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"Proper management of the work lives of human beings, of the way in which they earn their living, can improve them and improve the world and in this sense be a utopian or revolutionary technique." The pioneer behind the hierarchy of needs and the concept of self-actualization, Dr. Abraham Maslow was-and is-one of the world's most esteemed experts on human behavior and motivation. However, while perhaps most famous for his work in the area of humanistic psychology, his legacy of work encompasses much more, extending into the realms of business and management. Having explored and studied the relationship between human behavior and the work situation, Maslow translated the science of the mind into the art of management-an important interpretation first published in the far-sighted treatise, Eupsychian Management, and whose impact continues to be felt today. Now, this seminal work has been updated, primed to introduce new readers to-and reacquaint old admirers with-what some have called the renowned psychologist's best book. Bringing into perspective the lasting impact of Maslow's groundbreaking principles, Maslow on Management illustrates how they have withstood the test of time to become integral components of current management practices, such as continuous improvement, Theory X, and empowerment. Offering insight into using these and other tools to effectively tackle present-day business situations, from heightened competitiveness to globalization to emerging technologies, Maslow on Management covers a wealth of timeless topics, including:
• Self-actualization-the freedom to effectuate one's own ideas, try things out, make decisions, and make mistakes
• Synergy-what is beneficial for the individual is beneficial for everyone; individual success should not occur at the expense of others; align organizational goals with personal goals
• Enlightened management policy-assume that all your people have the impulse to achieve; everyone prefers to be a prime mover rather than a passive helper; everyone wants to feel important, needed, useful, successful, and proud; there is no dominance-subordination hierarchy
To complement Dr. Maslow's original writings and to demonstrate how his forward-thinking ideas are being played out in today's business world, Maslow on Management features interviews with Perot Systems Chairman Mort Meyerson, NonLinear Systems founder Andrew Kay, Esalen Institute founder Michael Murphy, and other prominent figures who provide incisive commentary on subjects ranging from creativity in business to leadership lessons for the digital age. Epitomizing the genius of its author and embodying his elegant ruminations, Maslow on Management is still as important as it was when it first appeared. A true classic, this is essential reading for all managers.
The Attitude of Self-Actualizing People to Duty, Work, Mission.
Additional Notes on Self-Actualization, Work, Duty, Mission.
Different Management Principles at Different Levels in the Hierarchy.
Enlightened Economics and Management.
The Neglect of Individual Differences in Management Policy.
The Balance of the Forces toward Growth and Regression.
Memorandum of the Goals and Directives of Enlightened Management and of Organizational Theory.
Notes on Self-Esteem in the Work Situation.
Management as a Psychological Experiment.
Enlightened Management as a Form of Patriotism.
Relationship between Psychological Health and the Characteristics of Superior Managers, Supervisors, Foremen, etc. (Notes from Likert).
Further Notes on the Relationship between Psychological Health and the Characteristics of Superior Managers (Notes from Likert).
Memorandum on Enlightened Management.
By-Products of Enlightened Management.
Notes on Synergy.
The Synergic Doctrine of Unlimited Amount of Good versus the Antisynergic Doctrine of Unlimited Amount of Good.
Addition to the Notes on Synergy.
Memorandum on Syndrome Dynamics and Holistic, Organismic Thinking.
Notes on the B-Values (the Far Goals; the Ultimate Goals).
Notes on Leadership.
The Superior Person-The "Aggridant" (Biologically Superior and Dominant) Person.
The Very Superior Boss.
Notes on Unstructured Groups at Lake Arrowhead.
Notes on Creativeness.
Addition to the Notes on the Creative Person.
Notes on the Entrepreneur.
Memorandum on the Redefinition of Profit, Taxes, Costs, Money, Economics, etc.
Additions to the Notes on Profits.
Additions to the Notes on Definition of Profits, Costs, etc.
The Good Enlightened Salesman and Customer.
Further Notes on Salesmen and Customers...
Memorandum on Salesmen and Salesmanship.
On Low Grumbles, High Grumbles, and Metagrumbles.
The Theory of Social Improvement;
The Theory of the Slow Revolution.
The Necessity for Enlightened Management Policies.
Introduction This is not about new management tricks or gimmicks or superficial techniques that can be used to manipulate human beings more efficiently. Rather it is a clear confrontation of one basic set of orthodox values by another newer system of values than claims to be both more efficient, and more true. It draws on some of the truly revolutionary consequences of the discovery that human nature has been sold short.
