Marketing Management: A Strategic Approach with a Global Orientation / Edition 2

Marketing Management: A Strategic Approach with a Global Orientation / Edition 2

by Harper W. Boyd, Jean-Claude Larreche, Orville C. Walker
     
 

ISBN-10: 0256125767

ISBN-13: 9780256125764

Pub. Date: 10/28/1994

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The

The text is designed to provide a basic framework for key marketing management concepts,tools,vocabulary,and analytical frameworks with a focus on applications based on real-world examples. The text is often paired with cases and a marketing plan project.

Overview

The text is designed to provide a basic framework for key marketing management concepts,tools,vocabulary,and analytical frameworks with a focus on applications based on real-world examples. The text is often paired with cases and a marketing plan project.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780256125764
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date:
10/28/1994
Series:
Marketing Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
576
Product dimensions:
7.54(w) x 10.48(h) x 0.93(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Section I An Overview of Marketing Management 1(55)
Marketing and the Marketing Management Process
2(22)
Marketing activities and their importance
4(1)
Marketing's role in the global economy---facilitating exchange
4(1)
Conditions necessary for exchange
5(5)
Who markets and who buys? The parties in an exchange
5(1)
Customer needs and wants
6(1)
Products and services---the focus of exchange
7(1)
How exchanges create value
7(2)
Defining a market
9(1)
Marketing functions and institutions
10(4)
Flows and functions
11(1)
Who does what? The system of marketing institutions
12(1)
Costs and benefits of marketing functions
13(1)
Marketing management
14(2)
The marketing manager's role
14(1)
A definition of marketing management
15(1)
The marketing management process
16(8)
Corporate, business-unit, and marketing strategies
16(1)
Market opportunity analysis
17(2)
Formulating strategic marketing programs
19(1)
Marketing program components
19(1)
Formulating strategic marketing programs for specific situations
20(1)
Implementation and control of the marketing program
20(4)
The Strategic Role of Marketing
24(32)
Corporate, business, and marketing strategies---different issues at different organizational levels
26(4)
Strategy: A definition
26(1)
The components of strategy
27(1)
The hierarchy of strategies
27(2)
Corporate strategy
29(1)
Business-level strategy
29(1)
Marketing strategy
29(1)
Strategic decisions at the corporate level
30(6)
Corporate scope---defining the firm's mission
30(3)
Corporate development strategy
33(3)
Allocating corporate resources
36(7)
Portfolio models
37(4)
Value-based planning
41(2)
Strategic decisions at the business-unit level
43(2)
Defining strategic business units
43(1)
The business unit's objectives
44(1)
The business unit's competitive strategy
44(1)
Allocating resources within the business unit
45(1)
The role of marketing in formulating and implementing strategies
45(11)
Factors that mediate marketing's role in strategic planning
46(3)
The future role of marketing
49(4)
Appendix 2.1: The American Marketing Association's Code of Ethics
53(3)
Section II Marketing Opportunity Analysis 56(166)
Environmental and Competitive Analysis
58(26)
Components of marketing's macroenvironment
60(1)
The physical environment
61(1)
Response to physical environmental problems
61(1)
The political/legal environment
62(3)
Political risk
62(1)
Government regulation
63(1)
Government deregulation
63(1)
Other government influences and actions
63(2)
The technological environment
65(2)
Intensification of technological development
65(2)
The sociocultural environment
67(1)
Changing individual values
67(1)
Changing family structure
68(1)
The demographic/economic environment
68(4)
Demographics trends
68(1)
U.S. demographics
68(1)
Economic performance
69(1)
International competition
70(2)
Competitive analysis
72(3)
Competitor's objectives
73(1)
Competitor's strategy
74(1)
Competitor's success to date
74(1)
Competitor's strengths and weaknesses
74(1)
Competitor's future behavior
75(1)
Strategic environmental issue management
75(4)
Environmental scanning
75(1)
Key environmental issue identification
75(1)
Impact evaluation
76(2)
Formulation of response strategies
78(1)
Ethical issues arising from the environment
79(5)
Ethical issues in gathering competitive intelligence
79(5)
Industry Dynamics and Strategic Change
84(26)
Strategic value of industry evaluation
86(1)
Defining products and markets---the units of analysis
87(2)
Product definitions
87(1)
Market definitions
88(1)
The product life cycle
89(8)
Life cycle curves
89(2)
Characteristics and implications of product life-cycle stages
91(1)
