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Mapping Latin America: A Cartographic Reader


For many, a map is nothing more than a tool used to determine the location or distribution of something—a country, a city, or a natural resource. But maps reveal much more: to really read a map means to examine what it shows and what it doesn’t, and to ask who made it, why, and for whom. The contributors to this new volume ask these sorts of questions about maps of Latin America, and in doing so illuminate the ways cartography has helped to shape this region from the Rio Grande ...

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For many, a map is nothing more than a tool used to determine the location or distribution of something—a country, a city, or a natural resource. But maps reveal much more: to really read a map means to examine what it shows and what it doesn’t, and to ask who made it, why, and for whom. The contributors to this new volume ask these sorts of questions about maps of Latin America, and in doing so illuminate the ways cartography has helped to shape this region from the Rio Grande to Patagonia.

In Mapping Latin America, Jordana Dym and Karl Offen bring together scholars from a wide range of disciplines to examine and interpret more than five centuries of Latin American maps. Individual chapters take on maps of every size and scale and from a wide variety of mapmakers—from the hand-drawn maps of Native Americans, to those by famed explorers such as Alexander von Humboldt, to those produced in today’s newspapers and magazines for the general public. The maps collected here, and the interpretations that accompany them, provide an excellent source to help readers better understand how Latin American countries, regions, provinces, and municipalities came to be defined, measured, organized, occupied, settled, disputed, and understood—that is, how they came to have specific meanings to specific people at specific moments in time.

The first book to deal with the broad sweep of mapping activities across Latin America, this lavishly illustrated volume will be required reading for students and scholars of geography and Latin American history, and anyone interested in understanding the significance of maps in human cultures and societies.

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Editorial Reviews

Neil L. Whitehead

Mapping Latin America gathers together the foremost scholars of cartography and Latin American history. The novel format of the work allows Jordana Dym and Karl Offen to present a stunning range of cartographic materials, all carefully contextualized by the outstanding scholarship of the authors, which notably includes assessment of the contributions of indigenous cultures. Illustrating over five hundred years of mapping, this work is an indispensable resource for anyone interested in the history of Latin America.”
David Rumsey

Mapping Latin America offers a new kind of map history, one that brilliantly combines interdisciplinary approaches to maps that range over many centuries, producing insightful essays that ground the maps firmly in the societies that created and consumed them. It sets a significant new standard both for the history of cartography in Latin America and for the study of cartography itself.”
Kent Mathewson

“In a single volume, featuring fifty-seven succinct yet authoritative chapters, Dym and Offen have not only remapped the field of Latin American historical cartography, but have also charted a new path for critical map studies. More than a millennium’s time depth and a continent’s expanse are surveyed with fascinating details and composite illumination. Area specialists, devoted cartophiles, and adventuresome readers in general will find this collection a delight.”
Choice - L. Yachner

“[Mapping Latin America] adds a unique and valuable perspective about the region. . . . Recommended.”
Imago Mundi - Heidi V. Scott

Mapping Latin America . . . is the first publication that takes on the ambitious and long overdue task of showcasing the crucial role that maps have played in shaping human communities across the entire region and, no less importantly, in demonstrating their value to students and scholars alike in gaining new insights into the societies that produced them. . . . [T]he volume succeeds admirably in demonstrating that scholars of colonial and modern periods alike would do well to take seriously the role of space and spatial representation in the shaping of Latin America’s societies, cultures, and environments. This book will appeal not only to students and scholars of Latin America but to anyone with an interest in critical studies of cartography and visual culture.”
Journal of Latin American Studies - Edward L. Jackiewicz

“This compendium will appeal to a diverse array of groups, from the casual reader to the most avid ‘map geek’. . . . The accompanying essays do an excellent job of situating each map in the appropriate political, economic and/or cultural context, and the book can thus be read in its entirety or used as a resource to shed light on a particular place and time in the region's history. As such, it would be a good addition to the bookshelves of many scholars interested in the geography or history of Latin America, clearly illustrating the power of maps.”
Journal of Latin American Geography - David J. Robinson

