Mastering the World of Psychology / Edition 3

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Mastering the World of Psychology is a brief, paperback text focused on supplying the most support for student learning and student success. It makes the connection between scientific principles and the everyday lives of today's diverse student population.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205572588
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
  • Publication date: 10/19/2007
  • Series: MyPsychLab Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 608
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Samuel E. Wood received his doctorate from the University of Florida. He taught at West Virginia University and the University of Missouri–St. Louis and was a member of the doctoral faculty at both universities. From 1984 to 1996, he served as president of the Higher Education Center, a consortium of 14 colleges and universities in the St. Louis area. He was a cofounder of the Higher Education Cable TV channel (HEC-TV) in St. Louis and served as its president and CEO from its founding in 1987 until 1996. Dr. Wood passed away in 2008.

Ellen Green Wood received her doctorate in educational psychology from St. Louis University and was an adjunct professor of psychology at St. Louis Community College at Meramec. She has also taught in the clinical experiences program in education at Washington University and at the University of Missouri—St. Louis. In addition to her teaching, Dr. Wood has developed and taught seminars on critical thinking. She received the Telecourse Pioneer Award from 1982 through 1988 for her contributions to the field of distance learning.

Denise Boyd received her Ed.D. in educational psychology from the University of Houston and has been a psychology instructor in the Houston Community College system since 1988. From 1995 until 1998, she chaired the psychology, sociology, and anthropology department at Houston Community College–Central. She has coauthored three other Allyn and Bacon texts: with Helen Bee, Lifespan Development (Fourth Edition) and The Developing Child (Eleventh Edition); and with Genevieve Stevens, Current Readings in Lifespan Development. A licensed psychologist, she has presented a number of papers at professional meetings, reporting research in child, adolescent, and adult development. She has also presented workshops for teachers whose students range from preschool to college.

Together, Sam, Ellen and Denise have more than 45 years of experience teaching introductory psychology to thousands of students of all ages, backgrounds, and abilities. Mastering the World of Psychology, Fourth Edition is the direct result of their teaching experience.

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Table of Contents

Brief Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychology

Chapter 2 Biology and Behavior

Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception

Chapter 4 States of Consciousness

Chapter 5 Learning

Chapter 6 Memory

Chapter 7 Cognition, Language, and Intelligence

Chapter 8 Human Development

Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion

Chapter 10 Health and Stress

Chapter 11 Personality Theory and Assessment

Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders

Chapter 13 Therapies

Chapter 14 Social Psychology

Detailed Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychology

Think About It
An Introduction to Mastering the World of Psychology

Studying Psychology: Some Tricks of the Trade

Apply It: More Tips for Effective Studying

Is Psychology a Science?

The Goals of Psychology

Psychology Then and Now

Exploring Psychology’s Roots

Schools of Thought In Psychology

Contemporary Psychological Perspectives

Specialties in Psychology

Thinking about Theories and Research

Evaluating Theories

Evaluating Research

Descriptive Research Methods

Observational and Case Studies

Survey Research

Try It: Can Small Samples Really Be Representative?

The Correlational Method

Explain It: What Is a Credit Score?

The Experimental Method

Experiments and Hypothesis Testing

Limitations of the Experimental Method

Research Participants

Participant-Related Bias in Psychological Research

Protecting Human Participants’ and Animal’s Rights

Chapter 2 Biology and Behavior

Think About It
Discovering the Mysteries of the Nervous System

The EEG and the Microelectrode

Imaging Techniques

The Neurons and the Neurotransmitters

The Structure of the Neuron

Communication between Neurons


The Human Nervous System

The Peripheral Nervous System

The Central Nervous System

A Closer Look at the Thinking Part of the Brain

Components of the Cerebrum

The Cerebral Hemispheres

Explain It: Why Are Most People Right-Handed?

Try It: A Balancing Act

The Four Cerebral Lobes

Age, Gender, and the Brain

The Ever-Changing Brain

Gender Differences in the Brain

Beyond the Nervous System

The Endocrine System

Genes and Behavioral Genetics

Apply It: Should You Consult a Genetic Counselor?

Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception

Think About It
The Process of Sensation

The Absolute and Difference Thresholds

Transduction and Adaptation

Try It: Sensory Adaptation


The Eye

Vision and the Brain

Try It: Find Your Blind Spot

Color Vision

Try It: A Negative Afterimage

Hearing and Balance


The Ear and Hearing

Explain It: Why Can’t Everyone Hear the “Mosquito” Ring Tone?

