Mass Spectrometry of Non-Covalent Complexes: Supramolecular Chemistry in the Gas Phase / Edition 1

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Overview

Details the many benefits of applying mass spectrometry to supramolecular chemistry Except as a method for the most basic measurements, mass spectrometry (MS) has long been considered incompatible with supramolecular chemistry. Yet, with today's methods, the disconnect between these two fields is not warranted. Mass Spectrometry and Gas-Phase Chemistry of Non-Covalent Complexes provides a convincing look at how modern MS techniques offer supramolecular chemists a powerful investigatory toolset. Bringing the two fields together in an interdisciplinary manner, this reference details the many different topics associated with the study of non-covalent complexes in the gas phase. The text begins with brief introductions to supramolecular chemistry and such relevant mass spectrometric methods as ionization techniques, analyzers, and tandem MS experiments. The coverage continues with:
• How the analyte's transition into the gas phase changes covalent bonding
• How limitations and pitfalls in analytical methods may produce data misinterpretations
• Artificial supramolecular aggregates and their examination
• Biomolecules, their complexes, and their examination After the general remarks making up the first section of the book, the following sections describe specific experimental procedures and are illustrated with numerous examples and short tutorials. Detailed citations end each chapter. Mass spectrometrists, supramolecular chemists, students in these fields, and interested readers from other disciplines involving the study of non-covalent bonds will all value Mass Spectrometry and Gas-Phase Chemistry of Non-Covalent Complexes as an innovative and practical resource.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Whether the reader is a mass spectrometrist or a supramolecular chemist ... both are accommodated." (Book News, December 2009)
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Christoph A. Schalley, PhD, is a professor of organicchemistry at Freie Universität Berlin. He received his PhDwith Helmut Schwarz at the Technische Universität Berlinfollowed by a postdoctorate with Julius Rebek, Jr., at The ScrippsResearch Institute in California. He has authored more than 120publications and edited seven books. He was awarded theDozentenstipendium in 2004 of the Fonds der Chemischen Industrieand the Mattauch-Herzog Prize from the German Society of MassSpectrometry in 2006.

Andreas Springer, PhD, received his PhD from theHumboldt-Universität zu Berlin for work with Prof. MichaelLinscheid. Currently, he is head of the mass spectrometry corefacility of the Department of Chemistry at Freie UniversitätBerlin, where he is running — besides a collection ofup-to-date instruments — one of the oldest, still working EIsector-field instruments worldwide.

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Table of Contents

Preface.

List of Tutorials.

PART A: GENERAL ISSUES.

1. INTRODUCTION.

2. SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY: SOME BACKGROUND.

2.1. The Nature of Non-Covalent Interactions.

2.2. Classical Building Blocks in Supramolecular Chemistry.

2.3. Key Areas and Key Concepts in Supramolecular Chemistry.

2.4. Biomolecules: Intra- and Intermolecular Non-CovalentBonds.

References.

3 MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE EXAMINATION OF NON-COVALENTCOMPLEXES.

3.1. Common Mass Spectrometric Instrumentation for theExamination of Non-Covalent Bonds.

3.2. How Non-Covalent Bonds Change on the Transition fromSolution to the Gas Phase.

3.3. Ion Energetics Issues.

3.4. Tandem-MS-Experiments.

3.5. Potential Sources of Error or Misinterpretation.

References.

PART B: ARTIFICIAL SUPRAMOLECULAR SYSTEMS. 

4 FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES ON SMALLER NON-COVALENTCOMPLEXES.

4.1. Ion Neutral Complexes.

4.2. High-Pressure Mass Spectrometry: Bridging the Gap BetweenGas and Condensed Phase.

References.

5 DETERMINATION OF THE "SECONDARY STRUCTURE" OFSUPRAMOLECULES BY MASS SPECTROMETRY.

5.1. Mechanically Interlocked Molecules and TheirPrecursors.

5.2. Guest Encapsulation.

5.3. Gas-Phase Conformations.

5.4. Zwitterions and Salt-Bridges.

References.

6 CHIRAL RECOGNITION.

6.1. Tartrate Clusters.

6.2. Chiral Crown Ether-Ammonium Complexes: The Three-PointModel.

6.3. Cyclodextrin-Amino Acid Recognition.

6.4. Chiral Recognition in Amino Acid Clusters.

6.5. Homochiral Serine Octamers.

6.6. Resonant Two Photon Ionization Studies of Chiral Complexes:Spectroscopy of Diastereomeric Complexes in the Gas Phase.

References.

7 MONITORING SOLUTION REACTIVITY OF NON-COVALENT COMPLEXES BYMASS SPECTROMETRY.

7.1. Mass Spectrometric Characterization ofMetallo-Supramolecular Aggregates.

7.2. Simple Ligand Exchanges in Metallo-SupramolecularSquares.

7.3. Titration Experiments with Helicates.

7.4. Helicates Again: Mechanistic Insight into Ligand ExchangeReactions.

7.5. Titration Experiments with Self-SortingTetraurea-Calixarenes.

7.6. Self-Sorting Reactions of Pseudorotaxane Assemblies.

7.7. Shorter Time-Scales: A Mixed-Flow Technique Applied toSelf-Assembly.

References.

8. GAS-PHASE REACTIVITY OF SUPRAMOLECULES.

8.1. Molecular "Mouse Traps": Covalent Bond Formation WithinNon-Covalent Complexes.

8.2. Fragmentation of Metallo-Supramolecular Helicates, Squares,and Cages.

8.3. Host-Guest Chemistry of Dendrimers in the Gas Phase.

8.4. H/D Exchange Reactions in Gaseous Non-CovalentComplexes.

References.

9 DETERMINATION OF THERMOCHEMICAL DATA.

9.1. Crown Ether Binding Affinities in Solution.

9.2. Ranking of Anion-Cavitand Gas-Phase Binding Energies.

9.3. Crown Ether-Ammonium Ion Complexes in the Gas Phase.

9.4. Crown Ether-Alkali Metal Ion Complexes and the Best-FitModel.

References.

PART C NON-COVALENT COMPLEXES OF BIOMOLECULES.

10 NON-COVALENT COMPLEXES WITH PETIDES AND PROTEINS.

10.1. Metal-Ion Binding to Peptides and Small Proteins.

10.2. Probing Three-Dimensional Protein Structure andProtein-Protein Interactions.

10.3. Interactions of Proteins with Small Molecules.

10.4. Sugar-Peptide and Sugar-Protein Complexes.

10.5. Interactions of Proteins with Oligonucleotides, DNA, andRNA.

References.

11. NON-COVALENT COMPLEXES OF NUCLEOTIDES.

11.1. Metal-Ion Binding to DNA Bases and Oligonucleotides.

11.2. Are Watson-Crick Base Pairing and Double Helix Conservedin the Gas Phase?

11.3. G-Quartets.

11.4. The Folding of G-Rich Strands into Quadruplexes.

11.5. Minor Groove Binders and Intercalators: The Binding toDuplexes.

11.6. Non-Covalent Interactions With G-Quadruplexes.

References.

12. CARBOHYDRATES.

12.1 Carbohydrates: Their Importance and Analysis.

12.2. Stereodifferentiation of Small Carbohydrates.

12.3. Structural Aspects of Oligosaccharides by MS and IMS.

12.4. Carbohydrate Association.

12.5. Summary and Outlook.

References.

13. EPILOGUE.

Index.

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