“This is one of the most important books to have appeared on a Latin American topic in the last quarter century and beyond. . . . What this superb volume does is inspire one to look and think, and thus hopefully to promote a deeper understanding of the representation of meaningful spatial distributions.”
Hispanic American Historical Review - Andrew Sluyter

“This volume, which serves as a source of original insights about particular times and places as well as a methodological primer for use in the classroom, will without doubt catalyze even greater interest in the roles of those and other types of maps in Latin American history.”
Journal of Historical Geography - Sarah A. Blue

“Ambitious and wide-ranging, . . . Mapping Latin America is an excellent resource for undergraduate instructors who can use these maps as primary documents to explore major themes and developments in Latin American history. That the volume’s contributors are experts across a wide range of disciplines illustrates the interdisciplinary interest in, and relevance of, these maps. The reader will also likely inspire greater critical cartographical readings of graphic texts among geographers and historians alike.”
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780226618210
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • Publication date: 10/1/2011
  • Pages: 360
  • Product dimensions: 8.70 (w) x 11.30 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Jordana Dym is associate professor of history and director of Latin American studies at Skidmore College and the author of From Sovereign Villages to National States: City, State and Federation in Central America, 1759–1838. Karl Offen is associate professor of geography at the University of Oklahoma.

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Read an Excerpt

Mapping Latin America


The University of Chicago Press

Copyright © 2011 The University of Chicago
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-226-61822-7

Chapter One

Palace Arts


A map is generally made to show a known place and its spatial relationship to distant and less familiar places. A portable map can help the traveler on the move; larger maps may be hung on a wall for reference and display. In addition to its content, the context in which a map was used can reveal important details about who made and who viewed it. In 2003, the Holmul Archaeological Project discovered a map painted on the wall of an ancient Maya palace (figs. 1.1 and 1.2). The mural-map, which decorated Room 1 of the La Sufricaya royal residence, dates to the end of the fourth century. As perhaps one of the oldest surviving maps in Latin America, the La Sufricaya mural presents an indigenous conceptualization of the Maya world from an era studied primarily through archaeological investigations with limited written texts. With this early map, the most straightforward questions need to be answered: What places are represented? How are spatial relationships depicted? Why is it painted in the palace? Who is the map's intended audience?

To answer these questions, it is helpful to begin with what we know about the time period when the map was painted, around AD 400. The Maya in what is today Guatemala and southeastern Mexico, and Teotihuacán, 1,000 kilometers to the west, in today's central Mexico, enjoyed a little-understood cultural connection. In the late fourth century, the population of the Maya area was growing. Maya polities, from small villages to urban centers, dotted the rich tropical forests of the lowlands and were intertwined in a complex network of economic, political, and ideological relations. Divine kings ruled large Maya centers, such as Tikal, Calakmul, and Piedras Negras, and promoted their lineages with hereditary and divine dynastic criteria. Growth, increasing social stratification, and broad political interaction created a climate of local competition and shifting political alliances in the late fourth century that steadily increased over the next five hundred years.

To the west, Teotihuacán was rising to its apogee in the centuries leading to AD 400. The distinctly organized Teotihuacán culture was centered at a massive city in the volcanic highlands of central Mexico. Tens of thousands of people inhabited apartment compounds arranged on a grid surrounding huge pyramids at the city's core. This urban superpower had a profound effect on the Maya area. While the nature of the relationship between Teotihuacán and polities in the Maya area is still debated, a notable increase in central Mexican-style cultural material and textual references in hieroglyphic inscriptions at Maya sites dating to this period suggests intensified extralocal political interaction. The representation of people and places in the La Sufricaya mural provides clues to aspects of the relationship between the Maya and Teotihuacán spheres.

