Mark Twain for Kids: His Life & Times, 21 Activities

Mark Twain for Kids: His Life & Times, 21 Activities

by R. Kent Rasmussen
     
 

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Nineteenth-century America and the world of Samuel L. Clemens, better known as Mark Twain, come to life as children journey back in time with this history- and literature-laden activity book. The comprehensive biographical information explores Mark Twain as a multi-talented man of his times, from his childhood in the rough-and-tumble West of Missouri to his many…  See more details below

Overview

Nineteenth-century America and the world of Samuel L. Clemens, better known as Mark Twain, come to life as children journey back in time with this history- and literature-laden activity book. The comprehensive biographical information explores Mark Twain as a multi-talented man of his times, from his childhood in the rough-and-tumble West of Missouri to his many careers-steamboat pilot, printer, miner, inventor, world traveler, businessman, lecturer, newspaper reporter, and most important, author-and how these experiences influenced his writing. Twain-inspired activities include making printer's type, building a model paddlewheel boat, unmasking a hoax, inventing new words, cooking cornpone, planning a newspaper, observing people, and writing maxims. An extensive resource section offers information on Twain's classics, such as Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, as well as a listing of recommended web sites to explore.

about the Author:
R. Kent Rasmussen is the author of several bestselling books on Mark Twain, including Mark Twain A to Z, which won the ALA's award for adult reference work, Mark Twain's Book for Bad Boys and Girls, and The Quotable Mark Twain. He is also the author of Farewell to Jim Crow, a New York Public Library "Best Book for Teens." He lives in Thousand Oaks, California.

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Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly
A historical account of the famous humorist and author, Mark Twain for Kids: His Life &Times, 21 Activities by R. Kent Rasmussen combines the details of Samuel Clemens's life with craft projects including making printer's type from a raw potato or fashioning a paddlewheel boat using foamboard. Quotations from Twain ("When angry, count four; when very angry, swear"), a comparison of Tom Sawyer and Harry Potter, vintage illustrations and photos enliven this thorough text. Copyright 2004 Reed Business Information.
Children's Literature
Young readers and adults alike will enjoy learning just how many of Tom Sawyer's adventures were once Sam Clemens' adventures — and just the sheer number of Clemens' adventures is mind-boggling. At a time when most people lived and died in the same town, doing the same work all their lives, Clemens worked as a typesetter, a fully-licensed steamboat pilot on the Mississippi, a gold miner in the west, a newspaper reporter, and a storyteller — all before he was 30 years old. Later he would travel the world to lecture and gather material for more stories. He was famous and well-paid in his own lifetime, though he met with great sorrow by outliving his wife and three of his four children. This biography is written in short sections filled with strange or funny anecdotes, illustrations from Clemens' books and marvelous large photos of Clemens, his family, and his homes. The book bogs down toward the end when Clemens is writing more and moving around less, but there are plenty of hands-on activities — carving a potato to learn how old-fashioned type was set, an exercise in posing for a 19th century photographer to understand why everyone in these old photos looks so serious, an exercise in capturing the nuances of real human speech as Clemens does so well, and instructions for making a slate or a scrapbook (Clemens actually patented and sold a self-pasting scrapbook). There is plenty of fascinating, excellent information for young people to read or teachers to share about this most famous of American humorists, even the origin of his pen name Mark Twain. It was a term used by Mississippi steamboatmen to indicate the river was at "mark twain" or two fathoms, the dividing pointbetween safe and dangerously shallow water. 2004, Chicago Review Press, Ages 10 up.
—Karen Leggett
KLIATT
An unusual activity book, this inviting volume draws on Mark Twain's most popular scenarios for creative ideas that range from making a Mississippi sternwheeler to cooking Missouri-fried corn pone. Commentary on Pudd'nhead Wilson refers to Twain's introduction of fingerprinting to detective lore. A simple experiment shows readers how to collect fingerprints on plain glass for study under magnification and how to fashion a plumb line out of string and a fishing lead. Photos identify important people in Twain's life, including his mother, his four daughters, and Horace Bixby, the pilot who introduced him to navigation on the ever-shifting Mississippi River. Peripheral commentary explains Twain's family life, his involvement with the Civil War, friendship with Helen Keller, construction of a home in Hartford, Connecticut, and his connection with a neighbor, author Harriet Beecher Stowe. More sophisticated activities include careful reading of an anecdote to reveal a hoax, composing aphorisms, and testing male and female subjects to study gendered methods of threading a needle. Less imaginative are instructions for writing a travel letter, collecting superstitions and idiomatic speech, critiquing a movie, and making a scrapbook. KLIATT Codes: J—Recommended for junior high school students. 2004, Chicago Review Press, dist. by Independent Publishers Group, 146p. illus. bibliog. index., Ages 12 to 15.
—Mary Ellen Snodgrass
School Library Journal
Gr 4-8-This book brings together the intrigue and excitement that were part of Samuel Clemens's life, captures his eccentricities, highlights his strengths, and displays his frailties. The times in which he lived are expertly described; for example, the ramifications of the Civil War and the effects of the gold rush become part of the writer's story. The parallels between Clemens's life and the experiences of the characters in many of his books are also made clear. Rasmussen's folksy, familiar style of writing demonstrates a strong comfort level with his subject and an accurate understanding of his audience. Woven throughout the narrative are activities that range from elaborate, time-consuming projects such as making printer's type with potato cutouts to easy, almost simplistic ideas such as being a detective simply by watching people and then making notes about them. Abundant sidebars, illustrations, and photographs all provide interesting tangents for readers to explore. While libraries are chock-full of books about Clemens, some even by Rasmussen, this one will be appealing to many young readers.-Jody Kopple, Shady Hill School, Cambridge, MA Copyright 2004 Reed Business Information.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781613742372
Publisher:
Chicago Review Press, Incorporated
Publication date:
07/01/2004
Series:
For Kids Series
Sold by:
Barnes & Noble
Format:
NOOK Book
Pages:
160
File size:
7 MB
Age Range:
9 Years

