Mastering Delphi 7

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Still the Best Delphi Resource--Now Fully Updated and Expanded
Whether you're new to Delphi or just making the move from an earlier version, Mastering Delphi 7 is the one resource you can't do without. Practical, tutorial-based coverage helps you master essential techniques in database, client-server, and Internet programming. And the insights of renowned authority Marco Cant? give you the necessary knowledge to take advantage of what's new to ...
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Overview

Still the Best Delphi Resource--Now Fully Updated and Expanded
Whether you're new to Delphi or just making the move from an earlier version, Mastering Delphi 7 is the one resource you can't do without. Practical, tutorial-based coverage helps you master essential techniques in database, client-server, and Internet programming. And the insights of renowned authority Marco Cantù give you the necessary knowledge to take advantage of what's new to Delphi 7--particularly its support for .NET. Coverage includes:
* Creating visual web applications with IntraWeb
* Writing sockets-based applications with Indy
* Creating data-aware controls and custom dataset components
* Creating database applications using ClientDataSet and dbExpress
* Building client-server applications using InterBase
* Interfacing with Microsoft's ADO
* Programming for a multi-tiered application architecture
* Taking advantage of Delphi's support for COM, OLE Automation, and COM+
* Taking advantage of Delphi's XML and SOAP support
* Implementing Internet protocols in your Delphi app
* Creating UML class diagrams using ModelMaker
* Visually preparing reports using RAVE
* Using the Delphi language to create your first .NET programs
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780782142013
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 2/20/2003
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 1040
  • Product dimensions: 7.49 (w) x 9.02 (h) x 2.12 (d)

Meet the Author

Marco Cantu is the award-winning author of six previous editions of the best-selling Mastering Delphi, as well as the critically acclaimed Delphi Developer's Handbook. Cantu's books on Delphi are known worldwide as thedefinitive Delphi tutorials and references. He lives in Italy and is an international Delphi authority, consultant, teacher of Windows programming courses, and frequent seminar lecturer.
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Mastering Delphi 7


By Marco Cantù

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-7821-4201-X


Chapter One

Delphi 7 and Its IDE

In a visual programming tool such as Delphi, the role of the integrated development environment (IDE) is at times even more important than the programming language. Delphi 7 provides some interesting new features on top of the rich IDE of Delphi 6. This chapter examines these new features, as well as features added in other recent versions of Delphi. We'll also discuss a few traditional Delphi features that are not well known or obvious to newcomers. This chapter isn't a complete tutorial of the IDE, which would require far too much space; it's primarily a collection of tips and suggestions aimed at the average Delphi user.

If you are a beginning programmer, don't be afraid. The Delphi IDE is quite intuitive to use. Delphi itself includes a manual (available in Acrobat format on the Delphi Companion Tools CD) with a tutorial that introduces the development of Delphi applications. You can find a simpler introduction to Delphi and its IDE in my Essential Delphi online book (discussed in Appendix C, "Free Companion Books on Delphi"). Throughout this book, I'll assume you already know how to carry out the basic hands-on operations of the IDE; all the chapters after this one focus on programming issues and techniques.

This chapter covers the following topics:


* Moving around the IDE


* The editor


* The Code Insight technology


* Designing forms


* The Project Manager


* Delphi files

Editions of Delphi

Before delving into the details of the Delphi programming environment, let's take a side step to underline two key ideas. First, there isn't a single edition of Delphi; there are many of them. Second, any Delphi environment can be customized. For these reasons, Delphi screens you see illustrated in this chapter may differ from those on your own computer. Here are the current editions of Delphi:


* The "Personal" edition is aimed at Delphi newcomers and casual programmers and has support for neither database programming nor any of the other advanced features of Delphi.


* The "Professional Studio" edition is aimed at professional developers. It includes all the basic features, plus database programming support (including ADO support), basic web server support (WebBroker), and some of the external tools, including ModelMaker and IntraWeb. This book generally assumes you are working with at least the Professional edition.


