Marketing South African Tourism


The text familiarizes the reader with the tourism industry in South African - its statistics, trends, main organizations and role-players. Each chapter is followed by a case study set in a Southern African environment. The new edition makes particular reference to the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The book has updated statistics, new case studies and a brand new chapter on corporate social responsibility.

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The text familiarizes the reader with the tourism industry in South African - its statistics, trends, main organizations and role-players. Each chapter is followed by a case study set in a Southern African environment. The new edition makes particular reference to the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The book has updated statistics, new case studies and a brand new chapter on corporate social responsibility.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195982152
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • Publication date: 10/15/2008
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 448
  • Product dimensions: 6.60 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword ix

Preface x

Acknowledgements xii

List of abbreviations and acronyms xiv

Part I Understanding marketing in the tourism industry 1

1 Marketing principles

Introduction 4

What is marketing? 4

The evolution of marketing 5

Different marketing orientations 6

The differences between marketing and selling 8

How does marketing fit into the subject area of tourism? 9

The main processes of marketing 11

Why study tourism marketing? 13

Summary 14

Case study 1 Marketing orientation: Sun International Hotels, Resorts, and Casinos 16

2 Characteristics of tourism marketing

Introduction 20

Defining tourism and hospitality 20

The importance of the hospitality sector 20

Tourism: product, service, or offering? 22

What is tourism marketing? 22

The characteristics of services 23

Other specific features 26

Service marketing vs. manufacturing marketing 30

Management strategies for tourism businesses 30

The service marketing triangle 33

Tourism marketing management approaches 33

Summary 35

Case study 2 Tangibilising a service: Bushmans Kloof Wilderness Reserve & Retreat 37

Part II Gathering information for decision-making 39

3 The tourism marketing environment

Introduction 42

The microbusiness environment 42

The macrobusiness environment 45

Global, regional, national, and local trends 60

Environmental scanning 69

Summary 70

Case study 3 The business environment of Starlight Cruises 72

4 Tourism marketing planning

Introduction 76

What is marketing planning? 76

Why plan marketing? 76

The differences between strategies and tactics 77

The marketing planning process 77

The marketing plan 92

Summary 95

Casestudy 4 Tourism marketing planning: Limpopo Tourism and Parks' Domestic Tourism Marketing Strategy 2007-2010 98