Balance and Movement

Smell, Taste, and Touch



Touch and Pain

Influences on Perception


Prior Knowledge

Apply It: How Dangerous Is It to Talk or Text on a Cell Phone while Driving?

Try It: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing

Principles of Perception

Perceptual Organization and Constancy

Depth Perception

Perception of Motion

Unusual Perceptual Experiences

Puzzling Perceptions

Subliminal Perception, Extrasensory Perception, and Synesthesia

Chapter 4 States of Consciousness

Think About It
What Is Consciousness?

Changing Views of Consciousness

Culture and Altered States of Consciousness

Circadian Rhythms

The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms

Explain It: How Does the Brain Keep Track of Time?


Why We Sleep

How We Sleep

Variations in Sleep

Sleep Deprivation

Sleep Disorders

Apply It: How to Get a Good Night’s Sleep


The Content of Our Dreams

Interpreting Dreams

Meditation and Hypnosis



Try It: The Relaxation Response

Psychoactive Drugs

How Drugs Affect the Brain

Substance Abuse and Addiction




Chapter 5 Learning

Think About It

Classical Conditioning

Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning

Changing Conditioned Responses

John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

The Cognitive Perspective

Biological Predispositions

Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life

Operant Conditioning

Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

The Process of Operant Conditioning


Schedules of Reinforcement


Escape and Avoidance Learning

Applications of Operant Conditioning

Apply It: How to Win the Battle against Procrastination

Try It: Using Behavior Modification

Cognitive Learning

Learning by Insight

Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

Observational Learning

Explain It: How Do the Principles of Learning Explain the Behavior of Smoking Cigarettes?

Learning from Media

Chapter 6 Memory

Think About It
The Structure of Human Memory

What Is Memory?

Sensory Memory

Short-Term Memory

Explain It: Why Is Cramming an Ineffective Study Method?

Apply It: Improving Memory with Mnemonic Devices

Try It: Organizing for Memory Improvement

Long-Term Memory

A Closer Look at Retrieval
Measuring Retrieval
Influences on Retrieval

Remembering as Reconstruction
The Process of Reconstruction
Source, Flashbulb, and Autobiographical Memories
Influences on Reconstructive Memory


Ebbinghaus and the Curve of Forgetting

Why Do We Forget?

Try It: A Penny for Your Thoughts

Biology and Memory

The Hippocampus and Hippocampal Region

Neuronal Changes and Memory

Hormones and Memory

Memory Loss

Memory in Legal and Therapeutic Settings

Eyewitness Testimony

The Repressed Memory Controversy

Chapter 7 Cognition, Language, and Intelligence

Think About It

Imagery and Concepts

Decision Making

Explain It: Why Do People Overestimate the Likelihood of Rare Events?

Problem Solving

Try It: Water Lily Problem

Artificial Intelligence


The Structure of Language

Animal Language

Language and Thinking

Learning a Second Language


The Nature of Intelligence

Measuring Cognitive Abilities

Intelligence Testing: Past and Present

The Range of Intelligence

Explaining Differences in Intelligence

Nature, Nurture, and IQ

Race and IQ

Apply It: How to Build a Powerful Vocabulary

Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities

Beyond Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence

Try It: Find Your EQ


Chapter 8 Human Development

Think About It
Theories of Development

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Try It: Conservation of Volume

Alternatives to Piaget’s Theory

Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development

Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development

Prenatal Development and Infancy

From Conception to Birth

Perceptual and Motor Development



Early and Middle Childhood

Language Development


Gender Role Development


Puberty and Sexual Behavior

Social Relationships

Explain It: Why Are Peer Groups Important in Adolescence?

Emerging Adulthood

Early and Middle Adulthood

Physical and Cognitive Changes

Social Development

Apply It: Where Are You in the Career Development Process?

Later Adulthood

Physical and Cognitive Changes

Try It: Stereotypes about Later Adulthood

Social Adjustment

Successful Aging

Death and Dying

Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion

Think About It
Explaining Motivation

Foundations of Motivation

Biological Approaches to Motivation

Explain It: Why Are Dangerous Hobbies Appealing to Some People?

Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Approaches to Motivation

Try It: What Is Your N Ach?