The La Sufricaya palace is located within the Holmul polity in the Maya heartland, today's Petén region of Guatemala. Just before AD 400, artists painted murals in Room 1 showing Teotihuacán and Maya worlds coming together. On three walls (west, north, and east), murals depict Maya and Teotihuacán individuals arranged in horizontal registers and vertical columns: rows of seated central Mexican warriors hold shields and darts, and lines of standing Maya elite wear folded cloth headdresses and jaguar pelt skirts, and some figures also hold shields. Among the rows of hundreds of figures, one painted section is unlike all the rest. Mural 6N, in the northwest corner of Room 1, depicts two buildings, one above and one below, connected by a road marked by footprints leading away from both buildings and meeting behind a group of four figures (fig. 1.1). All the murals in Room 1 are unusual, because they show many Maya and Teotihuacán figures together; we believe Mural 6N is unique, because it is a cartographic representation of the Maya-Teotihuacán relationship.

Maps typically deploy symbols to represent places—for example, a church standing for a town on colonial maps, or a star on a contemporary map to identify a capital. The La Sufricaya map shows two places an unknown distance apart, each represented by a temple and connected by a road. Looking at differences in the buildings, we can begin to decipher what places may be represented. Above is a temple with red and white decoration on its terraces, and below is a temple with a beautiful thatch roof. The upper temple utilizes panels in front of sloping terraces, suggesting a nonlocal architectural style (perhaps representing a modified Teotihuacán talud-tablero). The lower temple is shown using common Maya-style construction of its platform and roof. Although no place-names label the temples, the details suggest that the place shown at the top of the map is foreign, possibly even Teotihuacán, and the lower location is a local Maya polity, probably La Sufricaya itself.

Unlike most maps today, indigenous Mesoamerican maps combined people and events with representations of places to map history as well as space (for well-known examples, see maps made in the sixteenth century for the Relaciones Geográficas in chap. 7). The La Sufricaya map is a very early example of this indigenous Mesoamerican cartographic tradition. Several people, both human and supernatural, appear in the La Sufricaya map in the temples and on the path. The figures inside the temples appear to be gods, priests or rulers in the form of their patron deity, K'awiil. In the center panel, two men with two supernaturals perform a ceremony along the path in proximity to the lower temple. The surviving details of the events and actors of the La Sufricaya map seem to record a journey made between two temples, with rituals performed or a supernatural experience en route. Footprints suggest travel occurred from the lower temple (possibly La Sufri caya) to the upper temple (possibly Teotihuacán) and back.

The map's style provides clues about who made the map, and the intended audience. The three men making the journey between temples are all Maya. The two supernaturals (in dark brown with zoomorphic heads) also have Maya characteristics. Although the map has mostly Maya figures, seated Teotihuacán warriors dominate the adjacent walls. The warriors are painted in true Teotihuacán style, and yet Maya representational conventions are also painted with stylistic fluency. The map and its adjoining murals combine Teotihuacán and Maya iconography and painting styles in a unique hybrid. The stylistic evidence suggests the murals of Room 1 are a true product of cultural interchange created by artists who had traveled and trained widely. The murals are located in an open hall in the palace. The audience visiting the palace hall likely included elite Maya from the surrounding area for political, economic, and religious functions, such as paying tribute or arranging a marriage, and nonlocal merchants and dignitaries.

What we can learn from the images seems substantial. However, there may be more to the story that we cannot know. Badly eroded paint to the left of the road hints at details now lost, and the remains of possible glyphs, which might identify individuals in the map, are poorly preserved above the central figures (fig. 1.2). The lower half of the wall is completely eroded. For further interpretation of the places, people and events represented in the map, we must turn to artifacts found in the palace's other rooms.