5 Tourism marketing research

Introduction 104

What is marketing research? 104

Marketing research vs. market research 105

Why do marketing research? 105

Types of marketing research used in tourism 107

Tourism marketing research compared to that of other industries 110

The marketing research process 110

Summary 133

Case study 5 Imperial Car Rental's marketing research activities 135

Part III Analysing the tourism market 137

6 Segmentation, targeting, and positioning

Introduction 140

What is a market? 140

The South African market 140

Market segmentation 141

SAARF Universal Living Standards Measure (LSM) 151

Segmentation advantages and disadvantages 156

Criteria for effective segmentation 157

Market targeting 159

Market positioning 160

Summary 163

Case study 6 Target markets of Wagon Trails 165

7 Consumer behaviour in tourism

Introduction 169

Factors affecting consumer behaviour 169

The consumer decision-making process 176

Consumer markets and consumer typologies in tourism 178

Summary 191

Case study 7 Bill Harrop's 'Original' Balloon Safaris - up, up and away 193

8 Organisational behaviour in tourism

Introduction 198

Complexity of organisational buying 198

Differences in consumer and organisational behaviour 199

The five roles in organisational buying 200

The organisational decision-making process 201

The buyers in the meetings industry (the meetings market) 202

The role of intermediaries 204

Meetings industry segments 206

New trends in the meetings industry 214

Summary 214

Case study 8 Thebe Conferences & Events Pty Ltd 216

Part IV Implementing the marketing mix strategies 219

9 Product-offering strategies

Introduction 222

What is a tourism offering? 222

What is a product-offering mix? 222

The three levels of an offering 223

Product-offering issues 225

Branding 226

The product life cycle concept 231

Developing new offerings 233

Summary 236

Case study 9 Southern Sun: A leading brand name 238

10 Pricing strategies

Introduction 243

Factors that affect pricing decisions 243

Pricing approaches 247

Pricing strategies 248

Evaluating pricing strategies 251

Tourism offerings in relation to pricing 251

Summary 252

Case study 10's pricing strategy 253

11 Distribution strategies

Introduction 258

Distribution channels in tourism 258

Intermediaries in tourism 260

Tourism marketing channels 261

Indirect marketing channels 261

Direct marketing channels 272

Selecting marketing intermediaries 278

Summary 279

Case study 11 Seekers Travel 281

12 Communication and advertising strategies

Introduction 285

The principles of communication 285

Awareness, trial, and reinforcement 287

Promotional techniques 287

The promotional campaign 288

The promotions mix 290

Advertising 291

The advertising campaign 292

Advantages and disadvantages of advertising 298

The role of advertising agencies 298

Summary 299

Case study 12 Baz Bus' advertising and communications strategies 301

13 Sales promotion and personal selling strategies

Introduction 305

What is sales promotion? 305

The role of sales promotion 305

Sales promotion activities 306

Advantages and disadvantages of sales promotion 308

What is personal selling? 309

Types of personal selling in tourism 310

Advantages and disadvantages of personal selling 312

Summary 312

Case study 13 Isandlwana Lodge's sales promotion activities 314

14 eMarketing and direct marketing strategies

Introduction 318

E-definitions 318

eMarketing 318

The development of the Internet 319

Profile of Internet users 320

Functions of an Internet website 320

The advantages and disadvantages of eMarketing 323

Types of eMarketing 324

The differences between traditional marketing and eMarketing 325

Developing a website 326

Using the Internet to promote a destination 330

eMarketing tools 333

Direct marketing 335

What is direct marketing? 335

Direct marketing techniques 337

Advantages and disadvantages of direct marketing 342

Summary 342

Case study 14 The Apartheid Museum's website 344

15 Marketing collateral, public relations, and sponsorship strategies

Introduction 350

Marketing collateral 350

Types of marketing collateral 350

Objectives of marketing collateral 351

Brochure design and distribution 352

Brochures and technology 354

Public relations 355

The differences between PR and the other promotional tools 356

The role and function of PR in tourism marketing 356

Public relations tools 360

Public relations strategies for tourism entrepreneurs 361

The role of PR agencies 362

Sponsorship 363

The role of sponsorship in tourism marketing 363

Summary 364

Case study 15 Open Africa's PR activities 366

16 Physical evidence, people, and process strategies

Introduction 370

The additional three Ps 370

People strategies 371

Service quality management 374

Total quality management 375

Measuring and controlling service quality in tourism 375

Physical evidence strategies 378

Process strategies 379

Summary 381

Case study 16 Aligning people, processes, and physical evidence: The Blue Train 383

Part V Understanding tourism marketing issues 385

17 Internal marketing

Introduction 388

What is internal marketing? 388

The role of internal marketing 388

The internal marketing programme 389

Summary 393

Case study 17 Shamwari Game Reserve's recruitment and training programmes 395

18 Destination marketing

Introduction 400

Why destination marketing is complex 400

What is a destination? 400

The destination amalgam (the four As) 401

The role of destination marketing organisations 403

Destination marketing techniques 410

The tourism area life cycle 412

Tourist destination image 415

Destination branding 416

Brand elements 419

Summary 421

Case study 18 Branding and rebranding a World Heritage Site: iSimangaliso Wetland Park 423

19 Relationship marketing

Introduction 428

What is relationship marketing? 428

Relationship vs. traditional marketing 429

Levels of relationships 429

Why is relationship marketing important? 430

The principles of relationship marketing 430

Relationship marketing and technology 436

Case study 19 SANParks' WILD card 438

20 Event marketing

Introduction 442

What are events? 442

How is the marketing of events different to the marketing of offerings? 445

Marketing events 445

Event characteristics 445

Marketing activities 446

The event marketing mix 446

Event marketing research 450

Summary 451

Case study 20 Marketing events: The ABSA Klein Karoo National Arts Festival, Oudtshoorn - from strength to strength 453

21 Tourism trends and the future of tourism marketing

Introduction 457

What is meant by the future? 457

What are trends? 457

Factors affecting the future of tourism 457

General trends in international tourism 459

South African, African, and global trends beyond 2010 468

Implications for the tourism marketer 470

Summary 473

Case study 21 The future of tourism: China's outbound tourism market 475

Glossary 478

Index 489

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