Marine Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation: The Application and Future Development of the IMO's Particularly Sensitive Sea Area Concept / Edition 1

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Overview

Despite the potential benefits that the IMO's Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) designation can deliver, recent practice within the IMO and by individual member states has considerably undermined confidence in this emerging concept. The focus of this book is on the events within the IMO that have led to this lack of confidence arising. In the process, this book presents an examination of coastal State practice with the PSSA concept.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783540376972
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 10/31/2006
  • Edition description: 2007
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 289
  • Product dimensions: 6.38 (w) x 9.45 (h) x 0.83 (d)

Table of Contents


Forward     V
Acknowledgements     VII
Abstract     IX
List of Figures     XV
List of Tables     XVII
Acronyms and Abbreviations     XIX
Introduction     1
Background     1
Shipping and Marine Protected Areas     2
Problem Definition     6
Research Questions     7
Contribution of this Book     8
Study Methods     9
Existing Literature     10
Research Visits     10
Other Research Methods     11
Structure     11
International Legal Framework for the Protection of the Marine Environment     13
Introduction     13
International Instruments     15
1958 Geneva Conventions     15
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment     17
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea     20
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development     24
The Concept of Marine Protected Areas     29
Defining Marine Protected Areas     29
The Marine Protected Area Concept in International Law     31
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea     32
Convention on Biological Diversity     32
International Biodiversity Conventions and Initiatives     37
Conclusions     42
International Regulation of Shipping for the Protection of the Marine Environment     45
Introduction     45
Nature of the Impacts of Shipping     47
Operational Discharges     47
Accidental Discharges     48
Physical Harm     51
The Establishment and Role of the IMO     51
Background to the Organization     52
Standard Setting     56
Existing Instruments Administered by the IMO     59
International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea     60
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships     61
Coastal State Versus Flag State Jurisdiction     64
Flag State Obligations and Jurisdiction     66
Coastal State Jurisdiction     68
Conclusions     80
The Particularly Sensitive Sea Area Concept     83
Introduction     83
PSSA Overview     84
Development of the PSSA Concept     88
1991 PSSA Guidelines     90
Review of the 1991 Guidelines      92
The Revised Guidelines - Resolution A.927(22)     94
The PSSA Concept in International Law     96
The Legal Basis of the PSSA Concept     97
Relationship Between PSSAs and Marine Protected Areas     103
PSSA Links to the CBD     107
Conclusions     109
PSSA Designation and Implementation of the PSSA Guidelines by the IMO     111
Introduction     111
Submitting a Proposal for PSSA Designation     112
PSSA Identification     113
Protection of PSSAs     115
Special Discharge Restrictions     116
Regulation of Navigation for Protection of the Environment     119
Application of Ships' Routeing Measures     120
Update of IMO Measures to Protect the Marine Environment     122
Case Study-Mandatory Area to be Avoided in New Zealand     122
Vessel Traffic Services (VTS)     126
Ship Reporting Systems (SRS)     129
To PSSA or not to PSSA?     131
Assessment and Approval of PSSA Proposals by the IMO     132
Consideration by MEPC     134
Consideration by NAV and MSC     136
Approval of a PSSA     138
Conclusion     139
State Practice: Application of the PSSA Concept     141
Introduction     141
The Western European PSSA     143
Background     143
Existing Navigation Regime     146
Associated Protective Measures     147
Consideration by IMO     148
Extension of the Great Barrier Reef PSSA to Include the Torres Strait     150
Background     150
Existing Navigation Regime     154
Associated Protective Measures     156
Consideration by IMO     157
The Baltic Sea     160
Background     160
Existing Navigation Regime     163
Associated Protective Measures     164
Consideration by IMO     164
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary     166
Background     166
Existing Navigation Regime     169
Associated Protective Measures     170
Consideration by IMO     171
Analysing the Benefits of PSSA Designation     172
Comprehensive Management Tool     173
Adoption of Additional Protective Measures     177
Approval of Exceptional Measures     177
Intrinsic Benefits of PSSA Designation     185
Conclusions      192
Issues Identified with the PSSA Concept Through an Examination of State and IMO Practice     195
Introduction     195
Issues Identified with State Practice     196
Defining the Scope of a PSSA     196
Linkage Between Vulnerability and APMs     199
Appropriate APMS     200
IMO Process     201
Strategic Framework     204
Revision of the PSSA Guidelines     204
PSSA Definition     207
Linking the Identified Vulnerability with an APM     207
The Legal Basis for Associated Protective Measures     210
Procedural Issues     211
Effect of the Revisions     212
Unresolved Issues     212
Application of the PSSA Concept to Wide Geographic Areas     213
IMO Process     215
Strategic Approach     220
Conclusions     221
Development of a Strategic Framework for the PSSA Concept     223
Introduction     223
A Strategic Approach for the Identification of Sites for PSSA Designation     224
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)     224
Marine Spatial Planning (MSP)     227
Application of Marine Spatial Planning Techniques to PSSA Identification     231
Global Level Analysis     232
Identification of Sites Vulnerable to the Impacts of Shipping     239
Outcome of the Analysis     243
Regional and Local Approaches for Identifying Candidate PSSA Sites     250
Application to PSSA Identification     252
Conclusions     254
Conclusions and Recommendations     255
Introduction     255
Role of the IMO     255
The PSSA Concept in International Law     256
Benefits of PSSA Designation     257
Current Status of the PSSA Concept     258
Future Development of the PSSA Concept     259
Recommendations     260
Recommendation 1     260
Recommendation 2     261
Recommendation 3     261
Recommendation 4     262
Recommendation 5     262
Recommendation 6     262
Recommendation 7     262
Concluding Comments     263
Bibliography     265
About the Author     289
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