Many maps in this volume are better understood with their accompanying historical documents. Similarly, hieroglyphic texts found in the palace help us "read" the La Sufricaya map. Nearby Mural 7 (Room 10), is a text painted on the wall celebrating the dedication of a temple (likely the palace itself) in AD 379. The text notes the celebration occurred on the one-year anniversary of the arrival (entrada) of the personage Sihyaj K'ahk' from Teotihuacán in the neighboring Maya city of Tikal. The entrada of Sihyaj K'ahk' is a historical event of major importance in the Guatemalan lowlands. From other texts, we know that coincident with his arrival on January 16, 378, Tikal's ruler died and shortly thereafter a new dynasty celebrating central Mexican lineage was enthroned under King Yax Nuun Ahiin I. After these events, select Maya sites established new dynastic lines with central Mexican connections, and the elite class at several Maya lowland sites began using central Mexican imagery and objects in their palaces, tombs, and temples.

The best interpretation of the map's content is drawn from the combination of archaeological data, epigraphic history, and the images themselves. The map painted within Room 1 likely served a purpose similar to that of the text in Room 10: to establish a new political order aligned with Teotihuacán's new presence at nearby Tikal. The text honors the "arrival" of foreigners by naming foreign and local leaders and celebrating the event's anniversary. Using images, the map shows broad participation in foreign-local interaction, with local elite traveling to a foreign place with ritual practice perhaps witnessed by a large "international" attendance. Interestingly, the costumes of both Maya and Teotihuacán figures on adjoining walls emphasize militaristic roles, yet peaceful events are depicted. Inscriptions from Tikal and Copán link the accessions of Maya rulers who claimed connections with Teotihuacán through rituals conducted at a specific place, wi'te'naah, to which they needed to travel before their accession. One important clue to how this may have worked is the tenth-to thirteenth-century Quichéan kings' custom of traveling to a city of greater learning, Tollan, to acquire the royal insignia prior to their accession to power. This mural could represent such a journey. During a period of alliance with Tikal in the late fourth through early fifth century, artists painted Room 1 with a map and murals to show that the leadership of La Sufricaya participated in legitimization of authority through rituals at Teotihuacán, as the leadership of Tikal, Copán, and probably other Maya sites did as well.

Mural 6N combines a map with historical figures and events. When taken in context with the other murals within Room 1 and nearby textual information, the cartographic representation of La Sufricaya is similar to map traditions from twelve hundred years later in central Mexico. For example, by including figures and footprints, the La Sufricaya map illustrates history as well as geography. In this way, the fourth-century Maya map shares many conventions with and uses a format similar to sixteenth-century lienzo painting. Lienzos, as cartographic histories, combine temporal events with a map of places to record migrations, foundation events, and community histories. Early colonial maps by indigenous artists were made to defend landholdings and hereditary titles in response to Spanish land seizures (see chaps. 7 and 8). These maps demonstrate syncretism in their graphic conventions and concepts of "community." Similarly, the fourth-century map painted at La Sufricaya blended and adapted graphic styles (Maya and Teotihuacán) to represent a new concept of place (the La Sufricaya palace and ceremonial center) in relation to a newly defined "other" (the arrival of Sihyaj K'ahk' in Tikal from Teotihuacán). Cartographic history painting was used to establish the redefined community of La Sufricaya as it related to a backdrop of social-political change. While our understanding of the historic details is still unclear, the fourth-century map from La Sufricaya is a remarkable precursor in a long tradition of PreColumbian cartography.

Chapter Two



Information gathered on Christopher Columbus's voyages led many in Europe (if not Columbus himself ) to recognize the existence of a previously unknown continent. Cartographic representations and naming of this continent, part of a new understanding of the world, soon followed, incorporating updated information as it arrived. Those interested in publishing new maps, however, tended not to be the monarchs financing exploration and well-guarded geographic knowledge (see chap. 3). In 1507 a group of scholars in St. Dié, in the Kingdom of Lorraine, prepared a large world map in twelve sheets, and their remarkable map provided the first clear depiction of North and South America: its shape, size, and geographic relationship to the rest of the known world. Equally important, the German mapmaker Martin Waldseemüller and his colleagues decided to name the Western Hemisphere America, in honor of the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci, for which the map is famous to this day.

