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Marana Community/ Hohokam

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Overview

This account of Classic Period settlement in the Tucson Basin between A.D. 1100 and 1300 is the first comprehensive description of the organization of territory, subsistence, and society in a Hohokam community of an outlying region. Broad recovery of settlement patterns reveals in unique detail the developmental history of the Marana Community and its hierarchical structure about a central site with a platform mound. Remains of diverse agricultural technologies demonstrate the means for supporting populations of previously unrecognized size.

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Product Details

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xii
1. An Introduction to Time, Place, and Research 1
Cultural Diagnostics 1
Environmental Setting 2
Core and Peripheral Regions 3
Regional Character of the Tucson Basin 5
The Marana Study Area and the Classic Period Community 8
2. Early Sedentism and Agriculture in the Northern Tucson Basin 11
A Framework for Transition in the Tucson Basin 11
Agricultural Transition and the Tucson Environment 13
Variables Favoring Sedentism 13
Staple Resources 14
Late Archaic and Early Ceramic Settlement Patterns 15
Visibility and Discovery Bias 15
Northern Tucson Basin Survey Patterns 15
Duration of Residence 16
Basic Patterns of Settlement and Production 17
3. Evolution and Structure of the Classic Period Marana Community 20
Developmental Aspects of Community Organization 20
Definition of Community 20
Preclassic Community Definition 21
Classic Community Definition 21
Classic Community Chronology 21
Preclassic to Classic Trajectories 24
Description of the Marana Community 27
Classic Linkage of Settlement Axes 27
The Marana Mound Site 27
Zonal Patterns 31
Economic Differentiation 34
Subsistence Specialization 34
Nonsubsistence Specialization 37
Evidence for Vertical Organization 37
Settlement Patterns 37
Architectural Distributions 38
Ceramic Assemblages 38
Institutions and Social Personae 38
Abandonment of the Marana Community 39
The Marana Community in Regional Perspective 40
4. Parameters of Agricultural Production in the Northern Tucson Basin 41
Consultation with Traditional Farmers 41
Precipitation and Regional Potential 42
Agricultural Attributes of Basin Settings 42
Mountain Slopes 42
Canyon Bottoms 44
Upper Bajadas 44
Middle Bajadas 46
Lower Bajadas 47
Santa Cruz Floodplain 50
Agricultural Parameters and Regional Land Use 51
5. An Evaluation of Alluvial Fan Agriculture 53
Geomorphology of Late Holocene Alluvial Fans 53
Agricultural Potential of Alluvial Fans 60
Flow Observations on Cottonwood Wash and Derrio Wash 61
Applications to Prehistoric Agriculture 62
6. The Dairy Site: Occupational Continuity on an Alluvial Fan 64
The Occupational Sample 64
Late Archaic Occupation 64
Early Ceramic Occupation 65
Farming and Residence on the Dairy Fan 67
Subsistence Studies 67
Pollen Analysis 69
Flotation Analysis 70
Faunal Analysis 71
Continuity in Farming and Settlement 72
7. Evidence for Large-Scale Agave Cultivation in the Marana Community 73
The Issue of Cultivation 73
Archaeological Indicators of Cultivation 74
Rockpiles and Planting 78
Zone 2 Distributions 81
Roasting Pits 82
Botanical Evidence 82
Field Artifact Assemblages 83
Cultivation in Rockpile Fields 85
Estimates from Archaeological Distributions 85
Construction Labor 85
Agave Yields 86
Implications of Productive Patterns in the Classic Period 86
8. The Archaeology of an Agave Roasting Location 88
Site Description 88
Field Investigations 88
Surface Collection and Stratigraphic Tests 88
Features 90
Lithic Technology and Agave Processing 92
Tool and Debitage Analysis 92
Patterns of Artifact Selection 92
Ceramics and Agave Processing 92
Ceramic Analysis 93
Sherds as Tools 95
Activities and Artifacts at Site 205 96
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