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Overview

This book offers designers several essential tools to work successfully with architects, contractors, manufacturers, and clients:

  • A comprehensive presentation of finishing materials for the interior of as building, whether residential or commercial
  • Key information on environmentally responsible and sustainable products
  • Careful presentation of correct installation procedures and product maintenance
  • Interesting historical background on the development of key materials
  • A glossary of useful terms at the end of the chapter
  • Appendices that list manufacturers and associations that sell or represent the products covered in the text

In short, this text provides interior design students with the vital knowledge that they need to pass the National Council for Interior Design Qualification (NCIDQ) exam.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
More and more interior designers are beginning to work directly with architects and building contractors in their work. For this reason it becomes necessary for them to have a knowledge of the materials used in the interiors of buildings. Ten chapters cover the properties of materials for: paints and finishes, carpets, floors, walls, ceilings, cabinets, kitchens, and bathrooms. A discussion of environmental considerations is also included. Photos and drawings illustrating the chapters' points are included throughout. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
From The Critics
Written to help designers successfully collaborate with architects, contractors, manufacturers, and clients, this book describes the finishing materials for the interior of residential and commercial buildings, then outlines installation and maintenance procedures. Environmentally responsible practices are emphasized, and historical information is provided on the development of key materials. A glossary defines key terms, and appendices list manufacturers and professional associations. Photographs, diagrams, and other illustrations (both black-and-white and color) are prominently featured. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780139232282
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 7/7/1998
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 240
  • Product dimensions: 8.34 (w) x 10.89 (h) x 0.43 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword 6
Preface 7
Introduction 10
Trademarks 11
1 Environmental Concerns 1
Air Quality Issues 1
Systems Approach 3
Other Approaches to Environmental Issues 4
Energy Star Program 9
Environmentally Concerned Companies 9
Glossary 12
Notes 12
2 Paints and Finishes 13
Components of Paints 13
Solvents 13
Binders 14
Pigments 14
Additives 15
Primers 17
Flame-Retardant Paints 17
Stains 18
Varnish 18
Shellac 18
Lacquer 19
Danish Oil 19
Novelty and Faux Finishes 19
Color 19
Application Methods 20
Surface Preparation 20
Wood 20
Plaster 20
Gypsum Board 21
Metal 21
Masonry 21
Writing Painting Specifications 21
Using the Manufacturer's Painting Specification Information 22
Problems with Paint and Varnish and How to Solve Them 23
Bibliography 23
Glossary 23
Notes 24
3 Carpet 25
History of Carpet 25
Functions of Carpet 26
Fibers 27
Construction Methods 29
Tufting 31
Weaving 31
Knitted 31
Needle Punching 31
Aubusson 31
Axminster and Wilton 31
Dyeing 31
Stock Dyeing 32
Skein Dyeing 32
Piece Dyeing 33
Carpet Printing 33
Fabric Protectors 34
Antimicrobial Issues 35
Flammability Testing 35
Types of Pile 36
Carpet Cushioning 37
Writing Carpet Specifications 38
Construction 38
Performance 39
Recycling 40
Measuring 40
Problems 41
Installation 42
Maintenance 46
Vacuuming Schedules 47
Bibliography 49
Glossary 50
Notes 50
4 Floors 51
Wood 51
Types of Wood Flooring 54
Strip 54
Plank 55
Parquet 56
Grade Levels 57
Bamboo 58
Laminate 60
Grout 61
Marble 61
Travertine 65
Granite 65
Flagstone 66
Slate 66
Ceramic Tile 68
Ceramic Mosaic Tile 71
Other Types of Tiles 71
Quarry Tile 72
Mexican or Saltillo Tile 73
Glass Block 73
Concrete 73
Terazzo 74
Exposed Aggregate 75
Brick 76
Linoleum 76
Asphalt Tile 76
Vinyl Composition 78
Solid Vinyl 79
Pure Vinyl Tile 79
Rubber 79
Sheet Vinyl 81
Cork 84
Formed-in-Place or Poured Floors 85
Bibliography 85
Glossary 85
Notes 87
5 Walls 89
Stone 89
Granite 89
Marble 90
Travertine 90
Brick 90
Concrete 92
Concrete Block 92
Glass Block 93
Plaster 95
Gypsum Board 95
Wallpaper and Wallcovering 97
Patterns 98
Types 98
Printing of Wallcoverings 100
Packaging 102
Commercial Wallcoverings 103
Tambours 105
Wood 106
Plywood Paneling 107
Types of Veneer Cuts 108
Matching Between Adjacent Veneer Leaves 110
Matching Within Individual Panel Faces 111
Methods of Matching Panels 111
Prefinished Plywood 113
Particleboard 114
Hardboard 115
Decorative Laminate 115
Porcelain Enamel 116
Glass 116
Glass Tile 117
Mirror 117
Mirror Terminology 118
Ceramic Tile 119
Metal 121
Acoustical Panels 121
Cork 121
Other Products 122
Bibliography 123
Glossary 123
Notes 124
6 Ceilings 125
Plaster 125
Gypsum Board 126
Beams 126
Wood 127
Acoustical Ceilings 127
Residential 127
Commercial 129
Metal 129
Other Ceiling Materials 130
Ceramic Tile 131
Bibliography 132
Glossary 132
7 Other Components 133
Mouldings 133
Doors 135
Wood Doors 135
Glass Doors 137
Metal Doors 139
Fiberglass Doors 139
Specialty Doors 140
Specifications for Doors 140
Door Hardware 140
Hinges 140
Locks 144
Hospital Hardware 149
Bibliography 149
Glossary 149
Notes 150
8 Cabinet Construction 151
Joinery of Case Body Members 151
Edge Treatments 153
Drawers and Doors 153
Joints 154
Drawer Guides 155
Cabinet Hardware 157
Shelves 158
Bibliography 159
Glossary 159
Notes 160
9 Kitchens 161
Floor Plans 162
Kitchen Appliances 163
Refrigerators 164
Ranges 166
Electric Ranges 166
Gas Ranges 167
Ovens 167
Microwave Ovens 168
Ventilation Fans 169
Dishwashers 169
Trash Compactors 170
Kitchen Sinks 171
Kitchen Faucets 172
Kitchen Cabinets 174
Counter Materials 176
Decorative Laminate 176
Ceramic Tile 178
Wood 179
Marble 179
Travertine 179
Solid Surface Materials 179
Stainless Steel 180
Granite and Slate 180
Floors 180
Walls 180
Certified Kitchen Designers 180
Bibliography 181
Glossary 181
Notes 181
10 Bathrooms 183
Planning a Bathroom 183
Floors 184
Walls 184
Bathtubs 184
Showers 187
Tub and Shower Faucets 189
Lavatories 189
Lavatory Faucets 191
Toilets 192
Bidets 193
Countertops 194
Accessories 194
Public Restrooms 196
Lavatories 196
Faucets 196
Toilets 198
Stall Partitions 198
Accessories 198
Bibliography 199
Glossary 199
Notes 200
Appendix A Measurements, Manufacturers, and Associations 201
Appendix B Resources 208
Index 217
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Preface