Why "America"? As the full title suggests, Waldseemüller, in a remote part of northeast France, was using Vespucci's travel notes as a source: Universalis cosmographia secunda Ptholemei traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum que lustrationes (A drawing of the whole earth following the tradition of Ptolemy and the travels of Amerigo Vespucci and others). While recognizing Columbus's voyages, Waldseemüller and his group also had acquired a recent French translation of Vespucci's letter detailing his purported four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to America between 1497 and 1504. In that work, Lettera di Amerigo Vespucci delle isole nuovamente trovate in quattro suoi viaggi (Letter of Amerigo Vespucci concerning the islands newly discovered on his four voyages), Vespucci concluded that the lands reached by Columbus in 1492, and explored by Columbus and others over the ensuing two decades, were indeed a segment of a new continent. Because of Vespucci's recognition of that startling revelation, it is likely that he was honored with the use of his name for the newly discovered continent.

The 1507 Waldseemüller world map provided more than a name for the new continent; it represented a radical departure in European understanding of the relationship of landmasses in the world, a change not embraced rapidly in Europe. The map was a starting point for the process by which European ideas and understandings of the shape of the earth subsequently were tested. The results rendered obsolete the model established by Claudius Ptolemy in the second century AD, which had been confined to the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia. While this essay focuses on America, the map itself was intended to provide people in Europe with a sense of their geographic relationship to the rest of the world. In that same measure, then, America is placed in the European firmament. The center of the map is Europe and the Mediterranean world, with the rest of the world radiating from and drawn to that center (fig. 2.1). Europe takes visual possession of America and Africa south of the equator through the map and through the symbols on the map. For sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas, only European symbols of authority, and for that matter only those of the Spanish and Portuguese crowns, appear. Notably, in Asia, where Europeans had entered into trade relations with native peoples as equals, these symbols do not appear on Waldseemüller's map.

Based on a compilation of information from various sources, primarily Spanish and Portuguese, Waldseemüller and his fellow researchers at the Gymnasium Vosagense, in St. Dié, had been involved in preparing an updated version of the famous Ptolemy atlas during 1505–1507. Their intention was to produce an atlas that included Ptolemy's old maps of the world and to add new information obtained from European expeditions to America and around the horn of Africa, led primarily by the Spanish and the Portuguese from the mid-fifteenth century. Their map used the piecemeal information remarkably well. Before we might expect to see such accuracy, Waldseemüller's map correctly depicted the hemisphere surrounded by two oceans, later named the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans, and showed land extending from near the southern tip of South America to the top of North America. As we view the map, we can recognize the world as we know it today. For example, we see a fairly accurate depiction of the shape and dimensions of South America, with its width at the equator within seventy miles of its actual longitudinal breadth.

In view of this portrayal, it seems probable that European exploration of the west coast of South America occurred earlier than has been recorded in history, or that Europeans obtained cartographic information from native sources, a possibility that present scholarship considers unlikely. Knowledge of the true shape of the Western Hemisphere was not confirmed, at least in historical accounts, until later in the sixteenth century. So, how did the mapmaker come to his startling conclusion? The answer to that question will only surface as more effort is placed on discovering the sources used to create the map and their movement through Europe from their logical bases in Spain and Portugal to the Rhine River region where the map was prepared. Nonetheless, the gradual understanding that a large landmass separated Europe from Asia, that is, America, began to gain traction in Europe, and as the 1507 map clearly indicates, that landmass is great in size and distinctly separated from the rest of Europe's understanding of the "known" world.


