Manufacturing Engineering & Technology / Edition 7

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Overview

For courses in manufacturing processes at two- or four-year schools. This text also serves as a valuable reference text for professionals.

An up-to-date text that provides a solid background in manufacturing processes

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 7/e , presents a mostly qualitative description of the science, technology, and practice of manufacturing. This includes detailed descriptions of manufacturing processes and the manufacturing enterprise that will help introduce students to important concepts.

With a total of 120 examples and case studies, up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of all topics, and superior two-color graphics, this text provides a solid background for manufacturing students and serves as a valuable reference text for professionals.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
New edition of a text that provides balanced coverage of relevant fundamentals and real-world practices so that the student can understand the important and often complex interrelationships among the many technical and economic factors involved in manufacturing. In the 40 chapters, Kalpakjian (Illinois Institute of Technology) and Schmid (aerospace and mechanical engineering, U. of Notre Dame) discuss fundamentals of materials (their behavior and manufacturing properties), metal-casting processes and equipment, forming and shaping processes and equipment, material-removal processes and machines, joining processes and equipment, surface technology, common aspects of manufacturing, and manufacturing in a competitive environment. Illustrated with b&w charts and drawings. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780133128741
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 4/11/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 1224
  • Sales rank: 382,726
  • Product dimensions: 8.30 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Serope Kalpakjian is a professor emeritus of mechanical and materials engineering at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. He is the author of Mechanical Processing of Materials (Van Nostrand, 1967) and co-author of Lubricants and Lubrication in Metalworking Operations (with E.S. Nachtman, Dekker, 1985). Both of the first editions of his books Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials (Addison-Wesley, 1984) and Manufacturing Engineering and Technology (Addison-Wesley, 1989) have received the M. Eugene Merchant Manufacturing Textbook Award of SME. He has conducted research in several areas in manufacturing processes; is the author of numerous technical papers and articles in professional journals, handbooks, and encyclopedias; and has edited several conference proceedings. He also has been editor and co-editor of various technical journals and has served on the editorial board of Encyclopedia Americana.

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Professor Kalpakjian has received the Forging Industry Educational and Research Foundation Best Paper Award (1966), the Excellence in Teaching Award from the Illinois Institute of Technology (1970), the ASME Centennial Medallion (1980), the SME International Education Award (1989), a Person of the Millennium Award from IIT (1999), and the Albert Easton White Outstanding Teacher Award from ASM International (2000); the SME Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award for 2002 was named after him. Professor Kalpakjian is a life fellow of ASME, fellow of SME, fellow and life member of ASM International, fellow emeritus of The International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP), and a past president and founding member of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution/SME. He is a high honors graduate of Robert College (Istanbul), Harvard University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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Steven R. Schmid is an associate professor in the Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Notre Dame, where he teaches and conducts research in the general areas of manufacturing, machine design, and tribology. He received his bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology (with Honors) and master’s and Ph.D. degrees, both in mechanical engineering, from Northwestern University. He has received numerous awards, including the John T. Parsons Award from SME (2000), the Newkirk Award from ASME (2000), the Kaneb Center Teaching Award (2000 and 2003), and the Ruth and Joel Spira Award for Excellence in Teaching (2005). He is also the recipient of a National Science Foundation CAREERS Award (1996) and an ALCOA Foundation Award (1994).

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Professor Schmid is the author of over 100 technical papers, has co-authored Fundamentals of Machine Elements (McGraw-Hill), Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication (Dekker), Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials (Prentice Hall), and has contributed two chapters to the CRC Handbook of Modern Tribology. He is a registered professional engineer, a certified manufacturing engineer of SME, a member of the North American Research Institution, and a fellow of the ASME. In 2012, he was named an ASME Foundation Swanson Fellow and served as Assistant Director for Research Partnerships at the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office, National Institute for Science and Technology.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

The field of manufacturing engineering and technology continues to advance rapidly, transcending disciplines and driving economic growth. This challenging and broad topic has continued to incorporate new concepts at an increasing rate, making manufacturing a dynamic and exciting field of study. In preparing this fourth edition, our most important goal throughout has been to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art textbook on manufacturing, which also encompasses the additional aims of motivating and challenging students.

As in previous editions, the text presents topics with a balanced coverage of relevant fundamentals and real-world practices, so that the student develops an understanding of the important and often complex interrelationships among the many technical and economic factors involved in manufacturing.