life-cycle stages
91(1)
Introductory stage
91(2)
Growth stage
93(1)
Shakeout period
94(1)
Mature stage
94(1)
Decline stage
95(1)
Strategic implications of the product life cycle
96(1)
Market evolution
97(4)
The adoption process
97(1)
The rate of adoption
98(1)
Adopter categories
99(1)
Early adoption versus late adoption: implications for marketing strategy
100(1)
Product evolution
101(4)
Product differentiation over time
101(1)
Competitive (supply-side) evolution
102(1)
Present (existing) competitors
103(1)
Threat of new entrants
104(1)
Bargaining strengths of suppliers
104(1)
Bargaining strength of buyers
105(1)
Threat of substitute products
105(1)
Changing competition and industry evolution
105(5)
Industry evolution and potential competitors
106(1)
Industry driving forces
106(4)
Consumer Market and Buying Behavior
110(26)
The importance of understanding consumers' decision process
112(1)
Types of consumers' purchasing decisions
113(7)
High-involvement purchase decisions
113(1)
Low-involvement purchase decisions
114(1)
High-involvement, complex decision-making process
114(1)
Problem identification
114(1)
Information search
115(3)
Evaluation of alternatives
118(1)
Purchase
119(1)
Postpurchase evaluation
119(1)
Low-involvement purchase decisions
120(16)
Inertia
121(1)
Impulse purchasing and variety seeking
121(1)
Marketing implications of low-involvement purchasing
121(1)
Psychological and personal influences on consumer decision-making processes
122(1)
Perception and memory
123(2)
Needs and attitudes
125(3)
Demographics and lifestyle
128(1)
Social influences on consumers' decision-making processes
129(1)
Culture
130(1)
Social class
131(1)
Reference groups
132(1)
Family
132(4)
Organizational Markets and Buying Behavior
136(20)
Comparing organizational and consumer markets
138(1)
Nature and scope of organizational markets
139(2)
Resellers
139(1)
Goods producers
140(1)
Service producers
140(1)
Governments
141(1)
Organizational buying decisions and participants
141(3)
The organizational buying center
142(1)
Types of buying situations
143(1)
Organizational purchase decision-making process
144(4)
Recognition of a problem or need
144(1)
Search for information about products and suppliers
145(1)
Evaluation and selection of suppliers
146(1)
The purchase
147(1)
Performance evaluation and feedback
147(1)
Environmental influences on purchase decision processes and procedures
148(1)
Goods and services purchased by organizational buyers
148(8)
Raw materials
148(2)
Component materials and parts
150(1)
Installations
150(1)
Accessory equipment
151(1)
Operating supplies
151(1)
Business services
151(1)
Ethical considerations
152(4)
Marketing Research and Market Measurements
156(22)
Marketing research
158(7)
Problem formulation
159(1)
Determining information needs and specifying data sources
160(1)
Research design
161(1)
Data Collection
162(2)
Sample design and size
164(1)
Tabulation and analysis
165(1)
Ethical issues in marketing research
165(1)
Market measurement: The demand estimation process
166(12)
Market potential versus market forecasts
167(1)
Definition and uses of market potential
168(2)
Measurement of absolute potential
170(1)
Relative market potentials
171(2)
Sales forecasting
173(5)
Market Segmentation and Market Targeting
178(24)
Segmentation, targeting, and positioning
180(1)
Rationale for market segmentation
181(2)
Growing importance of segmentation
182(1)
Benefits of market segmentation
182(1)
Identification of market segments
183(4)
General behavioral descriptors
184(1)
Product-related behavioral descriptors
185(1)
Consumer needs
186(1)
The segmentation process
187(2)
Determining differences in needs
187(1)
Requirements for effective segmentation
188(1)
Global market segmentation
188(1)
Market attractiveness
189(5)
Analyzing and prioritizing potential target markets
189(5)
Targeting strategies
194(1)
Mass-market strategy
194(1)
Niche-market strategy
195(1)
Growth-market strategy
195(1)
Selecting target markets in the international arena
195(1)
The problem of product strength versus geographic expansion
196(1)
Ethical issues in market targeting
196(6)
Inclusion issues
197(1)
Exclusion issues
197(5)
Positioning Decisions
202(20)
Physical versus perceptual product positioning
204(3)
Limitations of physical positioning
205(1)
Perceptual product positioning
205(1)
Dimensions on which consumers perceive competitive offerings
206(1)
The positioning process
207(15)
Identify a relevant set of competitive products (step 1)
208(1)
Identify determinant attributes (step 2)
208(2)
Determine consumers' perceptions (step 3)
210(1)
Analyze the intensity of a product's current position (step 4)
210(2)
Analyze the product's current position (step 5)
212(1)
Determine customers' most preferred combination of attributes (step 6)
213(1)
Define market positioning and market segmentation (step 7)