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Mark Twain for Kids

His Life and Times, 21 Activities


By R. Kent Rasmussen

Chicago Review Press Incorporated

Copyright © 2004 R. Kent Rasmussen
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-61374-237-2



CHAPTER 1

Missouri Boyhood


Samuel Langhorne Clemens first saw the light of day in the north-eastern Missouri village of Florida — a place so small that he later called it "nearly invisible." It had a population of only 100 people when he was born. When he grew up, he bragged that not only had he single-handedly raised the village's population by one percent, but he could have done the same for any town. Wild exaggerations like that would someday become a trademark of Mark Twain's humor.

Like most people of his time, Sam was born in his family's home — a two-room house that was little larger than a shack. The date was November 30, 1835. At that time, Andrew Jackson was president of the United States, the nation's frontier began just west of the Mississippi River, and government troops were busy fighting the Seminole Indians of Florida.

Sam's father named him after his own father, Samuel B. Clemens, who died long before Sam was born. When Sam's grandfather was only 35 years old, he was crushed by a rolling log while helping neighbors build a log cabin in a Virginia county that later became part of West Virginia.

Family history would later find fictional expression in many of the books that Sam was to write. Indeed, the history of his family's move from Tennessee to Missouri is the starting point of The Gilded Age, a novel that he wrote with his friend Charles Dudley Warner in 1873. In that novel, the members of the fictional Hawkins family are modeled on the Clemenses, and Sam's own fictional counterpart is Clay Hawkins.

Sam's father came from a family that was proud of its elite ancestry. Sam himself liked to boast about one ancestor, an Englishman named Geoffrey Clement, who helped to have England's King Charles I beheaded in the 17th century. Sam's mother's side of the family also claimed noble descent; they were related to an English family named Lambton (which became "Lampton" when the family emigrated to America), whose men were heirs to an earldom. Sam's interest in noble descent shows up in several of his novels. The most famous examples can be found in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. One of that novel's two scoundrels claims to be the rightful duke of Bridgewater, and the other, the king of France. Much of the fun of the story comes from Huck's pretending to believe the scoundrels' outrageous claims.

