Marriage and Family: Change and Continuity / Edition 1

Marriage and Family: Change and Continuity / Edition 1

by J. Kenneth Sr. Davidson, Nelwyn B. Moore

ISBN-10: 0205167470

ISBN-13: 9780205167470

Pub. Date: 01/03/1996

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

This well-researched, lively text is an examination of marriage and family in the 1990s. Completely revised, it reflects the contemporary concerns of today's diverse and non-traditional student population.


This well-researched, lively text is an examination of marriage and family in the 1990s. Completely revised, it reflects the contemporary concerns of today's diverse and non-traditional student population.

Product Details

Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
Edition description:
2nd ed
Product dimensions:
8.17(w) x 10.31(h) x 1.49(d)

Table of Contents

"Summary," "Questions for Critical Reflection," and "Suggested Readings" are in every chapter.


1. Marriage and Family: Change and Continuity.
Exploring Knowledge about Marriage and Family.
Marriage, Family, and Culture: Continuity and Change
* Self in Marriage
* Human Sexuality
* Marriage Decisions
* Parenting
* Family Life Cycle
* Family Strengths and Stresses
* Family Resources.
American Families: Past and Present.
Families in Early America
* Social Class Variations in Families
* Cultural Diversity and Families
* Change and Continuity: Diversity and the American Family
* Personal Perspectives: The American Melting Pot is Awash with Diversity
* Defining Marriage and Family
* Family Types
* Family Functions.
Forces of Change.
* The Modern Women's Movement
* Family Policy
* Changing Values.
Theory and Research in Family Science.
Theoretical Perspectives
* Challenges and Choices: Family Paper Sculpture
* Research Methods in Family Science.
Marriage and Family in the 1990s

2. Roles for Women and Men in a Diverse Society.
Traditional Female/Male Roles.
Historical Background
* Female Passivity/Male Dominance.
The Anatomy is Destiny Controversy.
Nature versus Nurture
* Challenges and Choices: Evaluating Your Spatial Abilities.
Biological Influences on Gender Identity.
Sex Determination.
Social Influences onGender Identity.
Process of Socialization
* Sources of Socialization
* Change and Continuity: Where Little Boys Can Play with Nail Polish
* Effects of the Women's Movement
* The Men's Movement.
Female and Male Differences.
Change and Continuity: Sex Differences in Development during Childhood and Adolescence
* Physical Characteristics
* Personality Characteristics
* Intellectual Abilities
* The Androgynous Person
* Personal Perspectives: Making Sense of la Diffrence.
Contemporary Family Roles.
* Parent
* Economic Provider.
Neotraditional Roles

3. Changing Rules for Family Forms.
Living Together Without Marriage.
Cohabitation: Terms of Endearment.
Cohabitation as Courtship.
Prevalence of Cohabitation
* Reasons for Increased Cohabitation.
Characteristics of Cohabiting Partners.
* Education
* Former Marital Status
* Place of Residence
* Religion
* Conservative/Liberal Orientation.
Relationship Issues.
Sexual Division of Labor
* Sexual Satisfaction
* Financial Concerns
* Intimacy
* Attitudes toward Marriage.
The Costs and Profits of Cohabitation.
Improvement of Mate Selection
* Avoidance of Exploitation
* Change and Continuity: Divorce Data Stir Doubt on "Trial Marriage"
* Cohabitation and Marital Satisfaction.
Legal Considerations in Cohabitation.
Community Property
* Challenges and Choices: Cohabitation: For Better or For Worse?
* Inheritance.
Origins of Homosexuality
* The Extent of Homosexuality
* Personal Perspectives: Annette Brenner: Coping When Your Son is Gay.
Societal Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gays.
Legality of Same-Sex Practices
* Religion and the Homosexuality Issue.
Dating and Courtship Patterns among Lesbians and Gays.
The Stable Relationships of Lesbians
* Gays and "Cruising."


4. Loving Self and Others.
The Meaning of Love.
Personal Perspectives: A Love Sampler
* Love: The Name Game
* Love Defined.
The Origins of Love.
Love and Attachment: the Tie that Binds
* Developmental Tasks: Prelude to Love
* Stages in Love Development
* The Ability to Love.
The Process of Identifying Love.
The Distinction between Loving and Liking
* Self-Labeling
* Measuring Love Attitudes
* Challenges and Choices: The Love Attitudes Scale
* Assessing Romantic Love: Female and Male Differences.
Conceptualizing Love.
Styles of Loving
* Evaluation of Loving Styles.
The Role of Jealousy in Love Relationships.
Factors Affecting Jealousy
* Effects of Jealousy on Love Relationships.