214(1)
Select positioning strategies (step 8)
215(7)
Section III Developing Strategic Marketing Programs 222(188)
Business Strategies and Marketing Program Decisions
224(20)
The concept of strategic fit
226(1)
Business strategies
226(6)
General business-level competitive strategies
227(1)
Business-level strategies for global competitors
228(1)
Underlying dimensions of different business strategies
229(3)
The fit between business strategies and the external environment
232(4)
Appropriate conditions for a prospector strategy
232(2)
Appropriate conditions for an analyzer strategy
234(1)
Appropriate conditions for a defender strategy
234(1)
Changing strategies at different stages in the industry life cycle
235(1)
Marketing implications of different business strategies
236(3)
Product policies
237(1)
Pricing policies
238(1)
Distribution policies
238(1)
Promotion policies
239(1)
Do service businesses require different strategies?
239(5)
Business-level competitive strategies
240(1)
Impact of service characteristics on marketing
240(4)
Product and Services Decisions
244(26)
What is a product?
246(1)
Product classifications
246(1)
Product strategy constraints
247(4)
Influence of market targeting strategies on product decisions: Global standardization versus localization
248(2)
Effects of positioning strategies on product decisions
250(1)
Business strategy constraints
251(1)
Product quality
251(2)
Quality dimensions
252(1)
Quality strategy
253(1)
Branding
253(4)
Favorable branding conditions
254(1)
Manufacturer versus distributor brands
254(1)
Branding strategies
255(2)
Packaging
257(1)
Servicing products
258(1)
Strategy decisions for product lines
258(3)
Line filling
259(1)
Line stretching
259(1)
Line extensions
260(1)
Brand extensions
260(1)
Dropping products
260(1)
Product systems
261(1)
Services
261(9)
Classification of services
262(1)
Impact of service characteristics on marketing management
263(2)
Service quality
265(1)
Service guarantees
266(4)
Developing and Testing New Products and Services
270(24)
Problems and opportunities in new product development
272(2)
New product success
272(2)
New product development process
274(14)
Objectives and strategies for new products
275(1)
New product ideas and idea-screening process
276(3)
Product design
279(3)
Testing
282(3)
Pretest market research
285(1)
Field test marketing
286(2)
Commercialization
288(1)
Applying the new product development process to services
288(1)
Ethical issues
289(5)
Pricing Decisions
294(26)
The shifting importance of price
296(1)
The price-setting process
296(10)
A step-by-step procedure
296(1)
Strategic pricing objectives
296(4)
Estimating demand
300(3)
Estimating costs
303(2)
Analyzing competitors' costs and prices
305(1)
Methods for setting a price level
306(6)
Cost-oriented methods
306(2)
Competition-oriented methods
308(2)
Customer-oriented methods
310(2)
Adapting prices to variations in market circumstances
312(5)
Geographic adjustments
312(1)
Global adjustments
312(1)
Discounts and allowances
313(2)
Discriminatory pricing adjustments
315(1)
Product line pricing adjustments
316(1)
Initiating and responding to price changes
317(3)
Distribution Decisions
320(30)
Channel functions and institutions
322(6)
Channel institutions
323(3)
Nonstore retailing
326(2)
Channel design alternatives
328(2)
Alternative industrial goods channels
328(1)
Multichannel distribution
329(1)
Channels for services
330(1)
Backward channels for recycling
330(1)
Channel design decisions
330(6)
Channel objectives
330(3)
Desired number of retail outlets
333(1)
Physical distribution and the number of distribution points
334(1)
Criteria for choosing between different types of institutions
335(1)
Channel management decisions
336(5)
Vertical marketing systems
336(3)
Sources of channel power
339(1)
Channel control strategies
339(1)
Incentives for motivating channel members
340(1)
Channel conflicts and resolution strategies
340(1)
International channels
341(5)
Market entry strategies
341(2)
Channel alternatives
343(1)
Channel problems
344(2)
Internationalization of services
346(1)
Ethical issues
346(4)
Promotion Decisions
350(32)
The promotion mix
352(1)
The communication process
353(1)
Communications problems
353(1)
Framework for developing an effective promotion mix
354(5)
Steps in developing the promotion mix
355(4)
Advertising
359(16)
Advertising expenditures and the different types of advertising
360(1)
Types of advertising
360(1)
Advertising objectives
361(1)
The source
362(1)
The message
363(3)
Advertising media
366(2)
Feedback
368(2)
International advertising
370(3)
Sales promotion
373(1)
Public relations
374(1)
International sales promotions and publicity
375(1)
Ethical issues in advertising and sales promotion
375(7)
Issues of morals, taste, and values
375(1)
Deceptive advertisements