While teaching an introductory class in interior design, I noticed that the students usually chose paint or wallpaper for the walls and always used carpet on the floor, as though these were the only suitable treatments for walls and floors. I felt a need to break the cycle by exposing students to the fascinating world of materials—and so this book started to take shape.

I was unable to find a book that fully covered the exciting nonstructural materials available to the interior designer. Some authors concentrated on historical aspects of the home, both in architecture and furniture. Some emphasized upholstered furniture, draperies, and carpets; whereas still others stressed the principles and elements of design and color and the aesthetic values that make up a home. No one, however, concentrated on the "nuts and bolts" of interior design. Some books purporting to cover all types of flooring did not even mention wood floors, whereas others had only one or two paragraphs on the subject. In the fourth edition of this book, a chapter on environmental concerns was added, and this sixth edition has increased information on products that are environmentally sustainable. Throughout this edition, for those particularly interested in environmental concerns, products and manufacturers are mentioned that are participating in some way in the recycling processes. (See Chapter 1, "Environmental Concerns.") Chapter 1 should be of prime interest to those designers (most of us) who believe that the environment is precious and worth saving. Environmental responsibility and recycling are also ways to help cope with the growing landfill problem. In researching material for the"Environmental Concerns" chapter, a representative from a very environmentally conscious company said that because she spent all day working on this problem, it has become a habit in her personal life and in the lives of other coworkers. This, of course, is the aim of the chapter. The companies listed at the end of the chapter are some of the companies that are helping our environment, sometimes to their financial betterment but not always.