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


Internal and External Cues

Explaining Variations in Body Weight

Obesity and Weight Loss

Eating Disorders

Sexual Motivation

Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

Sexual Desire and Arousal

Sexual Orientation

Social Attitudes toward Gays and Lesbians


Theories of Emotions

Emotion and the Brain

Gender Differences in Emotion

The Expression of Emotion

Try It: Recognizing Basic Emotions

Apply It: The Quest for Happiness

Chapter 10 Health and Stress

Think About It
Sources of Stress

The Life Events Approach

Try It: Finding a Life Stress Score

Everyday Stressors

Stress in the Workplace

Social Sources of Stress

The Health-Stress Connection

The Biopsychosocial Model of Health and Illness

The Physiology of the Health-Stress Connection

Theories of Stress Response

Risk and Resilience

Explain It: Why Do Pop Quizzes Facilitate Learning?

Health and Illness

Coronary Heart Disease


Gender and Health

Ethnic Group Differences in Health

Lifestyle and Health

Apply It: Interpreting Health Information on the Internet

Smoking and Health

Alcohol Abuse

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Try It: AIDS Quiz

Diet and Exercise

Alternative Medicine

Chapter 11 Personality Theory and Assessment

Think About It
Psychoanalytic Theories

Freud’s Theory of Personality

The Psychosexual Stages of Development

Evaluating Freud’s Contribution

The Neo-Freudians

Humanistic Theories

Two Humanistic Theories


Trait Theories

Early Trait Theories

Try It: Allport’s Trait Theory

The Five-Factor Model

Nature, Nurture, and Personality Traits

Personality and Culture

Explain It: Why Do Some People Fail to Develop a Conscience?

Social-Cognitive Theories

The Situation-Trait Debate

Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control

Personality Assessment

Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scales

Personality Inventories

Apply It: Put Your Best Foot Forward

Projective Tests

Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders

Think About It
Defining Psychological Disorders

What Is Abnormal Behavior?

Classifying and Tracking Psychological Disorders

Explaining Psychological Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

Panic Attacks, Agoraphobia, and Panic Disorder

Generalized Anxiety Disorders and Phobias

Try It: Phobia Names

Apply It: Overcoming the Fear of Public Speaking

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Mood Disorders

Major Depressive Disorder

Bipolar Disorder

Explaining Mood Disorders

Explain It: How Do Cultural Beliefs about Ideal Emotional States Lead to Depression?

Suicide and Race, Gender, and Age


Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Types of Schizophrenia

Explaining Schizophrenia

Other Psychological Disorders

Somatoform Disorders

Dissociative Disorders

Sexual Disorders

Personality Disorders

Chapter 13 Therapies

Think About It

Insight Therapies
Psychodynamic Therapies

Humanistic Therapies

Gestalt Therapy

Relationship Therapies
Family Therapy and Couple Therapy

Group Therapy

Behavior Therapies

Behavior Modification Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning

Behavior Therapies Based on Other Learning Theories

Try It: A Possible Hierarchy of Fears

Cognitive Behavior Therapies
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Beck’s Cognitive Therapy

Biomedical Therapies
Drug Therapy

Explain It: Why Are Smoking Rates So High among People with Schizophrenia?

Electroconvulsive Therapy


Practical Issues in Psychotherapy
Choosing a Therapist

Apply It: Is E-Therapy Right for You?

Culturally Sensitive Therapy

Gender-Sensitive Therapy

Evaluating the Therapies

Chapter 14 Social Psychology

Think About It
Social Cognition
Impression Formation and Management



Factors Influencing Attraction

Intimate Relationships

Try It: Choosing a Life Partner

Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance



Group Influence

Social Facilitation and Social Loafing

Group Decision Making

Social Roles

Explain It: Why Doesn’t Groupthink Occur in Every Tightly Knit Group?

Attitudes and Attitude Change

Cognitive Dissonance


Prosocial Behavior

Reasons for Helping

The Bystander Effect


Biological Factors in Aggression

Other Influences on Aggression

The Social Learning Theory of Aggression

Prejudice and Discrimination

The Roots of Prejudice and Discrimination

Is Prejudice Decreasing?

Apply It: “Unlearning” Prejudice

Appendix: Statistical Methods

Descriptive Statistics

Describing Data with Tables and Graphs

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of Variability

The Normal Curve

Correlation Coefficient

Inferential Statistics

Statistical Significance

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