5. Our Sexuality.
Sexual Knowledge and Sexual Myths.
Level of Sex Knowledge
* Challenges and Choices: The Sex Knowledge Inventory
* Sources of Sex Information
* Personal Perspectives: Common Sense and Nonsense about Sex Education.
Childhood Sexuality.
Sexual Activity during Childhood.
Sexuality after Childhood.
* Petting.
Premarital Sexual Standards.
Factors Affecting Standards.
Participation in Premarital Sexual Intercourse.
Prevalence of Premarital Sexual Intercourse
* First Sexual Intercourse.
The Personal Choices about Sexual Involvement.
The Continuing Search for Self-Esteem
* The Right to Say No or Not Now.
Possible Complications of Premarital Sexual Intercourse.
Personal Perspectives: A Personal Story
* Conception and Unmarried Mothers
* Change and Continuity: And the Band Plays on.

6. Sexual Intimacy.
Toward Sexual Intimacy.
Foundation for Sexual Intimacy
* The Quest for Healthy Sexuality.
The Meaning of Sexual Adjustment and Sexual Satisfaction.
The Continuum of Sexual Behavior
* Relationship Satisfaction and Sexual Satisfaction
* Essential Factors for Sexual Satisfaction.
The Anatomy and Physiology of Reproduction and Sexual Response.
Male Anatomy and Physiology
* Challenges and Choices: Testicular Self-Examination (TSE)
* Female Anatomy and Physiology
* The Menstrual Cycle
* Challenges and Choices: Breast Self-Examination.
The Human Sexual Response Cycle.
The Female Sexual Response
* Change and Continuity: On the Trail of the Big O
* The Male Sexual Response.
Differences between Female and Male Sexuality.
The Refractory Period
* The Multi-Orgasmic Response.
Foreplay as Prelude.
Oral-Genital Stimulation.
Anal Intercourse as an Alternative Practice.
Potential Harmful Effects Associated with Anal Intercourse.
Marital Sexuality.
Frequency of Marital Sexual Intercourse
* Masturbation among Married Persons
* Sexual Fantasies.
Sexual Dysfunction.
The Complex Issue of Cause
* Female Sexual Dysfunction
* Male Sexual Dysfunction
* Seeking Treatment for Sexual Dysfunction.
Extramarital Sexual Relationships.
Attitudes toward Extramarital Sexual Involvement
* Attitudes Associated with Extramarital Sexual Involvement.

7. Birth Control and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
Reasons for Failure of Unmarrieds to Use Contraception .
Negative Self-Feelings
* Challenges and Choices: Choosing Contraception: A Self-Assessment for Women
* Indifference and Lack of Knowledge.
Factors Associated with Contraceptive Selection.
Religious Values
* Health considerations
* Personal Concerns: Effectiveness Level and Ease of Use.
Contraceptive Methods.
Ovulation-Inhibiting Methods
* Spermicides
* Barrier Methods
* Personal Perspective: How to Talk about Condoms with a Resistant Partner
* Intrauterine Device
* Fertility Awareness with Periodic Abstinence
* Change and Continuity: Major Contraceptive Methods: Dangers, Side Effects, and Noncontraceptive Benefits
* Postcoital.
Tubal Ligation
* Vasectomy.
Incidence of Abortion
* Legal Status of Abortion
* Public Attitudes toward Abortion
* Medical Methods for Inducing Abortions in the First and Second Trimesters
* Aftereffects of Abortions.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the 1990s.
Magnitude and Cause of the Problem
* Major STDs
* Personal Perspectives: an Open Letter to my Son Don
* The Best Defense against STDs.