* The "Enterprise Studio" edition is aimed at developers building enterprise applications. It includes all the XML and advanced web services technologies, CORBA support, internationalization, three-tier architecture, and many other tools. Some chapters of this book cover features included only in Delphi Enterprise; these sections are specifically identified.


* The "Architect Studio" edition adds to the Enterprise edition support for Bold, an environment for building applications that are driven at run time by a UML model and capable of mapping their objects both to a database and to the user interface, thanks to a plethora of advanced components. Bold support is not covered in this book.

Besides the different editions available, there are ways to customize the Delphi environment. In the screen illustrations throughout the book, I've tried to use a standard user interface (as it comes out of the box); however, I have my preferences, of course, and I generally install many add-ons, which may be reflected in some of the screen shots.

The Professional and higher versions of Delphi 7 include a working copy of Kylix 3, in the Delphi language edition. Other than references to the CLX library and cross-platform features of Delphi, this book doesn't cover Kylix and Linux development. You can refer to Mastering Kylix 2 (Sybex, 2002) for more information on the topic. (There aren't many differences between Kylix 2 and Kylix 3 in the Delphi language version. The most important new feature of Kylix 3 is its support of the C++ language.)

An Overview of the IDE

When you work with a visual development environment, your time is spent in two different portions of the application: visual designers and the code editor. Designers let you work with components at the visual level (such as when you place a button on a form) or at a non-visual level (such as when you place a DataSet component on a data module). You can see a form and a data module in action in Figure 1.1. In both cases, designers allow you to choose the components you need and set the initial value of the components' properties.

The code editor is where you write code. The most obvious way to write code in a visual environment involves responding to events, beginning with events attached to operations performed by program users, such as clicking on a button or selecting an item of a list box. You can use the same approach to handle internal events, such as events involving database changes or notifications from the operating system.

As programmers become more knowledgeable about Delphi they often begin by writing mainly event-handling code and then move to writing their own classes and components, and often end up spending most of their time in the editor. Because this book covers more than visual programming, and tries to help you master the entire power of Delphi, as the text proceeds you'll see more code and fewer forms.

An IDE for Two Libraries

An important change appeared for the first time in Delphi 6. The IDE now lets you work on two different visual libraries: VCL (Visual Component Library) and CLX (Component Library for Cross-Platform). When you create a new project, you simply choose which of the two libraries you want to use, starting with the File > New > Application command for a classic VCL-based Windows program and with the File > New > CLX Application command for a new CLX-based portable application.

NOTE CLX is Delphi's Cross Platform library, which allows you to recompile your code with Kylix to run under Linux. You can read more about VCL versus CLX in Chapter 5, "Visual Controls." Using CLX is even more interesting in Delphi 7, because the Delphi language version of Kylix ships with the Windows product.

When you create a new project or open an existing one, the Component Palette is arranged to show only the controls related to the current library (although most of the controls are shared). When you work with a non-visual designer (such as a data module), the tabs of the Component Palette that host only visual components are hidden from view.

Desktop Settings

Programmers can customize the Delphi IDE in various ways-typically, opening many windows, arranging them, and docking them to each other. However, you'll often need to open one set of windows at design time and a different set at debug time. Similarly, you might need one layout when working with forms and a completely different layout when writing components or low-level code using only the editor. Rearranging the IDE for each of these needs is a tedious task.

For this reason, Delphi lets you save a given arrangement of IDE windows (called a desktop, or a Global Desktop, to differentiate from a Project Desktop) with a name and restore it easily. You can also make one of these groupings your default debugging setting, so that it will be restored automatically when you start the debugger. All these features are available in the Desktops toolbar. You can also work with desktop settings using the View > Desktops menu.

Desktop setting information is saved in DST files (stored in Delphi's bin directory), which are INI files in disguise. The saved settings include the position of the main window, the Project Manager, the Alignment Palette, the Object Inspector (including its property category settings), the editor windows (with the status of the Code Explorer and the Message View), and many others, plus the docking status of the various windows.

Here is a small excerpt from a DST file, which should be easily readable:

[Main Window] Create=1 Visible=1 State=0 Left=0 Top=0 Width=1024 Height=105 ClientWidth=1016 ClientHeight=78

[ProjectManager] Create=1 Visible=0 State=0 ... Dockable=1

[AlignmentPalette] Create=1 Visible=0 ...