376(1)
Sweepstakes, contests, and games
377(5)
Personal Selling Decisions
382(28)
Personal selling and sales management issues
384(1)
The strategic role of the salesforce
385(2)
Determinants of the role of personal selling
385(1)
Marketing objectives for the salesforce
386(1)
Types of sales jobs
387(1)
Steps in the selling process
388(4)
Prospecting for customers
388(1)
Opening the relationship
389(1)
Qualifying the prospect
390(1)
Presenting the sales message
390(1)
Closing the sale
391(1)
Servicing the account
391(1)
Planning the sales program
392(8)
Salesforce organization
393(3)
Organizing the sales effort in global markets
396(2)
Account management policies
398(1)
Territory design and deployment
398(1)
Setting quotas
399(1)
Implementing the sales plan
400(5)
Recruitment and selection
401(1)
Training
402(1)
Compensation and rewards
402(3)
Evaluation and control
405(5)
Section IV Strategic Marketing Programs for Selected Situations 410(64)
Strategies for New and Growing Markets
412(34)
Some strategic issues concerning new market entries
414(1)
How new is new?
414(2)
Market entry strategies: Pioneers versus followers
416(5)
Pioneer strategy
416(2)
Not all pioneers capitalize on their potential advantages
418(1)
Follower strategy
418(1)
Determinants of success for pioneers and followers
419(2)
Strategic marketing programs for pioneers
421(6)
Mass-market penetration
421(1)
Niche penetration
422(1)
Skimming and early withdrawal
423(1)
Marketing program components for a mass-market penetration strategy
424(3)
Marketing program components for a niche penetration strategy
427(1)
Marketing program components for a skimming strategy
427(1)
Growth-market strategies for market leaders
427(8)
Marketing objectives for share leaders
428(1)
Marketing actions and strategies to achieve share-maintenance objectives
429(1)
Fortress, or position defense, strategy
430(3)
Flanker strategy
433(1)
Confrontation strategy
434(1)
Market expansion
434(1)
Contraction or strategic withdrawal
435(1)
Share-growth strategies for followers
435(11)
Marketing objectives for followers
435(1)
Marketing actions and strategies to achieve share growth
436(1)
Frontal attack strategy
436(4)
Leapfrog strategy
440(1)
Flanking and encirclement strategies
440(1)
Empirical evidence
441(5)
Strategies for Mature and Declining Markets
446(28)
Strategic issues in mature and declining markets
448(1)
Issues in mature markets
448(1)
Issues in declining markets
448(1)
Business strategies for mature markets
449(9)
Strategies for maintaining competitive advantage
450(1)
Methods of differentiation
451(4)
Methods for maintaining a low-cost position
455(2)
Business strategy and performance
457(1)
Marketing strategies for mature markets
458(6)
Strategies for maintaining current market share
458(1)
Strategies for extending volume growth
458(6)
Strategies for declining markets
464(10)
Relative attractiveness of declining markets
465(2)
Divestment or liquidation
467(1)
Marketing strategies for remaining competitors
468(6)
Section V Implementing and Controlling Strategic Marketing Programs 474(50)
Implementing Business and Marketing Strategies
476(24)
Issues in the implementation of business and marketing strategies
478(1)
Relationships between business and marketing strategies
478(1)
Administrative relationships and strategy implementation
479(4)
Business unit autonomy
481(1)
Shared programs and facilities
482(1)
Evaluation and reward systems
482(1)
Organizational structure, processes, and strategy implementation
483(8)
Functional competencies and resource allocation
483(2)
Additional considerations for service organizations
485(1)
Organizational structures
486(1)
Interfunctional coordination and conflict resolution mechanisms
487(1)
Alternative organizational designs
487(4)
Future of product management
491(1)
Recent organizational design developments
491(1)
Marketing action plans
492(2)
Organizational design and the international community
494(1)
Decision making and organizational structure
495(1)
Appendix: The contents of the annual marketing plan
496(4)
Controlling Marketing Strategies and Programs
500(24)
The control process
502(7)
Setting standards of performance
502(5)
Specifying and obtaining feedback data
507(1)
Taking corrective action
508(1)
Strategic control
509(1)
Identifying key variables
509(1)
Tracking and monitoring
509(1)
Strategy reassessment
510(1)
Product-market entry control
510(3)
Sales/share determinants
510(1)
Sales analysis
510(3)
Adherence to plan control
513(1)
Global marketing control
513(1)
The marketing audit
514(2)
Types of audits
514(2)
Marketing decision support systems (MDSSs)
516(8)
Future of MDSS
516(8)
Appendix The Gamar Case---Gamar: Global Allocation of Marketing Resources 524(19)
Name Index 543(4)
Subject Index 547

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