Maos Great Famine: The History of Chinas Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958-1962by Frank Dikötter
"Between 1958 and 1962, China descended into hell. Mao Zedong threw his country into a frenzy with the Great Leap Forward, an attempt to catch up to and overtake Britain in less than 15 years The experiment ended in the greatest catastrophe the country had ever known, destroying tens of millions of lives." So opens Frank Dikötters riveting, magnificently… See more details below
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"Between 1958 and 1962, China descended into hell. Mao Zedong threw his country into a frenzy with the Great Leap Forward, an attempt to catch up to and overtake Britain in less than 15 years The experiment ended in the greatest catastrophe the country had ever known, destroying tens of millions of lives." So opens Frank Dikötters riveting, magnificently detailed chronicle of an era in Chinese history much speculated about but never before fully documented because access to Communist Party archives has long been restricted to all but the most trusted historians. A new archive law has opened up thousands of central and provincial documents that "fundamentally change the way one can study the Maoist era." Dikötter makes clear, as nobody has before, that far from being the program that would lift the country among the worlds superpowers and prove the power of Communism, as Mao imagined, the Great Leap Forward transformed the country in the other direction. It became the site not only of "one of the most deadly mass killings of human history,"--at least 45 million people were worked, starved, or beaten to death--but also of "the greatest demolition of real estate in human history," as up to one-third of all housing was turned into rubble). The experiment was a catastrophe for the natural world as well, as the land was savaged in the maniacal pursuit of steel and other industrial accomplishments. In a powerful mesghing of exhaustive research in Chinese archives and narrative drive, Dikötter for the first time links up what happened in the corridors of power-the vicious backstabbing and bullying tactics that took place among party leaders-with the everyday experiences of ordinary people, giving voice to the dead and disenfranchised. His magisterial account recasts the history of the Peoples Republic of China.
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MAO'S GREAT FAMINETHE HISTORY OF CHINA'S MOST DEVASTATING CATASTROPHE, 1958-1962
By FRANK DIKÖTTER
Walker & Co.Copyright © 2010 Frank Dikotter
All right reserved.
PrefaceBetween 1958 and 1962, China descended into hell. Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, threw his country into a frenzy with the Great Leap Forward, an attempt to catch up with and overtake Britain in less than fifteen years. By unleashing China's greatest asset, a labour force that was counted in the hundreds of millions, Mao thought that he could catapult his country past its competitors. Instead of following the Soviet model of development, which leaned heavily towards industry alone, China would 'walk on two legs': the peasant masses were mobilised to transform both agriculture and industry at the same time, converting a backward economy into a modern communist society of plenty for all. In the pursuit of a utopian paradise, everything was collectivised, as villagers were herded together in giant communes which heralded the advent of communism. People in the countryside were robbed of their work, their homes, their land, their belongings and their livelihood. Food, distributed by the spoonful in collective canteens according to merit, became a weapon to force people to follow the party's every dictate. Irrigation campaigns forced up to half the villagers to work for weeks on end on giant water-conservancy projects, often far from home, without adequate food and rest. The experiment ended in the greatest catastrophe the country had ever known, destroying tens of millions of lives.
Excerpted from MAO'S GREAT FAMINE by FRANK DIKÖTTER Copyright © 2010 by Frank Dikotter. Excerpted by permission of Walker & Co.. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Meet the Author
Frank Dikötter is Chair Professor of Humanities at the University of Hong Kong and Professor of the Modern History of China at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He is a key proponent of studying the history of China in global perspective, and has published a series of innovative books, from his classic The Discourse of Race in Modern China (Univ. Stanford Press 1992) to the controversial Narcotic Culture: A History of Drugs in China (Univ. Chicago Press 2004). He lives in Hong Kong.
Frank Dikötter is Chair Professor of Humanities at the University of Hong Kong. Before moving to Asia in 2006, he was Professor of the Modern History of China at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He has published nine books about the history of China, including Maos Great Famine, which won the BBC Samuel Johnson Prize for Non-fiction in 2011.