In the past, the interior design profession has dealt mainly with the more decorative aspects of design. Today it has become increasingly necessary for interior designers to be knowledgeable not only about the finishing materials used in the design field, but about some structural materials as well. Many interior designers are working for or with architects, so it is important that they understand the properties and uses of all materials. Thus, the raison d'etre of this textbook. Together with the properties of materials, I also feel that students should have historical background on the materials, as in the case of marble and the construction of wallcoverings. In the latter case, there is a considerable cost difference between various wallcoverings, and much of that difference is due to the methods of printing and the backing used. A knowledge of this will be able to convince clients to use the more expensive product. The section on wallcoverings includes background information on this subject supplied by the Wallcovering Organization.

In the case of decorative laminate, I found some interesting historical background and also current uses. The old "Woodie" station wagon used laminate for the imitation wood on the sides, and today most bowling alleys are surfaced with plastic laminate. The interiors of pleasure boats are often manufactured with laminate because of the product's durability, ease of maintenance, and resistance to salt. Also included is some background on the beginnings of Jacuzzi and Moen.

Most sales representatives realize that the interior design student of today is the customer of tomorrow, but there are still some who do not understand the scope of the interior design field. Many interior designers are women, and I have found that the ability to talk knowledgeably about materials earns the respect of a man in the profession.

Installation methods are discussed in this book because there are some contractors (luckily only a few) who will use the cheapest method of installation, one that may not be the best for that particular job. Installation methods have been taken from information provided by manufacturers, associations, and institutions involved with that product. Knowledge of the correct installation procedures ensures a properly installed project. The instructor's manual provides many real-world examples of problems with products that have been improperly installed, and some installation problems are mentioned in this sixth edition. In researching material for this edition, I read in technical journals of various problems, such as yellowing in carpet, moisture in concrete slabs, and discolorations in vinyl flooring. Awareness of a potential problem before it occurs can prevent headaches in the future.

Maintenance information on many materials has also been included, because the cost of maintenance should be one of the deciding factors in product selection. What may be an inexpensive material at first may be the most expensive over time because of high maintenance costs.

Most of the world uses the metric system, and the U.S. government has stressed the importance of a transition to the metric system, so designers will find increasing use of millimeters, meters, grams, and kilograms as measurements for length and weight. The wallcovering industry has already converted to metric or European measurements. Some manufacturers, particularly those who sell to Canada and other foreign countries, now list their products in two systems, inches and metric. Thus Appendix A contains handy conversion tables of most of the measurements used in interior design.

In doing my research and talking to many manufacturers, I have found a growing awareness of customers' needs and wishes. Dependability is one thing the consumer requires, whether for a private home or a large commercial installation. Thus many manufacturers offer warranties (one manufacturer offers a lifetime structural guarantee on the wood floor).

All disciplines have their own jargon. To communicate properly with contractors and architects, a designer must understand their jargon. Designers or prospective builders who have read and studied Materials and Components of Interior Architecture will be able to talk knowledgeably with architects and contractors about the uses of materials and their methods of installation. This understanding will also enable designers to decide for themselves which materials and methods are best for a given installation and avoid being influenced by the bias of salespeople.

One word about the spelling of moulding: The Architectural Woodwork Institute uses this spelling, and the term is spelled this way in Canada, where this textbook is also used. The dictionary I consulted has both spellings. To be consistent I have used moulding throughout this book, as some companies even have that spelling in their corporate name.

The growth of the Internet between the writing of the fifth and sixth edition is phenomenal, and therefore, I have included as many Web addresses as possible of manufacturers of products mentioned in the text. In selecting products to mention, I have selected ones that advertise in Interior Design Magazine and Interiors & Sources, especially in the Buyer's Guides. I am also on the e-mail list of many companies who send me information about their latest products as soon as they appear on the market. Awards are also a good source of new and well-designed materials.

This book can serve as a reference for designers who are already practicing, because it brings to their attention new materials on the market and improvements in current ones, many of which won awards in 1997. The appendices are useful reminders of manufacturers and their products. When a product is unique to one manufacturer, that manufacturer's product has been mentioned. Wherever possible, generic information has been used. A contractor who read this book told me that contractors would also benefit from using it as a reference tool.

