Marek's Disease: An Evolving Problem by Fred Davison | 9780120883790 | Hardcover | Barnes & Noble
Marek's Disease: An Evolving Problem

Marek's Disease: An Evolving Problem

by Fred Davison
     
 

ISBN-10: 0120883791

ISBN-13: 9780120883790

Pub. Date: 09/30/2004

Publisher: Elsevier Science

Marek’s disease is a form of cancer of poultry caused by an important herpesvirus (MDV). It continues to be a threat to poultry health and welfare and worldwide losses are estimated to be US$ 1 billion annually. This book provides a timely review of the problems of Marek's disease with descriptions of the complex viral life cycle, how MDV targets different

Overview

Marek’s disease is a form of cancer of poultry caused by an important herpesvirus (MDV). It continues to be a threat to poultry health and welfare and worldwide losses are estimated to be US$ 1 billion annually. This book provides a timely review of the problems of Marek's disease with descriptions of the complex viral life cycle, how MDV targets different types of white blood cells, and details of the virus structure, its genes and proteins.

* The multiplicity of factors contributing to susceptibility is explored in detail
• Vaccination - the problems arising from current vaccination strategies and how these can be improved and made sustainable in future
• The lessons learned in the control of MD over the past 30 years, and how we can use MD as a model for other animal and human diseases is discussed

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780120883790
Publisher:
Elsevier Science
Publication date:
09/30/2004
Series:
Biology of Animal Infections Series
Pages:
208
Product dimensions:
6.02(w) x 8.74(h) x 0.66(d)