This new edition basically follows the same introductory nature, format, organization, and balance as the third edition. It has retained its emphasis on (a) the influence of materials and processing parameters in understanding manufacturing processes and operations; (b) design considerations, product quality, and manufacturing cost factors; and (c) the domestic and global competitive context of each manufacturing process and operation, highlighted with illustrative examples.

STUDY AIDS

  • Presentation of each topic within a larger context of manufacturing engineering and technology, using extensive schematic diagrams and flowcharts.
  • Emphasis on the practical uses of the concepts and information presented.
  • Analogies, discussions, and problems designed to stimulate the student'scuriosity about consumer and industrial products and how they are manufactured.
  • Extensive reference material, including numerous tables, illustrations, graphs, and bibliographies.
  • Numerous illustrative examples and case studies to highlight important concepts and techniques.
  • Tables comparing advantages and limitations of manufacturing processes.
  • A summary, list of key terms, and concise description of current trends at the end of each chapter.

WHAT IS NEW IN THIS EDITION

  • Several new examples and case studies have been added.
  • There are now a total of almost 2,200 questions and problems, about a quarter of them new to this edition.
  • Summaries at the end of each chapter have been completely rewritten and expanded.
  • The bibliographies at the end of each chapter have been thoroughly updated.
  • More cross-references have been made throughout the text to other sections and chap ters in the book.
  • New or expanded topics include the following:
  • Abrasive belts; microreplication
  • Atomic force microscope
  • Biodegradable plastics
  • Bundle drawing
  • Carbon foam
  • Chemical mechanical polishing
  • Coatings
  • Compliant end effector
  • Conductive graphite fibers
  • Deburring
  • Diamond-like carbon coating
  • Die failures
  • Die manufacturing methods
  • Electrically conducting adhesives
  • Friction stir welding
  • Hexapod machine tools
  • ISO 14000 standard
  • Joining plastics
  • Laser interferometry
  • Laser peening
  • Linear motor drives for machine tools
  • Microencapsulated powders
  • Microgram carbides
  • Micromachining
  • Nanofabrication
  • Nanomaterials
  • Nanopowders
  • Octree representation
  • Overmolding
  • Plastics, common trade names
  • Porous aluminum
  • Product liability examples
  • Pulsed electrochemical machining
  • QS 9000 standard
  • Rapid prototyping
  • Reflow soldering
  • Robustness
  • Rotary ultrasonic machining
  • Superconductor processing
  • Taguchi loss function
  • Thermal effects in machine tools
  • Titanic: brittle fracture example
  • Total productive maintenance
  • Transfer/injection molding
  • Water-jet peening
  • Wave soldering

In response to comments and suggestions by numerous reviewers, several major and minor changes have also been made throughout the text. A page-by-page comparison with the third edition will show that literally thousands of changes have been made for improved clarity and completeness.

AUDIENCE

As in the previous editions, this fourth edition has been written for students in mechanical, manufacturing, industrial, aerospace, and metallurgical and materials engineering programs. It is hoped that by reading and studying this book, students will come to appreciate the vital nature of manufacturing engineering as an academic subject that is as exciting, challenging, and important as any other engineering and technology discipline.

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Table of Contents

Preface xxiii

About the Authors xxvii

General Introduction 1

I.1 What is Manufacturing? 1

I.2 Product Design and Concurrent Engineering 6

I.3 Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and Service 10

I.4 Green Design and Manufacturing 11

I.5 Selection of Materials 13

I.6 Selection of Manufacturing Processes 16

I.7 Computer-integrated Manufacturing 25

I.8 Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management 28

I.9 Lean Production and Agile Manufacturing 30

I.10 Manufacturing Costs and Global Competition 31

I.11 Trends in Manufacturing 32

Part I: Fundamentals of Materials: Behavior and Manufacturing Properties 35

1 The Structure of Metals 38

1.1 Introduction 38

1.2 Types of Atomic Bonds 39

1.3 The Crystal Structure of Metals 40

1.4 Deformation and Strength of Single Crystals 42

1.5 Grains and Grain Boundaries 45

1.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Metals 48

1.7 Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth 49

1.8 Cold, Warm, and Hot Working 50

Summary 51 Key Terms 51 Bibliography 52

Review Questions 52 Qualitative Problems 52

Quantitative Problems 53 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 54