Desktop settings override project settings, which are saved in a DSK file with a similar structure. Desktop settings help eliminate problems that can occur when you move a project between machines (or between developers) and have to rearrange the windows to your liking. Delphi separates per-user global desktop settings and per-project desktop settings, to better support team development.

TIP If you open Delphi and cannot see the form or other windows, I suggest you try checking (or deleting) the desktop settings ( from Delphi's bin directory). If you open a project received by a different user and cannot see some of the windows or dislike the desktop layout, reload your global desktop settings or delete the project DSK file.

Environment Options

Quite a few recent updates relate to the commonly used Environment Options dialog box. The pages of this dialog box were rearranged in Delphi 6, moving the Form Designer options from the Preferences page to the new Designer page. In Delphi 6 there were also a few new options and pages:


* The Preferences page of the Environment Options dialog box has a check box that prevents Delphi windows from automatically docking with each other.


* The Environment Variables page allows you to see system environment variables (such as the standard pathnames and OS settings) and set user-defined variables. The nice point is that you can use both system- and user-defined environment variables in each of the dialog boxes of the IDE-for example, you can avoid hard-coding commonly used pathnames, replacing them with a variable. In other words, the environment variables work similarly to the $DELPHI variable, referring to Delphi's base directory, but can be defined by the user.


* In the Internet page you can choose the default file extensions used for HTML and XML files (mainly by the WebSnap framework) and also associate an external editor with each extension.

About Menus

The main Delphi menu bar (which in Delphi 7 has a more modern look) is an important way to interact with the IDE, although you'll probably accomplish most tasks using shortcut keys and shortcut menus. The menu bar doesn't change much in reaction to your current operations: You need to click the right mouse button for a full list of the operations you can perform on the current window or component.

The menu bar can change considerably depending on third-party tools and wizards you've installed. In Delphi 7, ModelMaker has its own menu. You'll see other menus by installing popular add-ons like GExperts or even my own wizards (see Appendix B, "Extra Delphi Tools from other Sources" and A, "Extra Delphi Tools by the Author," respectively, for more details).

A relevant menu added to Delphi in recent editions is the Window menu in the IDE. This menu lists the open windows; previously, you could obtain this list using the Alt+0 key combination or the View. > Window List menu item. The Window menu is really handy, because windows often end up behind others and are hard to find. You can control the alphabetic sort order of this menu using a setting in the Windows Registry: Look for the Main Window subkey of Delphi (under HKEY_CURRENT_USER\ Software\Borland\Delphi\7.0). This Registry key uses a string (in place of Boolean values), where '-1' and 'True' indicate true and '0' and 'False' indicate false.

TIP In Delphi 7, the Window menu ends with a new command: Next Window. This command is particularly useful in the form of a shortcut, Alt+End. Jumping around the various windows of the IDE has never been so simple (at least, without add-on tools).

The Environment Options Dialog Box

As I've mentioned, some of the IDE settings require you to edit the Registry directly. I'll discuss a few more of these settings in this chapter. Of course, the most common settings can be easily tuned using the Environment Options dialog box, which is available in the Tools menu along with the Editor Options and the Debugger Options. Most of the settings are quite intuitive and well described in the Delphi Help file. Figure 1.2 shows my standard settings for the Preferences page of this dialog box.

The To-Do List

Another feature added in Delphi 5 but still quite underused is the to-do list. This is a list of tasks you still have to do to complete a project-it's a collection of notes for the programmer (or programmers; this tool can be very handy in a team). Although the idea is not new, the key concept of the to-do list in Delphi is that it works as a two-way tool.

You can add or modify to-do items by adding special TODO comments to the source code of any file of a project; you'll then see the corresponding entries in the list. In addition, you can visually edit the items in the list to modify the corresponding source code comment. For example, here is how a to-do list item might look in the source code:

procedure TForm1.FormCreate(Sender: TObject); begin // TODO -oMarco: Add creation code end;

The same item can be visually edited in the window shown in Figure 1.3, along with the To-Do List window.