Excerpted from Mapping Latin America Copyright © 2011 by The University of Chicago. Excerpted by permission of The University of Chicago Press. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Foreword Matthew H. Edney 
Introduction Karl Offen and Jordana Dym 
I. The Colonial Period: Explorations and Empires
Imagining a New World
1. Early Empires   Francisco Estrada-Belli and Heather Hurst  
Mural, north wall of Room 1 at La Sufricaya, Guatemala, ca. AD 379
2. America   John Hébert  
Martin Waldseemüller, Universalis cosmographia, 1507
3. Charting Shores   Ricardo Padrón  
Diogo Ribeiro, CartaUniversal , 1529
4. Fabled Land   D. Graham Burnett  
Walter Ralegh, map of Guiana (El Dorado), ca. 1596
Urban Society
5. Indigenous Civilization   Barbara E. Mundy  
Map of Tenochtitlán (Mexico), 1524
6. Projecting Order   Richard L. Kagan  
Plano fundacional de San Juan de la Frontera (Argentina), 1571
Plaza Mayor de Lima , 1680
7. Hybrid Space   Barbara E. Mundy  
Map from the Relación Geográfica of Cholula (Mexico) , 1579–1581
Environment and Society
8. Litigating Land   Barbara E. Mundy  
Oztoticpac Lands Map, Texcoco (Mexico), ca. 1540
9. Mining Mountains   Peter Bakewell  
Illustration with map of a Potosí silver refining mill and Cerro Rico, ca. 1590
Planta general de la Villa Ymperial de Potosí (Bolivia), ca. 1590
10. Between Two Seas   W. George Lovell and Christopher H. Lutz  
Antonio Herrera, Descripción del Avdiencia de Gvatimala, 1604
Juan López de Velasco, Descripción de la Audiencia de Guatemala, 1575
11. Bourbons and Water   Vera S. Candiani  
Joaquín Velázquez de León and Joseph de Burgaleta , Perfil y corte por la latitud de las compuertas y puntos principales del canal de Huehuetoca < (Mexico), 1774
Ignacio Castera, Plano general de toda la extensión del Desagüe < (Mexico), 1795
Counter Visions
12. Andean Empire   Rolena Adorno  
Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, map of Huamanga (Peru), 1590s
Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, Mapa mundi de[l] Reino de las In[di]as, 1615
13. Imperial Rivalries   Matthew Restall  
Herman Moll, A Map of the West-Indies . . . explaining what belongs to Spain, England, France, Holland, etc., 1715
14. Allegory and Empire   Ricardo Padrón  
Vicente de Memije , Aspecto Simbólico del Mundo Hispánico, 1761
Vicente de Memije , Aspecto Geográphico del Mundo Hispánico , 1761
Control and Defense
15. Edge of Empire   Karl Offen  
[Sabastián de Aranciuia y Sasi], Mapa de lo principal de la Prouincia de Nicaragua , 1716
Franciso Antonio Fuentes y Guzmán, Audiencia de Guatemala, ca. 1690
16. Mapping New Spain Borderlands   Dennis Reinhartz  
Agustín López de la Cámara Alta et al., Mapa General . . . de la nueba colonia Santander (Mexico) , 1758
Francisco José de Haro, . . . todas las billas y lugares de españoles haci como las Missiones de indios y presidios existentes en la Provincia Nuevo Santander ( Mexico), ca. 1770
17. Forts and Ports   Joseph L. Scarpaci  
Antonio M. de la Torre y Cárdenas, Plano de la Plaza de la Havana (Cuba), 1817
Agustín Crame, Plano de la Plaza de Panamá , 1779
18. Estate Maps   David Buisseret  
[Robert Baugh], Plan of Papine Estate (Jamaica), 1834,
Plan de la première, seconde et troisième habitations de M. de Laborde (Haiti), ca. 1790
Bourbon Space
19. Myths and Measurements   Neil Safier  
Charles-Marie de la Condamine, Carte du cours du Maragnon (Amazon basin), ca. 1745
20. Creole Landscapes   Magali M. Carrera  