2 Mechanical Behavior, Testing, and Manufacturing Properties of Materials 55

2.1 Introduction 55

2.2 Tension 56

2.3 Compression 65

2.4 Torsion 66

2.5 Bending (Flexure) 67

2.6 Hardness 67

2.7 Fatigue 73

2.8 Creep 74

2.9 Impact 74

2.10 Failure and Fracture of Materials 75

2.11 Residual Stresses 80

2.12 Work, Heat, and Temperature 81

Summary 82 Key Terms 83 Bibliography 83

Review Questions 84 Qualitative Problems 84

Quantitative Problems 85 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 86

3 Physical Properties of Materials 88

3.1 Introduction 88

3.2 Density 89

3.3 Melting Point 92

3.4 Specific Heat 92

3.5 Thermal Conductivity 93

3.6 Thermal Expansion 93

3.7 Electrical, Magnetic, and Optical Properties 94

3.8 Corrosion Resistance 95

Summary 97 Key Terms 98 Bibliography 98

Review Questions 98 Qualitative Problems 98

Quantitative Problems 99 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 99

4 Metal Alloys: Their Structure and Strengthening by Heat Treatment 101

4.1 Introduction 101

4.2 Structure of Alloys 102

4.3 Phase Diagrams 104

4.4 The Iron—Carbon System 107

4.5 The Iron—Iron-carbide Phase Diagram and the Development of Microstructures in Steels 108

4.6 Cast Irons 109

4.7 Heat Treatment of Ferrous Alloys 111

4.8 Hardenability of Ferrous Alloys 113

4.9 Heat Treatment of Nonferrous Alloys and Stainless Steels 117

4.10 Case Hardening 119

4.11 Annealing 121

4.12 Heat-treating Furnaces and Equipment 123

4.13 Design Considerations for Heat Treating 124

Review Questions 126 Qualitative Problems 127

Quantitative Problems 127 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 127

5 Ferrous Metals and Alloys: Production, General Properties, and Applications 128

5.1 Introduction 128

5.2 Production of Iron and Steel 129

5.3 Casting of Ingots 132

5.4 Continuous Casting 133

5.5 Carbon and Alloy Steels 135

5.6 Stainless Steels 142

5.7 Tool and Die Steels 144

Summary 145 Key Terms 146 Bibliography 147

Review Questions 147 Qualitative Problems 147

Quantitative Problems 148 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 148

6 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys: Production, General Properties, and Applications 150

6.1 Introduction 150

6.2 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 151

6.3 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 155

6.4 Copper and Copper Alloys 156

6.5 Nickel and Nickel Alloys 158

6.6 Superalloys 159

6.7 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 160

6.8 Refractory Metals and Alloys 161

6.9 Beryllium 162

6.10 Zirconium 162

6.11 Low-melting Alloys 162

6.12 Precious Metals 164

6.13 Shape-memory Alloys (Smart Materials) 164

6.14 Amorphous Alloys (Metallic Glasses) 165

6.15 Metal Foams 165

Summary 166 Key Terms 166 Bibliography 166

Review Questions 167 Qualitative Problems 167

Quantitative Problems 167 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 168

7 Polymers: Structure, General Properties, and Applications 169

7.1 Introduction 169

7.2 The Structure of Polymers 171

7.3 Thermoplastics 178

7.4 Thermosetting Plastics 181

7.5 Additives in Plastics 182

7.6 General Properties and Applications of Thermoplastics 183

7.7 General Properties and Applications of Thermosetting Plastics 186

7.8 Biodegradable Plastics 187

7.9 Elastomers (Rubbers) 188

Summary 189 Key Terms 190 Bibliography 190

Review Questions 191 Qualitative Problems 191

Quantitative Problems 192 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 193

8 Ceramics, Glass, Graphite, Diamond, and Nanomaterials: Structure, General Properties, and Applications 194

8.1 Introduction 194

8.2 The Structure of Ceramics 195

8.3 General Properties and Applications of Ceramics 200

8.4 Glasses 204

8.5 Glass Ceramics 206

8.6 Graphite 207

8.7 Diamond 209

8.8 Nanomaterials 210

Summary 211 Key Terms 212 Bibliography 212

Review Questions 212 Qualitative Problems 213

Quantitative Problems 213 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 213

9 Composite Materials: Structure, General Properties, and Applications 215

9.1 Introduction 215

9.2 The Structure of Reinforced Plastics 216

9.3 Properties of Reinforced Plastics 221

9.4 Applications of Reinforced Plastics 224

9.5 Metal-matrix Composites 226

9.6 Ceramic-matrix Composites 228

9.7 Other Composites 229

Summary 230 Key Terms 230 Bibliography 230

Review Questions 231 Qualitative Problems 231

Quantitative Problems 232 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 232