8. Dating, Singlehood, or Mate Selection: Options in the 1990s.
The History of Dating in the United States.
Background Factors
* Functions of Dating
* Dating Stages.
Contemporary Dating.
Dating in the '90s
* Parental Influence Today
* To Date or Not to Date.
College Dating Patterns.
Traditional Norms
* Challenges and Choices: the Commitment Inventory
* Emerging Relationship Norms
* Interdating in Today's Society.
Matchmakers: Seeking a Partner in Today's World.
Singlehood: A Personal Choice.
The Changing Face if Singlehood
* Singles: A Growing Minority or Lengthening Life Stage
* The Myths and Realities of Being Single
* Special Concerns for Singles .
Mate Selection.
Social, Economic, and Personal Factors
* Theories of Mate Selection.
Heterogamous Choices.
Age-Discrepant Marriages
* Interfaith Marriages
* Interracial and Interethnic Marriages.
Moving toward Marriage.
Engagement as a Social Process
* Change and Continuity: The PREParation for Marriage Inventory (PREP-M)
* Legal requirements
* Prenuptial Agreements
* Rituals as Customs.
Responding to Reason.
Personal Perspectives: Questions to Ask Before Getting Married
* Delaying Marriage
* Ending Relationships.


9. Achieving Healthy Marriages.
Expectations in Marriage.
Anticipated Roles
* Unrealistic Expectations about Marriage
* Personal Perspectives: In Praise of Marriage.
The Nature of Marital Adjustment and Marital Satisfaction.
Measurement of Marital Quality
* Qualities Associated with Marital Satisfaction
* Maintenance of Marital Quality
* Challenges and Choices: Where is the Romance in your Marriage?
Attributes of Healthy Couples.
Health-Promoting Attitudes and Beliefs
* Health-Promoting Interaction Patterns
* Challenges and Choices: Measure your Marriage Potential
* Tasks of Early Marriage
* Marriage Enrichment Programs
* Impact of Marriage Enrichment Programs on Marital Happiness
* Change and Continuity: Self-Help Books Get Mixed Reviews.
In-Law Relations.
Background Factors
* Parent Problems
* Handling Problems with In-Laws.
Friendships and Marriage.
The Interface of Friendships and Marriage
* Competition with Marital Relationship.

10. Communication and Conflict Resolution.
Developing Effective Marital Communication.
Communication: Life's Umbrella
* Gamesmanship versus Intimacy
* Closure versus Disclosure
* Gender Differences in Communication
* Personal Factors in Effective Communication
* Challenges and Choices: Healthy Family Traits
* Components of Quality Communication.
Families and Stress.
Change and Family Environment: Revolution versus Evolution
* Types of Family Stress
* Coping with Stress
* Family Stress as a Process
* Challenges and Choices: The Social Readjustment Rating Scale.
Origins of Marital Conflict.
Certainty of Conflict
* Desirability of Conflict
* Causes of Conflict
* Change and Continuity: Researchers Predict Marital Satisfaction.
Learning to Manage Conflict.
Barriers to Conflict Resolution
* Establishing a Positive Approach to Conflict Management
* Coping with Anger
* Constructive Marital Fighting
* Personal Perspectives: When Parents Argue and Kids Listen: Dos and Don'ts
* Change and Continuity: When to Seek Marital and Family Therapy.
Seeking Professional Help.
Choosing a Marriage and Family Therapist.

11. Violence and Abuse in Relationships.
A Framework for Studying Family Violence.
Theoretical Perspectives on Violence.
Date Violence: A Growing Phenomenon.
Changing Profile of Date Violence
* Change and Continuity: Promotion of Violence
* Gender Differences
* Patterns of Date Violence.
Date Rape: A Special Case of Violence.
Defining Date Rape
* Conflicting Views about Date Rape
* The Gender-Role Model and Date Rape
* Factors in Date Rape
* Avoiding Date Rape
* Personal Perspectives: Date Rape
* Male Sexual Victimization.
Marital Violence: Misuse of Power.
Extent of Marital Violence
* Factors Associated with Spouse Abuse
* Reasons Violent Marriages Continue
* Challenges and Choices: Handling Anger Effectively
* Coping with Marital Violence
* Change and Continuity: How to End an Abusive Relationship.
Marital Rape: An Emerging Recognition.
Incidence of Marital Rape
* Factors in Marital Rape.
Child Abuse: Trends and Resolution.
Prevalence of Child Abuse
* Risk Factors for Child Abuse
* Predisposing Factors: Family Stress and Childhood Abuse.
Incest: A Family Secret.
Prevalence and Risk Factors for Incest
* Types of Incest
* Aftermath of Incest.
Elder Abuse.
Prevalence and Types of Abuse
* Contributing Factors to Elder Abuse.