José Antonio de Alzate Ramírez, Nuevo mapa geográfico de la América septentrional española (Mexico), 1767
Luis de Mena, casta panel (Mexico), ca. 1750
21. Cartographic Independence   Junia Ferreira Furtado  
José Joaquim da Rocha, Mapa da capitania da Minas Gerais < (Brazil), 1778
José Joaquim da Rocha, Mapa da comarca da Sabará (Brazil), 1778
II. The Nineteenth Century : Enlightenment, Independence, and the Nation-State
Exploration and Cartography
22. Mapping Mountains   Karl S. Zimmerer  
Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland, Géographie des plantes équinoxiales (the Chimborazo Map) ( Ecuador), 1807
Pedro Cieza de León, Brevis exactaq totivs novi orbis < (South America), 1560
23. Traversing Space   D. Graham Burnett  
John Arrowsmith, Map of Guayana to Illustrate the route of R. H. Schomburgk, 1840
24. Cutting Across   Peter H. Dana  
Lionel Gisborne, Atlantic and Pacific Junction: Topographical Map of a portion of the Isthmus of Darien In Site Of Proposed Inter-Oceanic Navigation (Panama), 1852
25. Minerals and War   Karl Offen  
Josiah Harding, Map of Part of the Desertof Atacama (Bolivia), 1877
Bounding the State
26. Initial Boundaries   Jordana Dym  
[John Arrowsmith], Chart to Accompany Thompson’s Official Visit to Guatemala (Central America), 1829
27. Interior Designs   Lina del Castillo  
Agustín Codazzi, Mapa Corográfico de la Provincia de Vélez (Colombia), 1850
28. Historical Geographies   Raymond B. Craib  
Antonio García Cubas, Carta General de la República de México , 1858
Antonio García Cubas, Los Insurgentes: Un juego histórico (Mexico), 1891
29. Drawing the Line   Paula Rebert  
[Comisión de Límites Mexicana], “No. 29. Línea divisoria entre México y los Estados Unidos,” [1857]
30. Measuring Up and Fitting In   Carla Lois  
Demócrito, El compás con el que nos mide Europa (Argentina), 1887
Instituto Geográfico Militar, Superficies comparées avec celle de la République Argentine , 1913
Order and Progress
31. Coffee Grounds   Stefania Gallini  
Herman Aú, Mapa de la República de Guatemala , 1876
32. Portraying and Planning a City   Fernando Pérez Oyarzun and José Rosas Vera  
Teófilo Mostardi-Fioretti, Plano topográfico de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile , 1864
Ernest Ansart, Plano de Santiago (Chile), 1875
33. From Field to Port   Michael Johns  
Dirección de Ferrocarriles Nacionales, Mapa de Los Ferrocarriles en Explotación, República Argentina , 1895
34. The Life of a Map   Raymond B. Craib  
Copy of a map of San Juan Bautista de Acultzingo, Veracruz (Mexico), 1895
Martin Holzinger, Plano de la División de los Terrenos del Pueblo de Acultzingo (Mexico), 1872
III. The Twentieth Century: Maps for Every Purpose and Many New Mapmakers 
Imagined Communities
35. Educating the Nation   Lina del Castillo  
Oficina de Longitudes, Mapa de la República de Colombia dedicado a la instrucción pública , 1920
Ángel M. Díaz Lemos, Carta de Colombia , ca. 192–
36. Reordering Our World   Jennifer A. Jolly  
Joaquín Torres-García, Inverted Map of South America, 1936
Joaquín Torres-García , Inverted Map of South America, 1943
37. National Production   Carla Lois  
Control de Estado de la Presidencia de la Nación, ¡Produzcamos! (Argentina), 1950
38. Representing the Nation   Sarah A. Radcliffe  
Ubicación territorial de los pueblos indígenas del Ecuador , 2005
39. Ties That Bind   Marie Price  
Ryan Morris, map for the article “The Mexican Connection,” Atlantic Monthly, 2007
Urban Planning
40. A Fruit Company Town   John Soluri  