Part II: Metal-casting Processes and Equipment 235

10 Fundamentals of Metal Casting 237

10.1 Introduction 237

10.2 Solidification of Metals 238

10.3 Fluid Flow 243

10.4 Fluidity of Molten Metal 246

10.5 Heat Transfer 247

10.6 Defects 249

Summary 252 Key Terms 252 Bibliography 253

Review Questions 253 Qualitative Problems 253

Quantitative Problems 254 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 255

11 Metal-casting Processes and Equipment 256

11.1 Introduction 256

11.2 Expendable-mold, Permanent-pattern Casting Processes 260

11.3 Expendable-mold, Expendable-pattern Casting Processes 269

11.4 Permanent-mold Casting Processes 276

11.5 Casting Techniques for Single-crystal Components 284

11.6 Rapid Solidification 286

11.7 Inspection of Castings 287

11.8 Melting Practice and Furnaces 287

11.9 Foundries and Foundry Automation 289

Summary 289 Key Terms 290 Bibliography 290

Review Questions 290 Qualitative Problems 291

Quantitative Problems 291 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 292

12 Metal Casting: Design, Materials, and Economics 294

12.1 Introduction 294

12.2 Design Considerations in Casting 294

12.3 Casting Alloys 303

12.4 Economics of Casting 308

Summary 309 Key Terms 309 Bibliography 309

Review Questions 310 Qualitative Problems 310

Quantitative Problems 310 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 311

Part III: Forming and Shaping Processes and Equipment 313

13 Metal-rolling Processes and Equipment 316

13.1 Introduction 316

13.2 The Flat-rolling Process 318

13.3 Flat-rolling Practice 323

13.4 Rolling Mills 326

13.5 Various Rolling Processes and Mills 328

Summary 333 Key Terms 333 Bibliography 334

Review Questions 334 Qualitative Problems 334

Quantitative Problems 335 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 336

14 Metal-forging Processes and Equipment 337

14.1 Introduction 337

14.2 Open-die Forging 339

14.3 Impression-die and Closed-die Forging 342

14.4 Various Forging Operations 345

14.5 Forgeability of Metals; Forging Defects 349

14.6 Die Design, Die Materials, and Lubrication 351

14.7 Die-manufacturing Methods and Die Failure 354

14.8 Forging Machines 355

14.9 Economics of Forging 358

Summary 360 Key Terms 361 Bibliography 361

Review Questions 362 Qualitative Problems 362

Quantitative Problems 362 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 363

15 Metal Extrusion and Drawing Processes and Equipment 364

15.1 Introduction 364

15.2 The Extrusion Process 366

15.3 Hot Extrusion 368

15.4 Cold Extrusion 372

15.5 Extrusion Defects 374

15.6 Design Considerations 376

15.7 Extrusion Equipment 376

15.8 The Drawing Process 377

15.9 Drawing Practice 379

15.10 Drawing Defects and Residual Stresses 382

15.11 Drawing Equipment 382

Summary 384 Key Terms 383 Bibliography 384

Review Questions 384 Qualitative Problems 384

Quantitative Problems 385 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 385

16 Sheet-metal Forming Processes and Equipment 386

16.1 Introduction 386

16.2 Shearing 387

16.3 Sheet-metal Characteristics and Formability 397

16.4 Formability Tests for Sheet Metals 399

16.5 Bending Sheets, Plates, and Tubes 402

16.6 Miscellaneous Bending and Related Forming Operations 406

16.7 Deep Drawing 411

16.8 Rubber Forming and Hydroforming 419

16.9 Spinning 423

16.10 Superplastic Forming 426

16.11 Hot Stamping 427

16.12 Specialized Forming Processes 428

16.13 Manufacturing of Metal Honeycomb Structures 433

16.14 Design Considerations in Sheet-metal Forming 434

16.15 Equipment for Sheet-metal Forming 437

16.16 Economics of Sheet-forming Operations 438

Summary 439 Key Terms 440 Bibliography 440

Review Questions 440 Qualitative Problems 441

Quantitative Problems 441 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 442

17 Powder Metal Processes and Equipment 444

17.1 Introduction 444

17.2 Production of Metal Powders 445

17.3 Compaction of Metal Powders 450

17.4 Sintering 461

17.5 Secondary and Finishing Operations 464

17.6 Design Considerations 466

17.7 Economics of Powder Metallurgy 469

Summary 471 Key Terms 471 Bibliography 471

Review Questions 472 Qualitative Problems 472

Quantitative Problems 473 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 473