Sam's father, John Marshall Clemens, was born in Virginia in 1798. He was named after the prominent Virginian John Marshall, who later became a famous chief justice of the United States. However, John Clemens had a hard childhood. After the early death of his father, his mother remarried and moved to Kentucky, and he was soon forced to go to work. Eventually, he had to give most of what he had inherited from his father to his stepfather in return for raising him. With what he had left, he married Jane Lampton, of Kentucky, in 1823. Two years later, they moved across the border into Tennessee, where all five of Sam's older siblings were born.

The Clemenses lived in several different Tennessee towns. John Clemens held some important government jobs and had a small law practice. He even saved enough money to buy more than 100 square miles of land in eastern Tennessee, as an investment for his family's future.

During the early 1830s, Jane Clemens's sister Patsy and her husband, John Quarles, moved from Tennessee to the town of Florida, in northeastern Missouri. There they established a small farm and ran a general store. The Quarleses thought that Florida's future was bright, and they encouraged the Clemenses to follow them there. Around the middle of 1835, John and Jane Clemens left Tennessee and joined their relatives in Missouri. Sam was born in Florida, Missouri, about six months after they arrived. His only younger brother, Henry, was also born there, three years later.

During their first few years in Missouri, things went well for the Clemenses. Sam's father helped his brother-in-law run his store, then established his own dry-goods store. He also became a community leader. He had important jobs on a committee that was organized to develop navigation on the nearby Salt River, which fed into the Mississippi, and on another committee that was working to bring the railroad to Florida. He also became a country judge. If Florida became the prosperous center of commerce that they envisioned, the family's future would be bright.

However, the town did not prosper, and the Clemenses suffered for it. The Salt River never became important, and no railroad line ever reached the town. In fact, Florida never grew much larger than it was then. John Clemens's efforts to develop a law practice and run a store failed. To make matters worse, Sam's nine-year-old sister, Margaret, died in 1839. A few months later, John Clemens sold his property and moved the family to Hannibal, Missouri, a larger town on the Mississippi River, about 35 miles northeast of Florida.


The Family Moves to Hannibal

Sam was not quite four years old when the family moved to Hannibal. He couldn't have remembered Florida well from the time his family lived there. However, almost every year he lived in Hannibal, his family returned to Florida during the summer to stay on the Quarleses' farm. Florida thus remained important to Sam throughout his childhood. The fictional Mississippi riverfront village of St. Petersburg that is featured in Sam's best-known books, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, is modeled after the town of Hannibal. However, St. Petersburg also contains many elements of Florida, and of the Quarles farm.

Most of what we know about Sam's childhood comes from his own writings, especially the long, rambling autobiography that he wrote and dictated toward the end of his life. The stories of his youth that he told are rich and colorful, but they aren't always reliable. Sam always liked to take a good story and make it better, whether the result was true or not. His talent for doing this is one of the things that makes his books fun to read. However, that same talent also makes it difficult for us to know what to believe about his recollections about his early life.

One of the reasons that The Adventures of Tom Sawyer has become a beloved classic is that it offers a joyous picture of a time and place that seems like a paradise for the children, particularly the boys, who are at the center of all the novel's adventures. Tom and his friends enjoy fishing, swimming, rafting, watching circuses and traveling troupes of actors, and playing adventure games such as pretending to be Robin Hood. Tom never has to look very far to find a companion with whom to share an adventure, and every time the novel places a dangerous challenge in his path, he emerges triumphant. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is one of the most satisfying boyhood adventure stories ever written, and the book has made Sam's boyhood home of Hannibal famous as a symbol of American values during a simpler time. However, the real Hannibal of Sam Clemens's boyhood in Missouri wasn't quite the paradise that the fictional St. Petersburg is. In fact, a careful read of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer reveals that St. Petersburg itself can be a dangerous and scary place.