Tela Railroad Co., Diesel and Fuel Oil Facilities in Tela (Honduras), 1934
U.S. Marine Corps Intelligence Section, Tela, Honduras, 1929
41. Tropical Modernism   Sylvia Ficher and Francisco Leitão  
Lucio Costa, Plano Piloto de Brasília, (Brazil), 1957
Lucio Costa, s ketches of the Plano Piloto, 1957
42. On the Road   James R. Akerman  
General Drafting Co. for Esso Standard Oil, S.A., Mapa de las carreteras de la República de Cuba (© 1956), 1961
43. Mass Transit   Alain Musset  
Sistema de Transporte Colectivo, Ciudad de México, Red del Metro, Ciudad de México, 2005
44. Open for Business   Altha J. Cravey  
El Paso Chamber of Commerce, Twin Plants: American Factories on the Mexican Border, 1973
Keller Koch Realtors, Juárez Industrial ParksMap (Mexico), 2007
45. Mayas and Tourism Markets   Walter E. Little  
Junta Departamental de Turismo de Sacatepéquez , Visite Antigua Guatemala , 1963
Colección Veras, La Antigua Guatemala , 1996
Revolution and Resistance
46. National Security and Transnational Insecurity   Michael J. Schroeder  
Cuba: The Strategic Location, 1962
U-2 reconnaissance photographs of Cuban missile installations, 1961
47. Revolutionary Power, Divided State   Joaquín M. Chávez  
FMLN, Mapa oficial de la República de El Salvador, annotated ca. 1991
48. Controlling People and Space   Matthew J. Taylor and Michael K. Steinberg  
Anonymous witness, Mapa 12: Samaritano (etnomapa) (Guatemala), 1992
49. Sewing Resistance   Ericka Kim Verba  
Untitled testimonial tapestry of a mother seeking a desaparecido (Chile), ca. 1973–1980s
Untitled testimonial tapestry of a shantytown (Chile), ca. 1970s-1980s
Geography, Environment, and Resources
50. Vertical Environments   Karl S. Zimmerer  
Javier Pulgar Vidal, Las ocho regiones naturales del Perú , 1972
ONERN, Mapa ecológico del Perú , 1976
51. Renewed El Dorado   Christian Brannstrom  
SUDAM, Amazônia: O Eldorado que surpreenderá o mundo ( Brazil), 1971
52. Hydrologic Modeling   Jessica Budds  
Dirección General de Aguas, Ubicación de la cuenca (Chile), 2002
Dirección General de Aguas, Valle del Río de La Ligua: Esquema de modelación del sistema (Chile), 2002
53. GIS Maps and the Amazon Borderlands   David S. Salisbury  
Centro de Investigación de Fronteras Amazónicas, Actividad maderera en la comunidad indígena Alto Tamaya (Peru), 2004
Centro de Investigación de Fronteras Amazónicas, Concesiones mineras auríferas en la frontera central Perú-Brasil , 2005
Ethnic Mapping
54. Ethnic Mapping   Gregory Knapp  
Ángel Barriga B., Mapas de grupos indígenas (inclusive negros y pescadores) (Ecuador), 1961
55. Making Black Territories   Karl Offen  
Comisión Técnica Ley 70 de 1993, Tierras de comunidades negras ( Colombia), 2002
Consejo comunitario “Manos Unidas Del Socorro” (Colombia), 2001
56. Ironies of Conservation Mapping   Anthony Stocks and Peter Taber  
Peter Taber, Indigenous Land Use Zones in the Bosawas Reserve, Northern Nicaragua, for the period 1994–2007
Peter Taber, Detail of Mayangna Land Use Zones and Cultural Features in Mayangna Sauni As, Northern Nicaragua, for the period 2004–2007
57. Mapping the Pemon Homeland   Bjørn Sletto  
Arcadio Basabe Centeno and Josė Mariano Cranes Sucre, Mapa mental, Kavanayen (Venezuela), 2003
Jacinto Sucre et al., Proyecto etnocartográfico Inna Kowantok (Venezuela), 2003
Bjørn Sletto, Makunaïmo Kowamüpö Dapon , Habitat Pemon Sector 5, La Gran Sabana (Venezuela), 2004
Additional Resources   Jordana Dym and Karl Offen  
About the Authors  
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