18 Ceramics, Glasses, and Superconductors: Processing and Equipment 475

18.1 Introduction 475

18.2 Shaping Ceramics 476

18.3 Forming and Shaping of Glass 483

18.4 Techniques for Strengthening and Annealing Glass 486

18.5 Design Considerations for Ceramics and Glasses 489

18.6 Processing of Superconductors 489

Summary 491 Key Terms 491 Bibliography 492

Review Questions 492 Qualitative Problems 492

Quantitative Problems 493 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 493

19 Plastics and Composite Materials: Forming and Shaping 494

19.1 Introduction 494

19.2 Extrusion 495

19.3 Injection Molding 502

19.4 Blow Molding 509

19.5 Rotational Molding 509

19.6 Thermoforming 511

19.7 Compression Molding 512

19.8 Transfer Molding 513

19.9 Casting 514

19.10 Foam Molding 515

19.11 Cold Forming and Solid-phase Forming 516

19.12 Processing Elastomers 517

19.13 Processing Polymer-matrix Composites 518

19.14 Processing Metal-matrix and Ceramic-matrix Composites 527

19.15 Design Considerations 528

19.16 Economics of Processing Plastics and Composite Materials 530

Summary 531 Key Terms 531 Bibliography 532

Review Questions 532 Qualitative Problems 532

Quantitative Problems 533 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 533

20 Rapid-prototyping Processes and Operations 535

20.1 Introduction 535

20.2 Subtractive Processes 538

20.3 Additive Processes 540

20.4 Virtual Prototyping 551

20.5 Self-replicating Machines 552

20.6 Direct Manufacturing and Rapid Tooling 553

Summary 560 Key Terms 560 Bibliography 560

Review Questions 561 Qualitative Problems 561

Quantitative Problems 562 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 562

Part IV: Machining Processes and Machine Tools 563

21 Fundamentals of Machining 566

21.1 Introduction 566

21.2 Mechanics of Cutting 567

21.3 Cutting Forces and Power 577

21.4 Temperatures in Cutting 580

21.5 Tool Life: Wear and Failure 582

21.6 Surface Finish and Integrity 589

21.7 Machinability 591

Summary 595 Key Terms 596 Bibliography 596

Review Questions 596 Qualitative Problems 597

Quantitative Problems 598 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 599

22 Cutting-tool Materials and Cutting Fluids 600

22.1 Introduction 600

22.2 High-speed Steels 604

22.3 Cast-cobalt Alloys 605

22.4 Carbides 605

22.5 Coated Tools 609

22.6 Alumina-based Ceramics 612

22.7 Cubic Boron Nitride 613

22.8 Silicon-nitride-based Ceramics 614

22.9 Diamond 614

22.10 Whisker-reinforced Materials and Nanomaterials 615

22.11 Tool Costs and Reconditioning of Tools 616

22.12 Cutting Fluids 616

Summary 622 Key Terms 622 Bibliography 622

Review Questions 623 Qualitative Problems 623

Quantitative Problems 624 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 624

23 Machining Processes: Turning and Hole Making 625

23.1 Introduction 625

23.2 The Turning Process 628

23.3 Lathes and Lathe Operations 636

23.4 Boring and Boring Machines 651

23.5 Drilling, Drills, and Drilling Machines 652

23.6 Reaming and Reamers 661

23.7 Tapping and Taps 662

Summary 664 Key Terms 665 Bibliography 665

Review Questions 665 Qualitative Problems 666

Quantitative Problems 666 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 667

24 Machining Processes: Milling, Broaching, Sawing, Filing, and Gear Manufacturing 668

24.1 Introduction 668

24.2 Milling and Milling Machines 669

24.3 Planing and Shaping 684

24.4 Broaching and Broaching Machines 684

24.5 Sawing 688

24.6 Filing 692

24.7 Gear Manufacturing by Machining 692

Summary 699 Key Terms 700 Bibliography 700

Review Questions 700 Qualitative Problems 700

Quantitative Problems 701 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 702

25 Machining Centers, Machine-Tool Structures, and Machining Economics 703

25.1 Introduction 703

25.2 Machining Centers 703

25.3 Machine-tool Structures 712

25.4 Vibration and Chatter in Machining Operations 716

25.5 High-speed Machining 719

25.6 Hard Machining 720

25.7 Ultraprecision Machining 721

25.8 Machining Economics 722

Summary 726 Key Terms 726 Bibliography 727

Review Questions 727 Qualitative Problems 727

Quantitative Problems 728 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 728