Table of Contents

Contributorsxiii
Series Introductionxv
Prefacexvii
Acknowledgementsxix
Abbreviationsxxi
1Introduction1
General background1
Jozsef Marek (1868-1952) and the identification of the disease2
Houghton Poultry Research Station and the isolation of the causative agent of Marek's disease4
The place of Marek's disease and Marek's disease virus in the biological sciences6
Acknowledgements7
References7
2Marek's disease: long and difficult beginnings8
Introduction8
Early days8
Terminology and classification9
Evidence for the separation of Marek's disease from lymphoid leukoses10
Clinical and pathological studies of field cases10
Transmission studies11
Experimental studies comparing Marek's disease with lymphoid leukosis12
Identifying the Marek's disease virus12
Identification of Marek's disease herpesvirus13
Circumstantial evidence13
Definitive evidence14
Summary15
References15
3The genome content of Marek's disease-like viruses17
Introduction17
Gene content and transcription of the Mardiviruses18
Transcription and gene expression during MDV latency25
Manipulation of the MDV genome: new strategy using bacterial artificial chromosomes27
Summary29
Acknowledgements29
References29
4Marek's disease virus oncogenicity: molecular mechanisms32
Introduction32
Meq, a Jun/Fos family member, as a putative oncogene for MDV33
The structure and function of Meq34
Meq as a transcriptional regulator37
Meq as a transforming protein38
Meq as a major oncoprotein in MDV oncogenesis39
Meq mutations in proline-rich domains correlate with virulence40
Meq's potential roles in MDV replication and latency41
Summary and implications of Meq as an oncogene for MDV42
Other genes associated with pathogenicity43
BamHI-H family of transcripts44
MDV phosphoprotein 38 (pp38) complex44
MDV-encoded CXC chemokine, vIL-844
MDV-encoded telomerase RNA45
MDV ICP4 homologue-related transcripts46
Summary46
References47
5Marek's disease: a worldwide problem49
Introduction49
Diagnostic investigation of MD problems51
Economic impact53
Causes of outbreaks54
MD in species other than chickens60
Problems associated with contamination of MD vaccines60
Summary60
References61
6Marek's disease virus: biology and life cycle62
Introduction62
Natural infection with MDV65
Early cytolytic phase66
Latency69
Late cytolytic phase71
Fully productive infection in the feather-follicle epithelium71
Transformation72
Conclusions75
Acknowledgements76
References76
7Pathological responses to infection78
Introduction78
Virus-cell relationships in Marek's disease79
Pathogenesis and pathology of Marek's disease79
Primary infection79
Acute cytolytic infection of lymphoid tissue81
Viraemia and haematology82
Infection of feather-follicle epithelium83
Infection of other parenchymatous tissues84
Peripheral neuropathy84
Central nervous system88
Lymphomatosis89
Atherosclerosis91
Ocular changes92
Factors affecting lesion type92
Virus strain92
Host93
Marek's disease in other species94
Turkeys94
Japanese quail95
Pheasants95
Conclusions95
References96
8Marek's disease lymphomas98
Introduction98
Histopathology99
Peripheral nerves99
Skin99
Visceral and skeletal muscle lymphomas99
Lymphoma cell phenotypes100
MATSAs100
MDV-transformed cells101
Phenotypes of MD lymphoma cells101
The identity of the neoplastically transformed cells in MD lymphomas103
Anti-lymphoma immunity105
MD lymphoma regression105
Anti-MD lymphoma immunity106
Transplantable tumours106
Tumour antigens in MD107
Model for MD lymphomagenesis108
Summary109
Acknowledgements110
References110
9Genetic resistance to Marek's disease112
Introduction112
MHC associated resistance113
Structure and function of the MHC114
Mechanism of MHC-determined resistance to MD117
Non-MHC associated resistance118
Differences in viral replication between lines 6 and 7118
Phenotypic comparisons119
Investigation of candidate genes120
Genomic mapping approaches120
Conclusions122
Acknowledgements123
References123
10Immunity to Marek's disease126
Introduction126
MDV entry via the lungs127
Role of macrophages128
Role of natural killer cells129
Acquired immune responses to MDV131
Role of antibodies131
Role of cell-mediated immune responses132
Cytokine responses during the cytolytic phase134
The role of cytokines in the induction and maintenance of latency135
Cytokine production by tumour cells135
Role of the MDV-encoded CXC chemokine136
Immunity to MDV induced by vaccination137
Conclusions139
References139
11Marek's disease immunosuppression142
Introduction142
Mechanisms of MD-induced immunosuppression143
Immunosuppression caused by loss of lymphocytes143
Immunosuppression caused by changes in the regulation of immune responses146
Nitric oxide, a dual role146
Cytokines147
Down-regulation of lymphocyte surface molecules and other immuno-evasive mechanisms147
Immunosuppression caused by tumour cells148
Confounding factors in MDV-induced immunosuppression149
Chicken infectious anaemia virus149
Infectious bursal disease virus150
Reticuloendotheliosis virus150
Reovirus infection150
Consequences of immunosuppression151
Summary152
References152
12Diagnosis of Marek's disease156
Introduction156
Diagnosis of MD under field conditions157
Laboratory diagnosis of MD159
Collection of infectious material for in vitro studies159
Virus isolation and identification160
Detection and characterization of MDV antigens and antibodies161
Identification of MDV DNA162
Differentiation of MDV serotypes, strains and isolates163
Summary165
References165
13Vaccination against Marek's disease168
History of Marek's disease vaccine168
Importance of vaccination170
Licensing, manufacturing and administering current MD vaccines171
In ovo vaccination172
Vaccination problems and solutions174
Attenuation of MDV and its effect on protection176
Recombinant vaccines179
Summary182
References182
14Future strategies for controlling Marek's disease186
Introduction186
Current MD situation and vaccination strategies187
Future risk of increasing the incidence of MD188
Current tools for MD control189
Vaccination189
Genetics190
Biosecurity191
Developing new strategies for control191
Vaccine development191
Development of transgenic chickens193
What research is needed for the rational development of new strategies of control?194
Summary196
Acknowledgements198
References198
15Conclusions200
References204
AppendixKey references205
Index207

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