybdates     425
Phosphates, Arsenates, and Vanadates     427
References and Further Reading     433
The Source of Chemicals in Fertilizers     429
Crystal Chemistry of Rock-Forming Silicates     434
Nesosilicates     438
Sorosilicates     441
Cyclosilicates     442
Inosilicates     446
Pyroxene Group     447
Pyroxenoid Group     451
Amphibole Group     452
Phyllosilicates     456
Tectosilicates     467
SiO[subscript 2] Group     468
Feldspar Group      470
Structure     471
Composition     474
Feldspathoid Group     477
Zeolite Group     477
References and Further Reading     482
Systematic Descriptions of Rock-Forming Silicates     483
Nesosilicates     484
Phenacite Group     484
Olivine Group     484
Garnet Group     487
Al[subscript 2]SiO[subscript 2] Group     491
Humite Group     495
Sorosilicates     498
Epidote Group     499
Cyclosilicates     502
Inosilicates     505
Pyroxene Group     505
Pyroxenoid Group     511
Amphibole Group     514
Phyllosilicates     519
Serpentine Group     519
Clay Mineral Group     521
Mica Group     525
Chlorite Group     531
Related Species     532
Tectosilicates     534
SiO[subscript 2] Group     534
Feldspar Group     539
K-Feldspars     539
Feldspathoid Group     544
Scapolite Series     547
Zeolite Group     549
References and Further Reading     552
The Two Most Common Crustal Rock Types: Basalt and Granite     507
Asbestos: A Mixture and Mix-Up of Minerals     516
Clay Minerals and Some of Their Applications     523
Mineral Dust in the Environment     537
Minerals in Pegmatites     542
Zeolites and Their Many Unique Properties     550
Gem Minerals     554
Gem Minerals     555
Gem Qualifications     555
Types of Gem Cuts     556
The Early Uses of Gems     556
Important Gems-Past and Present     557
Diamond     557
Beryl     558
Ruby and Sapphire     559
Opal     559
Jade     560
Chrysoberyl     560
Topaz     560
Tourmaline     561
Quartz     561
Turquoise     561
Garnet     561
Zircon     562
Olivine     562
Gem Properties and Instruments for Their Determination     562
Physical Properties     562
Cleavage and Fracture     562
Hardness     562
Specific Gravity      562
Fluorescence     563
Instruments for Studying Gems     563
Observation     563
Hand Lens     563
The Microscope     563
The Polariscope     564
Refractive Index and the Refractometer     564
Dispersion     566
The Dichroscope     566
Color Filters     567
The Spectroscope     567
X-ray Diffraction     568
Synthesis of Gem Materials     568
Verneuil Process     568
Czochralski Process     568
Flux Growth     568
Hydrothermal Growth     568
Treatment of Gemstones     569
Dyeing     569
Heat Treatment     569
Irradiation     569
Synthetic and Treated Gems     569
Beryl     569
Chrysoberyl     570
Corundum (Ruby and Sapphire)     570
Diamond     570
Jade     570
Opal     571
Quartz     571
Rutile     572
Spinel     572
Turquoise     572
Manufactured Gem Materials Without Natural Counterparts      572
Garnet     572
Strontium Titanate     572
Cubic Zirconia     573
References and Further Reading     573
Mineral Assemblages: Introduction to Rock Types     574
Igneous Rocks     575
General Occurrence and Texture     576
Chemical Composition     576
Classification     578
Mineralogical Composition     580
Plutonic Rocks     580
Volcanic Rocks     583
Fragmental Igneous Rocks     585
Pegmatites     585
Sedimentary Rocks     585
Chemical Composition     586
Mineralogical Composition     586
Classification     588
Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocks     585
Allochemical Carbonate Rocks     590
Orthochemical Sedimentary Rocks     593
Further Description of Rock Types     594
Metamorphic Rocks     596
Chemical Composition     597
Mineralogical Composition     597
Rock Types     602
References and Further Reading     603
Determinative Tables     604
General Classification of the Tables      605
Luster-Metallic or Submetallic     605
Luster-Nonmetallic     605
Minerals Arranged by Several Physical Properties     606
Minerals Arranged According to Increasing Specific Gravity     635
Nonopaque Minerals and Some Synthetic Compounds Arranged According to Increasing Refractive index     637
Outstanding Contributions to the Mineral Sciences     639
Development of Models for the Atom     642
Distribution of Forms in 32 Point Groups, Arranged by Crystal System     646
Space Groups as an Expression of Morphology and Structure     648
Mineral Index     653
Subject Index     667

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