12. Family Resource Management.
The Role of Money in Family Life.
Gender Roles and Money Management
* Personal Perspectives: Mama's Bank Account.
The Family and the Economy.
Inflation and the Consumer Price Index
* Household Income Levels.
Effective Money Management.
Developing a Financial Plan
* Rational Consumer Decision Making.
Food: Nutrition and Cost.
The Food Guide Pyramid
* Ways to Control Food Costs.
Housing: Seeking Basic Shelter.
Owning or Renting
* Home Financing.
Health Care Options.
Health Insurance Plans
* Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs).
Life Insurance: A Source of Family Protection.
Decisions: How Much Insurance
* Types of Life Insurance
* Selecting an Insurance Advisor/Agent.
The Use of Credit: Issues and Insights.
Determination of Credit Ratings
* Choosing to Use Credit
* Credit Cards: Convenience and Costs
* Challenges and Choices: Danger Signals of Credit Overextension
* Sources of Consumer Loans.
Planning for the Future: Pension Plans and Wills.
Select Pension Plan Options
* The Need for a Will
* Change and Continuity: Family Records Locator.


13. Decisions about Children, Pregnancy, and Childbirth.
Decision to Have Children.
Advantages of Parenthood
* Costs of Parenthood
* External Factors Affecting Decision to Have Children
* Making Plans about Children.
Child-Free Marriages.
Decision to be Child-Free
* Being Child-Free and Marital Happiness.
Infertility in Marriage.
Causes and Treatment of Infertility
* Personal Preferences: Yup, Yup...And Baby Makes Three
* Other Medical Avenues for Coping with Infertility
* Psychological Adjustment to Infertility.
Adoption as an Option.
Agency Adoption versus Private Adoption
* Telling Children about their Adoptive Status
* Open versus Closed Adoption
* Challenges and Choices: Measure your Adoption Attitudes.
The Physiology of Conception.
Predetermining Sex
* The Phenomenon of Multiple Births.
Diagnosis of Pregnancy
* Emotional Responses to Pregnancy
* Change and Continuity: Parental Reactions to Pregnancy, by Trimester
* Stages of Pregnancy.
Health Issues for Pregnant Women.
Weight Gain
* Sexual Activity
* Nutrition
* Substances to Avoid
* The Rh Factor.
Risks and Identification of Congenital Defects.
Common Congenital Defects
* Age of Mother as Factor in Congenital Defects
* Diagnostic Procedures for Congenital Defects
* Change and Continuity: Preventing Mental Retardation.
The Process of Childbirth.
Natural, Prepared, or Gentle Childbirth
* Alternatives to Conventional Hospital Delivery.
Labor and Delivery.
Rise in Cesarean Births
* Positioning of Fetus
* Use of Medication during Childbirth
* Stages of Labor.
The Return of Breast-Feeding.
Advantages of Breast-Feeding.
Adjusting to Parenthood.
Coping Strategies for Transition to Parenthood
* Women and Motherhood
* Men and Fatherhood
* Parenthood, Marital Adjustment, and Maritel Satisfaction.

14. Parenting.
Preparation for Parenthood.
The Need for Parent Education
* Personal Preferences: All Children Are Our Children
* Parent Education
* Change and Continuity: Dialogue with Bill Moyers and T. Berry Brazelton.
Framework for Successful Parenting.
Parenting Perspectives.
Defining Parenting Roles.
Unique Features of the Parenthood Role
* BOnding and Attachment: A Secure Base.
Clarifying and Attaining Parenting Goals.
Influential Factors in Attaining Goals
* Challenges and Choices: Predicting Future Development.
Principles of Child Development.
Theoretical Perspectives
* Developmental Perspectives.
Principles of Child Guidance.
Methods of Child Guidance
* Child Discipline
* Change and Continuity: General Guidelines for Noncorporal Punishment.
Other Agents of Socialization.
Television: A Bane or Boon for Childern
* Change and Continuity: Helping Childern Use, Not Abuse, Television
* Day-Care: Options and Issues
* Change and Continuity: How Young is Too Young?
* Early Childhood Education Options.
Lesbian and Gay Parents.
Child-Rearing Practices of Lesbian and Gay Partners.