In the real world of Sam Clemens's youth during the mid-19th century, life was far harder than it is now. This was especially true along the frontier, of which Missouri was still a part during the 1830s and 1840s. People had to work hard merely to get by. There was no electricity. Water didn't come from taps; it had to be pumped by hand. Stoves and heaters burned wood, which had to be chopped, carried, lighted, and tended. Most of the food that people ate didn't come from grocery stores, but from gardens and farms, and it required hard work to produce. If a harsh winter or other disaster damaged crops, times could be tough, indeed.

People who didn't produce their own food and clothes needed money or goods to trade for the items they required. For John Clemens to prosper as a merchant, there had to be customers to buy his goods. When times were tough, everyone in the community felt the pinch.

In addition to facing an uncertain economic future, the real Hannibal was a place in which violence — even murder — was common. It was also a place in which diseases such as measles, cholera, and typhoid periodically threatened to wipe out large parts of the population. Although The Adventures of Tom Sawyer suggests a picture of carefree life for boys, it also hints at the danger that existed in a town like Hannibal.

Judging by the many violent events that Sam witnessed when he was growing up, Hannibal was anything but a completely safe place. With his own eyes, he saw several murders, several attempted murders, a hanging, an attempted lynching, and a man burned to death in a jail. He also saw friends drown, and he came close to drowning himself several times. Those awful experiences gave him nightmares that haunted him for years. However, they also gave him ideas that he would later use in his books.

While The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is generally a cheerful story in which mostly good things happen to its young hero, it has an undercurrent of danger. Early in the story, Tom and Huck go to a graveyard at night to try out a magical cure for warts. There they happen to see a doctor and two other men dig up a recently buried body. The grave robbers get into an argument, and one of them (Injun Joe) kills the doctor while the third man, Muff Potter, is passed out.

What Tom and Huck see that night nearly scares them to death. The next day they return to the graveyard, where the villagers are gathering to look at the murder scene. When Injun Joe says that Muff killed the doctor, Tom and Huck are amazed that God doesn't strike Joe dead for lying, and they become even more afraid of him than ever. They run off together and sign an oath in their own blood, swearing never to tell their terrible secret to anyone else. Huck is afraid that if he or Tom tells their secret, and Injun Joe isn't hanged, "Why, he'd kill us some time or other, just as dead sure as we're a-laying here."

Even though Tom and Huck renew their pledge to keep their secret, Tom becomes a witness at Muff's murder trial and must reveal the truth. The moment he tells everyone that Injun Joe killed the doctor, Joe jumps out the courtroom window and disappears. Afterward, Tom is treated as a hero for saving Muff, but he is now haunted by even scarier nightmares. When Tom finally meets Joe again, in a dark cave, the effect is electric. If Sam Clemens's own boyhood had been less scary, it's doubtful that he would have written scenes such as these.

Several scenes in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn describe other violent incidents that Sam saw as a boy. In one, a man named Boggs is shot simply for pestering a man. Sam's description of Boggs's death is an almost exact duplicate of his recollections of the murder of a real Hannibal man named Smarr. Boggs, like Smarr, is shot in the chest and laid down on a floor, and someone places a heavy Bible on his chest, thinking that God's words will comfort him. Sam grew up having nightmares about Smarr's murder.

While The Adventures of Tom Sawyer at least acknowledges the existence of violence and danger in the fictional St. Petersburg, it barely hints at another unhappy reality of Sam Clemens's boyhood village: African American slavery. Like all the states of the pre-Civil War South, Missouri permitted people to own other human beings as their property, just as one might own a horse or a piece of furniture. The first hint in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer that slavery exists in St. Petersburg is the brief appearance of a "small colored boy" named Jim, who does chores for Aunt Polly. A second hint is a footnote in a later chapter, which explains the difference between how dogs and slaves were named in Sam's time.