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On the wings of a communist surge sweeping parts of Asia, Mao defeats challenger Chiang Kai-Shek and assumes dominance over China. Seeking to surpass Great Britain and even his superiors in the Soviet Union, Mao puts into motion one of the most catastrophic, self-destructive revolutions in history. Pursuing the ideal communist utopian fantasy and pushing for an impossible productive output, the Chairman rips the country apart from its roots – literally – using methods so ludicrous and radical in an experiment so foredoomed to disaster one wonders who could have followed such a madman. Farmers’ homes are torn down and turned into fertilizer, leaving tens of thousands homeless or packed like cattle in shacks in the freezing winters; everything metallic from shovels to pots and pans and eating utensils is melted into useless slag, depriving citizens of any possession and even simple farming tools; rivers are rerouted by hand, causing flooding and massive salinization of soil, ruining huge plots of farmland, worsening a countryside obliterated by deforestation to fuel the multitude of furnaces; a ‘war on nature’ is launched, wiping out birds and other animals vital to the natural environmental balance, unleashing a wave of pests, including locusts which swarmed the skies and wiped out crops. Hastening certain disaster come the tyrannical and destructive, typical by-products of communism: farmers, subjected to death and torture by overseeing cadres, are forced into collectivization, their property and even children confiscated by an inept state; the deterioration of morals as the famine forced a desperate struggle for survival in a bleak world where one has to steal, outwit, overpower, and murder to survive; the doomed to death young, female, and elderly who are trampled and abused by the strong; the massive amounts of toxic waste dumped into the environment by factories chasing impossible production quotas; forlorn workers suffering from industrial diseases and accidents in an atmosphere devoid of safety and health concerns; the creation of the black market and the rampant corruption everywhere on the chain as all find ways to outmaneuver a faceless state and its wasteful, inefficient command economy where product exists on paper only; the cancerous deprivation of incentive resultant of a system which reduces everyone to nothing and keeps them there, with the only means of mobility available in loyalty to a party which does not tolerate truth or critique but which thrives on lies and cowardice, using the withholding of food as its weapon, consigning the daring outspoken to hard labor and death in the gulag. The combined application of these two backward concepts – the war on nature and a repressive communist system – resulted in a famine of biblical proportions, reducing its sufferers to eating the mud from the earth and even their fellow humans dying naked in droves by the roadside. The dream of Mao and his ‘yes men’ of creating a world in which everyone was equal and everything was free only resulted in the total devastation of their country – economically, environmentally, spiritually, and in cost of human life. Frank Dikkoter and other researchers have done the victims and survivors some level of justice by elucidating the untold story of the disastrous Great Leap Forward. One wonders when such a valuable account of history will be available to the North Koreans also suffering a similar fate.
While the story of the Great Leap Forward is heartbreaking, this book makes the story a compelling read. Reccomend this for any student of history, especially Asian, economic or Communist.
China's mortality during the Great Leap Forward - 24/1000 - was the same as India's, Pakistan's, and Indonesia's in 1960: India 24/1000, Indonesia 23/1000, Pakistan 23/1000. This was much less than China's 1949 figure (38/1000) and less than that of India's at the end of British rule (28/1000). Frank Dikotter adopted 10/1000 as a `normal' yearly death rate for China, and claims this as the figure for China in 1957. Deaths above this he regards as `excess' deaths. But 10/1000 was the mortality in the USA, Britain and France in 1960. Dikotter's claims imply that China reduced mortality from 38/1000 in 1949 to 10/1000 in 1957. India only reduced mortality from 28 to 23/1000, and Indonesia 26 to 23/1000 over the same period. So if Dikotter accepts a 10/1000 mortality rate for China in 1957, then he has to accept that the communists reduced mortality from 38/1000 to 10/1000 during their first eight years, thereby saving tens of millions of lives. This would have been the most dramatic, incredible reduction in mortality in human history. If Mao is to be condemned as a killer for presiding over a mortality rate of maximum 27/1000 say in 1960 (the worst year of the great leap forward), what do you call Churchill and other British rulers for consistently presiding over mortality rates of over 30/1000 during all the years of the British Raj? Note also that at no stage in the history of the PRC were mortality rates actually worse than any before 1949. That is why in the Maoist period China's population growth was about four times as fast as in the three decades leading up to 1949. In fact the fastest period of population growth in China's history happened under Mao. As Amartya Sen pointed out, four million more people died in India than in China in each year between 1958 and 1961. Joseph Ball pointed out, ""Although problems and reversals occurred in the Great Leap Forward, it is fair to say that it had a very important role in the ongoing development of agriculture. Measures such as water conservancy and irrigation allowed for sustained increases in agricultural production, once the period of bad harvests was over. They also helped the countryside to deal with the problem of drought. Flood defenses were also developed. Terracing helped gradually increase the amount of cultivated area. "Industrial development was carried out under the slogan of `walking on two legs'. This meant the development of small and medium scale rural industry alongside the development of heavy industry. As well as the steel furnaces, many other workshops and factories were opened in the countryside. The idea was that rural industry would meet the needs of the local population. Rural workshops supported efforts by the communes to modernize agricultural work methods. Rural workshops were very effective in providing the communes with fertilizer, tools, other agricultural equipment and cement (needed for water conservation schemes). ... Rural industry established during the Great Leap Forward used labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive methods. As they were serving local needs, they were not dependent on the development of an expensive nation-wide infrastructure of road and rail to transport the finished goods."