The exception to this two-way rule is the definition of project-wide to-do items. You must add these items directly to the list. To do that, you can either use the Ctrl+A key combination in the To-Do List window or right-click in the window and select Add from the shortcut menu. These items are saved in a special file with the same root name as the project file and a .TODO extension.

You can use multiple options with a TODO comment. You can use -o (as in the previous code excerpt) to indicate the owner (the programmer who entered the comment), the -c option to indicate a category, or simply a number from 1 to 5 to indicate the priority (0, or no number, indicates that no priority level is set). For example, using the Add To-Do Item command on the editor's shortcut menu (or the Ctrl+Shift+T shortcut) generated this comment:

{ TODO 2 -oMarco : Button pressed }

Delphi treats everything after the colon-up to the end of the line or the closing brace, depending on the type of comment-as the text of the to-do item.

Finally, in the To-Do List window you can check off an item to indicate that it has been done. The source code comment will change from TODO to DONE. You can also change the comment in the source code manually to see the check mark appear in the To-Do List window.

One of the most powerful elements of this architecture is the main To-Do List window, which can automatically collect to-do information from the source code files as you type them, sort and filter them, and export them to the Clipboard as plain text or an HTML table. All these options are available on the context menu.

Extended Compiler Messages and Search Results in Delphi 7

A small Messages window appears by default below the editor; it displays both compiler messages and search results. This window has been considerably modified in Delphi 7. First, search results are displayed in a different tab so they do not interfere with compiler messages as they did in the past. Second, every time you do a different search you can request that Delphi show the results in a different page, so the results of previous search operations remain available:

You can press the Alt+Page Down and Alt+Page Up key combinations to cycle through the tabs of this window. (The same commands work for other tabbed views.)

If compiler errors occur, you can activate another new window with the command View > Additional Message Info. As you compile a program, this Message Hints window will provide extra information for some common error messages, offering suggestions about how to fix them:

This type of help is intended more for novice programmers, but it might be handy to keep this window around. It's important to realize that this information is thoroughly customizable: A project development leader can put appropriate descriptions of common errors in a form that means something specific to new developers. To do so, follow the comments in the file hosting the settings for this feature, the msginfo70.ini file of Delphi's bin folder.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Mastering Delphi 7 by Marco Cantù Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Introduction
Pt. I Foundations 1
Ch. 1 Delphi 7 and Its IDE 3
Ch. 2 The Delphi Programming Language 43
Ch. 3 The Run-Time Library 81
Ch. 4 Core Library Classes 109
Ch. 5 Visual Controls 149
Ch. 6 Building the User Interface 201
Ch. 7 Working with Forms 251
Pt. II Delphi Object-Oriented Architectures 293
Ch. 8 The Architecture of Delphi Applications 295
Ch. 9 Writing Delphi Components 337
Ch. 10 Libraries and Packages 397
Ch. 11 Modeling and OOP programming (with ModelMaker) 429
Ch. 12 From COM to COM+ 455
Pt. III Delphi Database-Oriented Architectures 503
Ch. 13 Delphi's Database Architecture 505
Ch. 14 Client/Server with dbExpress 555
Ch. 15 Working with ADO 615
Ch. 16 Multitier DataSnap Applications 647
Ch. 17 Writing Database Components 669
Ch. 18 Reporting with Rave 715
Pt. IV Delphi, the Internet, and a .NET Preview 735
Ch. 19 Internet Programming: Sockets and Indy 737
Ch. 20 Web Programming with WebBroker and WebSnap 767
Ch. 21 Web Programming with IntraWeb 809
Ch. 22 Using XML Technologies 833
Ch. 23 Web Services and SOAP 875
Ch. 24 The Microsoft.NET Architecture from the Delphi Perspective 899
Ch. 25 Delphi for .NET Preview: The Language and the RTL 919
App. A Extra Delphi Tools by the Author 945
App. B Extra Delphi Tools from Other Sources 951
App. C Free Companion Books on Delphi 953
Index 955
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