----- Abraham Maslow
What can a set of journal entries that are nearly 37 years old teach us about managing today? We asked ourselves that question when Ann Kaplan, Abe's daughter, approached us with the idea of republishing them. Our answer is that Maslow's ideas about work, -self-actualization, and the influence of business in developing "the good society" are some of the most profound thinking we have discovered in nearly 20 years of studying leaders.
We immersed ourselves in Maslow's work: his published books, articles, and personal papers. Although we had always equated Maslow with his hierarchy of needs theory, we discovered in his work a collection of research and wisdom and insights that were decades ahead of its time. His pioneering work in the field of management, creativity, and innovation speaks to us today in a voice that makes current work and thinking appear almost obsolete. Maslow's theories regarding -self-actualization and work, customer loyalty, leadership, and the role of uncertainty as a source of creativity, paint a picture of today's digital age that is profound.
The future Maslow describes in his journals is the world we live in today-the digital age. A world in which human potential will be the primary source of competitive advantage in almost every industry, every organization, every institution. Maslow's work makes us question whether we understand the crossroads we have come to. A crossroads, where in our effort to just keep pace, we will need committed, educated, and highly motivated people at all levels; crossroads where compliance or authoritarian means of leadership no longer work; crossroads where the needs of society and the needs of a business are becoming so intertwined that if one entity is dysfunctional the other will suffer the consequences.
Yet, are we prepared to go forward? We speak the language of this new frontier, but have yet to embrace the meaning. We need look no further than our new vernacular for people: intellectual capital, human resources, knowledge workers, and all of the other terms we have invented to disguise the fact that what we are speaking of are people and their untapped potential. People spend too many hours in organizations and institutions that do not support them in reaching their true potential. We believe this should be as much a driving force as financial management, product development, return on investment, and all of the other indicators we put into place to measure success. Without this force, our successes will be short lived, our plans nothing more than short-term, and our ability to continue to compete in a global world severely restrained. Perhaps it is time we embrace Maslow's words and truly believe that we can create organizations which fully tap the true potential of people.
Building Great Organizations
In bringing back the journals of Abraham Maslow, we set out to prove that his theories and ideas were, in fact, possible. Our journey took us to leaders in a wide variety of industries. We asked these leaders to discuss their thoughts on Maslow's words and their own struggles and triumphs in building enlightened organizations.
We would like to thank the numerous leaders who gave their time to read these journals and who allowed us time to explore their thoughts:
Mort Meyerson, Former Chairman, Perot Systems
Warren Bennis, University of Southern California
George McKown, Chairman McKown and DeeLeeuw
David Wright, Chief Executive Officer, Amdahl
Linda Alepin, Chief Executive Officer, Pebblesoft Learning
Brian Lehnen, Director, Village Enterprise Trust
Sherri Rose, Former Director, Apple University
Michael Ray, Stanford Graduate School of Business
Jackie McGrath, Insight Out Collaborations
Anne Robinson, Former Chairman and Co-Founder, Windham Hill Records
Michael Murphy, Co-Founder, Esalen Institute
Andrew Kay, Founder, KAYPRO Computers
Tom Kosnik, Professor Engineering and Global Marketing, Stanford University
Stanford Engineering students in IE 292
Aspen Ski Company
Pat O'Donnell, Chief Executive Officer, Aspen Ski Company
Richard Karesh, Co-author, Fifth Discipline Handbook; founder, Learning Org. Dialogue
Art Kleiner, Co-author Fifth Discipline Handbook; Author, Age of Heretics
Allan Webber, Co-Founder, Editor-in-Chief, Fast Company Magazine
Ken Morris, Co-Founder, PeopleSoft
Dr. John Popplestone, History of American Psychology at the University of Akron
Dr. Edward Hoffman, Author, The Right to Be Human: A Biography of Abraham Maslow
Allan Wernick, Attorney at Law, Columbus, Ohio
Jeanne Glasser, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., for her enthusiastic support of this project
We would like to thank Ann Kaplan and Ellen Maslow for persisting in their efforts to bring their father's work to a new generation of leaders and managers. Their gift to us was significant: Through the process of bringing their father's journals back to life, we ourselves have become better educators, better leaders, better parents, and better human beings.
Deborah C. Stephens
The Center For Innovative Leadership
San Mateo, California
Posted October 13, 2004
Maslow outlines the synergy and ways to engage people in democratic empowering management called Theory Z. Studied in graduate management schools and applied by practitioners who prefer it to Authoritarian Theory X. An extension of Theory Y - the people approach. Maslow uses real companies to express how theory Z is changing America. If Drucker looks to Maslow as an authority on Management of human beings and human behavior then we should too. Maslow is a worthwhile read for all would be supervisors and managers in any orgnazitions. Truly outstanding.
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Posted October 12, 2009
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