26 Abrasive Machining and Finishing Operations 729

26.1 Introduction 729

26.2 Abrasives and Bonded Abrasives 731

26.3 The Grinding Process 737

26.4 Grinding Operations and Machines 746

26.5 Design Considerations for Grinding 755

26.6 Ultrasonic Machining 755

26.7 Finishing Operations 756

26.8 Deburring Operations 761

26.9 Economics of Abrasive Machining and Finishing Operations 764

Summary 765 Key Terms 765 Bibliography 766

Review Questions 766 Qualitative Problems 767

Quantitative Problems 767 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 768

27 Advanced Machining Processes and Equipment 769

27.1 Introduction 769

27.2 Chemical Machining 770

27.3 Electrochemical Machining 775

27.4 Electrochemical Grinding 779

27.5 Electrical-discharge Machining 780

27.6 Laser-beam Machining 784

27.7 Electron-beam Machining 787

27.8 Water-jet Machining 788

27.9 Abrasive-jet Machining 790

27.10 Hybrid Machining Systems 790

27.11 Economics of Advanced Machining Processes 791

Summary 794 Key Terms 794 Bibliography 795

Review Questions 795 Quantitative Problems 795

Qualitative Problems 796 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 796

Part V: Micromanufacturing and Fabrication of Microelectronic Devices 797

28 Fabrication of Microelectronic Devices 800

28.1 Introduction 800

28.2 Clean Rooms 803

28.3 Semiconductors and Silicon 804

28.4 Crystal Growing and Wafer Preparation 805

28.5 Film Deposition 807

28.6 Oxidation 809

28.7 Lithography 810

28.8 Etching 818

28.9 Diffusion and Ion Implantation 825

28.10 Metallization and Testing 827

28.11 Wire Bonding and Packaging 830

28.12 Yield and Reliability 835

28.13 Printed Circuit Boards 835

Summary 837 Key Terms 838 Bibliography 838

Review Questions 838 Qualitative Problems 839

Quantitative Problems 839 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 840

29 Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices and Systems and Nanoscale Manufacturing 841

29.1 Introduction 841

29.2 Micromachining of MEMS Devices 843

29.3 Electroforming-based Processes 854

29.4 Solid Free-form Fabrication of Devices 861

29.5 Nanoscale Manufacturing 866

Summary 869 Key Terms 869 Bibliography 869

Review Questions 870 Qualitative Problems 870

Quantitative Problems 870 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 871

Part VI: Joining Processes and Equipment 873

30 Fusion Welding Processes 877

30.1 Introduction 877

30.2 Oxyfuel—gas Welding 877

30.3 Arc-welding Processes: Nonconsumable Electrode 882

30.4 Arc-welding Processes: Consumable Electrode 885

30.5 Electrodes for Arc Welding 890

30.6 Electron-beam Welding 892

30.7 Laser-beam Welding 893

30.8 Cutting 894

30.9 The Weld Joint, Quality, and Testing 896

30.10 Joint Design and Process Selection 905

Summary 908 Key Terms 909 Bibliography 909

Review Questions 909 Qualitative Problems 910

Quantitative Problems 910 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 911

31 Solid-State Welding Processes 912

31.1 Introduction 912

31.2 Cold Welding and Roll Bonding 913

31.3 Ultrasonic Welding 914

31.4 Friction Welding 915

31.5 Resistance Welding 917

31.6 Explosion Welding 925

31.7 Diffusion Bonding 926

31.8 Economics of Welding Operations 928

Summary 930 Key Terms 930 Bibliography 931

Review Questions 931 Qualitative Problems 931

Quantitative Problems 932 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 932

32 Brazing, Soldering, Adhesive-bonding, and Mechanical Fastening Processes 934

32.1 Introduction 934

32.2 Brazing 935

32.3 Soldering 939

32.4 Adhesive-bonding 943

32.5 Mechanical Fastening 949

32.6 Joining Plastics, Ceramics, and Glasses 953

32.7 Economics of Joining Operations 957

Summary 958 Key Terms 958 Bibliography 959

Review Questions 959 Qualitative Problems 959

Quantitative Problems 960 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 960