15. Dual Careers, Marriage, and Parenthood.
Dual-Career or Dual-Earner Marriages.
Personal Perspectives: Clark Symbol for the '90s Family
* Women, Marriage, and Career Patterns.
Careers for Wives and Mothers: Barriers and Benefits.
Factors Affecting Employment Decisions
* Motherhood Responsibilities: Choosing between Competing Demands
* Change and Continuity: Negotiating a Maternity Leave
* Psychological Benefits of Career Choice.
Dual-Career Family Issues.
Career Priorities in Dual-Career Families
* Challenges and Choices: Beliefs about Maternal Employment
* Dual-Career Family Stress.
The Effects of Maternal Employment on Children.
Remaking Motherhood
* Allocation of Time for Children
* Children and Household Tasks
* Personal Perspectives: Downwardly Mobile
* General Adjustment and Academic Performance
* Latchkey Children: A Growing Concern.
Marital Stability in Dual-Career Marriages.
Level of Marital Satisfaction
* Factors Associated with Marital Quality in Dual-Career Marriages.
Commuter Marriages: A Dual-Career Compromise.
Change and Continuity: Mother-Care: a Career Option
* Choosing Commuter Marriage: Pros and Cons
* Adjustment in Commuter Marriages
* Long-Term Effects of Commuter Marriage on Marital Relationships.


16. Marital Dissolution.
Divorce in Today's Society.
Divorce Rates
* The Demographics of Divorce.
Influential Factors in Divorce.
Societal Factors
* Individual Factors.
Progression Toward Divorce.
Costs of Divorce
* Challenges and Choices: How Stable is Your Marriage?
* Who Initiates Divorce
* Transitions in Divorce.
Legal Issues in Divorce Today.
The Emergence of No-Fault Divorce Laws
* Grounds for Divorce and Annulment
* Division of Marital Property
* Alimony: The Tie that Bids
* Divorce Mediation: A Solution
* Personal Perspectives: The Marriage Market.
Adjusting to Divorce.
Coping with Parents, Friends, and Community
* Reestablishing Emotional Balance
* Establishing Social Boundaries with Former Spouse
* Change and Continuity: Levels of Conflict between Divorced Parents
* Dating after Divorce.
The Impact of Divorce on Children.
Changes in Behavior
* Children at Risk: A Continuing Debate.
Child Custody: Trends and Issues.
Types of Custody Arrangements
* Basis of Awarding Custody
* Personal Perspectives: Child Custody: A Sense of Injustice?
* Child Support and the Noncustodial Parent.

17. Single Parents, Remarriage, and Stepfamilies.
Single-Parent Families after Divorce.
Single Mothers: Making it Alone
* Single Fathers: Coping with Parenthood
* Change and Continuity: Don't Overload your Children's Circuits after Divorce
* Special Issues for Single Parents.
Remarriage after Divorce.
Probability of Remarriage for the Divorced
* Costs and Profits in Remarriage: The Issue of Exchanges
* Personal Perspectives: Joint Custody Revisited
* Selecting Another Marriage Partner
* Marital Satisfaction and Stability in Remarriage.
Remarriage after Widowhood.
Dating and Courtship during Widowhood
* Probability and Reasons for Remarriage of the Widowed
* Reactions of Children to Remarriage of Widowed Parent
* Marital Satisfaction among Older Remarrieds.
Stepfamilies: A Continuing Trend in the 1990s.
Stepfamilies Differ from First-Marriage Families
* Establishing Stepfamily Relationships
* Coping as a Stepparent
* Challenges and Choices: Does your Stepparent Measure Up?

18. Marriage and Family in Middle and Later Years.
Family Life in Middle Years.
Developmental Tasks in Middle Years
* The Empty Nest: A Period of Transition
* Marital Satisfaction in Middle Years.
Grandparents in Today's Society.
Grandparent Roles: New Evolving Patterns
* Challenges and Choices: Perceptions of Grandparent Roles.
Sexuality in Middle and Later Years.
Women and Sexuality in Middle Years
* Men and Sexuality in the Middle Years
* Change and Continuity: Reframing Life: Ghosts of the Past Relived
* Aging and Sexuality in Later Years.
Family Life in Later Years.
The Retirement Years: A Time of Reflection and Adjustment
* Caring for Elderly Parents.
Maintaining Health in Later Years.
Physical Health in Later Years
* Mental Health in Later Years
* Change and Continuity: Advance-Care Documents: Decisions that Make a Difference.
Living Arrangements for the Elderly.
Living with Children
* Alternative Residential Facilities.
Death and Dying: Final Losses.
Attitudes toward Death
* Dying with Dignity
* Personal Perspectives: This Is Not the Ending I Would Have Written.
Coping with Death of a Spouse.
Adjusting to Being a Widow
* Widowers: Coping with Loss.




Name Index.

Subject Index.

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