Material and Energy Balances for Engineers and Environmentalists

Material and Energy Balances for Engineers and Environmentalists

by Colin William Oloman
     
 

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ISBN-10: 1848163681

ISBN-13: 9781848163683

Pub. Date: 07/28/2009

Publisher: Imperial College Press

Material and energy balances are fundamental to many engineering disciplines and have a major role in decisions related to sustainable development. This text, which covers the substance of corresponding undergraduate courses, presents the balance concepts and calculations in a format accessible to students, engineering professionals and others who are concerned

Overview

Material and energy balances are fundamental to many engineering disciplines and have a major role in decisions related to sustainable development. This text, which covers the substance of corresponding undergraduate courses, presents the balance concepts and calculations in a format accessible to students, engineering professionals and others who are concerned with the material and energy future of our society.

Following a review of the basic science and economics, the text focuses on material and energy accounting in batch and continuous operations, with emphasis on generic process units, flow sheets, stream tables and spreadsheet calculations. There is a unified approach to reactive and non-reactive energy balance calculations, plus chapters dedicated to the general balance equation and simultaneous material and energy balances. Seventy worked examples show the elements of process balances and connect them with the material and energy concerns of the 21st century.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781848163683
Publisher:
Imperial College Press
Publication date:
07/28/2009
Pages:
268
Product dimensions:
7.80(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements v

Nomenclature xi

List of Equations xv

List of Examples xix

Glossary xxiii

An Introduction 1

Uses of Material and Energy Balances 1

Prerequisites 2

Dealing with Complex Problems 2

Further Reading 3

Chapter 1 The General Balance Equation 5

The General Balance 6

Conserved and Changing Quantities 7

Material and Energy Balances 8

Forms of the General Balance Equation 13

Class of Problem 14

Summary 21

Further Reading 22

Chapter 2 Process Variables and Their Relationships 23

Units and Calculations 24

Consistency of Units 24

Conversion of Units 28

Significant Figures in Calculations 29

Process Variables 31

Equations of State 38

Multi-Species, Multi-Phase Equilibria 44

Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry 51

Thermochemistry 58

Mixing 69

Thermodynamic Tables and Reference States 71

Thermodynamic Diagrams 75

Summary 80

Further Reading 84

Chapter 3 Material and Energy Balances in Process Engineering 85

Significance of Material and Energy Balances 86

Flowsheets 86

Process Units 86

Streams and Stream Tables 91

Process Economics 92

Summary 94

Further Reading 95

Chapter 4 Material Balances 97

General Material Balance 98

Closed Systems (Batch Processes) 100

Open Systems (Continuous Processes) 103

Continuous Processes at Steady-State 104

Single process units 104

Subsidiary relations 113

Closure of material balances 118

Simultaneous equations 119

Specification of material balance problems 122

Multiple process units 126

Recycling, accumulation and purging 131

Material balance calculations by computer (speadsheet) 138

Summary 154

Further Reading 157

Chapter 5 Energy Balances 159

General Energy Balance 160

Closed Systems (Batch Processes) 162

Open Systems (Continuous Processes) 166

Continuous Processes at Steady-State 168

Mechanical energy balance 169

Enthalpy balance 171

Heat and work 174

Specification of energy balance problems 176

Energy balance calculations by computer (spreadsheet) 178

Energy balance with the heat of combustion 180

Single process units 183

Multiple process units 183

Summary 207

Further Reading 210

Chapter 6 Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances 211

Simultaneous Balances 212

Specification of Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances 212

Closed Systems (Batch Processes) 213

Open Systems (Continuous Processes) 215

Single process units 215

Multiple process units 215

Summary 234

Further Reading 234

Chapter 7 Unsteady-State Material and Energy Balances 235

Differential Material and Energy Balances with Accumulation 236

Closed Systems (Batch Processes) 239

Open Systems (Continuous Processes) 243

Summary 252

Further Reading 253

Epilogue 255

Index 257

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