Part VII: Surface Technology 961

33 Surface Roughness and Measurement; Friction, Wear, and Lubrication 963

33.1 Introduction 963

33.2 Surface Structure and Integrity 964

33.3 Surface Texture and Roughness 966

33.4 Friction 969

33.5 Wear 973

33.6 Lubrication 976

33.7 Metalworking Fluids and Their Selection 978

Summary 981 Key Terms 982 Bibliography 982

Review Questions 983 Qualitative Problems 983

Quantitative Problems 984 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 984

34 Surface Treatments, Coatings, and Cleaning 985

34.1 Introduction 985

34.2 Mechanical Surface Treatments 986

34.3 Mechanical Plating and Cladding 987

34.4 Case Hardening and Hard Facing 988

34.5 Thermal Spraying 988

34.6 Vapor Deposition 989

34.7 Ion Implantation and Diffusion Coating 993

34.8 Laser Treatments 993

34.9 Electroplating, Electroless Plating, and Electroforming 994

34.10 Conversion Coatings 998

34.11 Hot Dipping 998

34.12 Porcelain Enameling; Ceramic and Organic Coatings 999

34.13 Diamond Coating and Diamondlike Carbon 1000

34.14 Surface Texturing 1001

34.15 Painting 1001

34.16 Cleaning of Surfaces 1002

Summary 1004 Key Terms 1004 Bibliography 1004

Review Questions 1005 Qualitative Problems 1005

Quantitative Problems 1005 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1005

Part VIII: Engineering Metrology, Instrumentation, and Quality Assurance 1007

35 Surface Treatments, Coatings, and Cleaning 1008

35.1 Introduction 1008

35.2 Measurement Standards 1008

35.3 Geometric Features of Parts: Analog and Digital Measurements 1010

35.4 Traditional Measuring Methods and Instruments 1010

35.5 Modern Measuring Instruments and Machines 1017

35.6 Automated Measurement 1020

35.7 General Characteristics and Selection of Measuring Instruments 1021

35.8 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 1021

Summary 1027 Key Terms 1027 Bibliography 1027

Review Questions 1027 Qualitative Problems 1028

Quantitative Problems 1028 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1029

36 Quality Assurance, Testing, and Inspection 1030

36.1 Introduction 1030

36.2 Product Quality 1031

36.3 Quality Assurance 1031

36.4 Total Quality Management 1032

36.5 Taguchi Methods 1034

36.6 The ISO and QS Standards 1038

36.7 Statistical Methods of Quality Control 1039

36.8 Statistical Process Control 1042

36.9 Reliability of Products and Processes 1048

36.10 Nondestructive Testing 1048

36.11 Destructive Testing 1052

36.12 Automated Inspection 1052

Summary 1053 Key Terms 1054 Bibliography 1054

Review Questions 1054 Qualitative Problems 1055

Quantitative Problems 1055 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1056

Part IX: Manufacturing in a Competitive Environment 1057

37 Automation of Manufacturing Processes and Operations 1059

37.1 Introduction 1059

37.2 Automation 1061

37.3 Numerical Control 1068

37.4 Adaptive Control 1074

37.5 Material Handling and Movement 1077

37.6 Industrial Robots 1078

37.7 Sensor Technology 1085

37.8 Flexible Fixturing 1089

37.9 Assembly Systems 1090

37.10 Design Considerations for Fixturing, Assembly, Disassembly, and Servicing 1094

37.11 Economic Considerations 1096

Summary 1097 Key Terms 1097 Bibliography 1098

Review Questions 1098 Qualitative Problems 1099

Quantitative Problems 1099 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1099