African Americans in Sam's Life

Sam grew up around slaves. His own family owned several when he was a boy. In fact, he modeled "Jim," a character in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, on a family slave named Sandy. In his autobiography, he later recalled how Sandy's nonstop singing once drove him nearly crazy with distraction. When he complained to his mother about it, she had the sensitivity to appreciate Sandy's unhappiness. She explained to Sam that when Sandy sang, it meant he wasn't remembering his mother, whom he would never see again.

Sam was descended from slaveowners on both sides of his family. When his parents married in 1823, each of them already owned a few slaves. Over the years, they bought and sold other slaves, and they didn't always treat them well. In fact, Sam's father was capable of ruthlessly beating his slaves — a fact that Sam later chose to forget.

In my schoolboy days I had no aversion to slavery. I was not aware that there was anything wrong about it. No one arraigned it in my hearing; the local papers said nothing against it; the local pulpit taught us that God approved it, that it was a holy thing, and that the doubter need only look in the Bible if he wished to settle his mind — and then the texts were read aloud to us to make the matter sure; if the slaves themselves had an aversion to slavery, they were wise and said nothing. In Hannibal we seldom saw a slave misused; on the farm, never.


The last sentence reveals how Sam could look at the past through rose-tinted glasses. Slaves were misused in Hannibal. In fact, his own father was not only an occasionally cruel master, he was also a strong enemy of abolitionists — people who worked to free slaves and to abolish slavery itself. It says a great deal about the kind of man that Sam became that he would grow up not only to despise slavery, but also to believe that it was the duty of every white person to make up for the terrible wrongs that had been done to African Americans.

Sam's warm feelings about black people came from his close associations with slaves during his youth, especially during the summers that he spent on his uncle's farm. He and the other white children played games with the black children on nearly equal terms. Sam especially liked an old slave known as Uncle Daniel, "whose sympathies were wide and warm, and whose heart was honest and simple and knew no guile." At night, all the children liked to gather around the fire in Daniel's kitchen and listen to him tell wonderful stories. Sam would later use Daniel's stories in own writings, and when he created the heroic character Jim for Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, he was thinking mostly of Uncle Daniel.

It was thus mainly on the farm that Sam developed his strong liking for black people and his appreciation of their fine qualities. Sixty years later, he wrote that the "black face is as welcome to me now as it was then." As an adult, Sam would favor full civil rights for African Americans, and he quietly funded an African American law student's education at Yale.


Health Hazards

In addition to the violence and social injustice that Sam saw as he was growing up, he lived during an era in which people were terrified by the constant threat of disease. He would live to see revolutionary changes in the medical sciences. But when he was still a boy, European and American medicine hadn't advanced much beyond the few discoveries that had been made by the ancient Greeks.

In the mid-19th century, little was known about how diseases spread, and still less was known about how to prevent or cure them. Inoculations against disease were only beginning to be understood. There were no antibiotics, and there were few drugs that really helped to prevent or cure anything. Consequently, people living along the western frontier had little confidence that their children would survive. Families usually had large numbers of children to ensure that at least some would reach adulthood.

Sam himself was the sixth of his parents' seven children. He had four brothers and two sisters. One brother, Pleasant, died in infancy about six years before Sam was born, and his name was almost forgotten in the family. Another brother and a sister also died while Sam was still young. Only his oldest brother, Orion, his oldest sister, Pamela, and his younger brother, Henry, made it to adulthood. Sam would not only outlive all of them, he would also outlive three of his own four children, as well as his wife.


(Continues...)

Excerpted from Mark Twain for Kids by R. Kent Rasmussen. Copyright © 2004 R. Kent Rasmussen. Excerpted by permission of Chicago Review Press Incorporated.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Meet the Author


R. Kent Rasmussen is the author of several bestselling books on Mark Twain, including Mark Twain A to Z, which won the ALA's award for adult reference work, Mark Twain’s Book for Bad Boys and Girls, and The Quotable Mark Twain. He is also the author of Farewell to Jim Crow, a New York Public Library “Best Book for Teens.” He lives in Thousand Oaks, California.

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