Making sense out of the unending debate over effects and the relationship between the media and society! This volume raises many questions based on the literature generated by communication scholars and others: What are mass media effects? How do media effects differ from communication effects? Are media effects specific to particular domains—the political or economic arena, for example—or are there broader effects? Can we isolate the media’s impact at the individual, group, institutional, societal, and cultural levels? How do we identify, study, verify, and judge media effects?