38 Computer-aided Manufacturing 1101

38.1 Introduction 1101

38.2 Manufacturing Systems 1102

38.3 Computer-integrated Manufacturing 1102

38.4 Computer-aided Design and Engineering 1105

38.5 Computer-aided Manufacturing 1111

38.6 Computer-aided Process Planning 1112

38.7 Computer Simulation of Manufacturing Processes and Systems 1114

38.8 Group Technology 1116

Summary 1123 Key Terms 1124 Bibliography 1124

Review Questions 1124 Qualitative Problems 1124

Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1125

39 Computer-integrated Manufacturing Systems 1126

39.1 Introduction 1126

39.2 Cellular Manufacturing 1127

39.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems 1128

39.4 Holonic Manufacturing 1131

39.5 Just-in-time Production 1133

39.6 Lean Manufacturing 1134

39.7 Communications Networks in Manufacturing 1136

39.8 Artificial Intelligence 1137

39.9 Economic Considerations 1140

Summary 1140 Key Terms 1141 Bibliography 1141

Review Questions 1141 Qualitative Problems 1142

Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1142

40 Product Design and Manufacturing in a Competitive Environment 1143

40.1 Introduction 1143

40.2 Product Design 1144

40.3 Product Quality 1147

40.4 Life-cycle Assessment and Sustainable Manufacturing 1147

40.5 Energy Consumption in Manufacturing 1149

40.6 Material Selection for Products 1151

40.7 Material Substitution 1153

40.8 Manufacturing Process Capabilities 1155

40.9 Process Selection 1157

40.10 Manufacturing Costs and Cost Reduction 1160

Summary 1165 Key Terms 1165 Bibliography 1165

Review Questions 1166 Qualitative Problems 1166

Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1167

Index

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Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

The field of manufacturing engineering and technology continues to advance rapidly, transcending disciplines and driving economic growth. This challenging and broad topic has continued to incorporate new concepts at an increasing rate, making manufacturing a dynamic and exciting field of study. In preparing this fourth edition, our most important goal throughout has been to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art textbook on manufacturing, which also encompasses the additional aims of motivating and challenging students.

As in previous editions, the text presents topics with a balanced coverage of relevant fundamentals and real-world practices, so that the student develops an understanding of the important and often complex interrelationships among the many technical and economic factors involved in manufacturing.

This new edition basically follows the same introductory nature, format, organization, and balance as the third edition. It has retained its emphasis on (a) the influence of materials and processing parameters in understanding manufacturing processes and operations; (b) design considerations, product quality, and manufacturing cost factors; and (c) the domestic and global competitive context of each manufacturing process and operation, highlighted with illustrative examples.

STUDY AIDS

  • Presentation of each topic within a larger context of manufacturing engineering and technology, using extensive schematic diagrams and flowcharts.
  • Emphasis on the practical uses of the concepts and information presented.
  • Analogies, discussions, and problems designed to stimulate thestudent'scuriosity about consumer and industrial products and how they are manufactured.
  • Extensive reference material, including numerous tables, illustrations, graphs, and bibliographies.
  • Numerous illustrative examples and case studies to highlight important concepts and techniques.
  • Tables comparing advantages and limitations of manufacturing processes.
  • A summary, list of key terms, and concise description of current trends at the end of each chapter.

WHAT IS NEW IN THIS EDITION

  • Several new examples and case studies have been added.
  • There are now a total of almost 2,200 questions and problems, about a quarter of them new to this edition.
  • Summaries at the end of each chapter have been completely rewritten and expanded.
  • The bibliographies at the end of each chapter have been thoroughly updated.
  • More cross-references have been made throughout the text to other sections and chap ters in the book.
  • New or expanded topics include the following:
  • Abrasive belts; microreplication
  • Atomic force microscope
  • Biodegradable plastics
  • Bundle drawing
  • Carbon foam
  • Chemical mechanical polishing
  • Coatings
  • Compliant end effector
  • Conductive graphite fibers
  • Deburring
  • Diamond-like carbon coating
  • Die failures
  • Die manufacturing methods
  • Electrically conducting adhesives
  • Friction stir welding
  • Hexapod machine tools
  • ISO 14000 standard
  • Joining plastics
  • Laser interferometry
  • Laser peening
  • Linear motor drives for machine tools
  • Microencapsulated powders
  • Microgram carbides
  • Micromachining
  • Nanofabrication
  • Nanomaterials
  • Nanopowders
  • Octree representation
  • Overmolding
  • Plastics, common trade names
  • Porous aluminum
  • Product liability examples
  • Pulsed electrochemical machining
  • QS 9000 standard
  • Rapid prototyping
  • Reflow soldering
  • Robustness
  • Rotary ultrasonic machining
  • Superconductor processing
  • Taguchi loss function
  • Thermal effects in machine tools
  • Titanic: brittle fracture example
  • Total productive maintenance
  • Transfer/injection molding
  • Water-jet peening
  • Wave soldering

In response to comments and suggestions by numerous reviewers, several major and minor changes have also been made throughout the text. A page-by-page comparison with the third edition will show that literally thousands of changes have been made for improved clarity and completeness.

AUDIENCE

As in the previous editions, this fourth edition has been written for students in mechanical, manufacturing, industrial, aerospace, and metallurgical and materials engineering programs. It is hoped that by reading and studying this book, students will come to appreciate the vital nature of manufacturing engineering as an academic subject that is as exciting, challenging, and important as any other engineering and technology discipline.

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