In arranging the subject matter, I placed the chapter on environmental concerns first, because all chapters on materials stress environmental concerns. The chapter on paint follows because all types of surfaces—floors, walls, and ceilings—may be painted. Then, starting from the bottom, the logical progression was a chapter on carpets, Chapter 3 (carpet is the most common floor covering). (The Carpet and Rug Institute provided invaluable assistance in writing Chapter 3.) Chapter 4 deals with all the other types of materials for floors.

One comment on ceramic tile is needed here. Spain is the largest producer of ceramic tile, with Italy and Brazil also being large producers. However, I have not mentioned manufacturers of imported tile as the scope of imported tile is too large. Students should be aware that many companies carrying ceramic tile also display imported tile, which can be ordered. Delivery may not be quite as easy as domestically produced tiles.

Many of the same materials used for flooring are also discussed in Chapter 5, but this time they are used on walls; the installation, finish, and maintenance vary of course. In this chapter, the Web site of the Wallcoverings Association proved invaluable. Chapter 6 covers ceilings, areas that are usually either painted or ignored. Chapter 7 discusses all the other components that make up a well-designed room, including mouldings, doors, hardware, and hinges.

Chapter 8 explains the construction, structure, and design of fine cabinetry and could not have been written without the assistance of the Architectural Woodwork Institute. (The information presented in Chapter 8 will come in handy for inspecting ready-made furniture because cabinets and furniture are constructed similarly.) Study of Chapter 8 will enable designers to provide rough drawings of cabinetry that is as economical as possible to construct. Architectural Woodwork Quality Standards, 7th edition, version 1.0, 1997 should be consulted for precise drawings.

Chapter 9 discusses kitchens. With the background of previous chapter, Chapter 9 enables a designer to make an intelligent selection of the appropriate cabinetry. Chapter 9 also covers the various appliances and the newest innovations in kitchen design. Chapter 10 describes bathrooms, both residential and institutional. One comment about glass shower doors. The author was building a new home and ordered, at the county seat, a glass shower door. The salesman asked, "Where do you live?" Which points up how building codes may differ within one county. Chapters 9 and 10 were included because designers will be called on frequently to assist in the renovation of homes—including the very expensive areas of kitchens and bathrooms. These remodeling jobs will probably cost about 10 to 15 percent of the house value. A full bath added to an older three-bedroom, one-bath house will not only guarantee recouping the cost of the improvements, but will increase resale value.

A glossary of words boldfaced in the text appears at the end of each chapter. It can be used as an aid for students studying for exams. Appendix A lists manufacturers and associations that sell or represent the products mentioned in the chapters. Appendix B lists the names and addresses of the manufacturers named in Appendix A. Every effort has been made to make this list as up to date as possible, but businesses do change names and locations. For this sixth edition, I have added Web sites, where available, so students and designers can immediately access product information.

While compiling the index for this book, I realized that it can also be an aid in preparing for comprehensive exams, such as a final or the National Council for Interior Design Qualification (NCIDQ) exam. Thus in the index I have listed, in parentheses, all the words in the glossaries; I have done this for two reasons: First, the page number enables users to find the word (the usual purpose of an index). Second, students can test themselves on whether they are familiar with the word and its meaning.

If one manufacturer seems to be given more emphasis than another, it is not necessarily because its product is better than others on the market, but because the manufacturer has been extremely helpful (providing information and brochures, checking sections for accuracy, and, most important, providing photographs with which to illustrate the various sections). The photographs should not be glossed over as merely interesting illustrations but should be examined in detail as to how and where the material is used, and what ambience it creates.

I am indebted to the many manufacturers and trade organizations that have so willingly sent me technical information and brochures, from which I have compiled up-to-date data. As mentioned previously, I am grateful to the Carpet and Rug Institute for providing extensive information and for granting permission to quote from its informative book, Specifier's Handbook. This handbook has been the basis for much of the information contained in Chapter 3.

I have found the trade organizations to be very helpful and would like to thank in particular the Architectural Woodwork Institute for the many drawings and technical information found not only in Chapter 5, "Walls," but also Chapter 8, "Cabinet Construction." The Oak Flooring Manufacturers Association provides industry-wide standards for wood flooring installation. The Marble Institute of America reviewed the section on marble floors and walls, while the Tile Council of America, the authority for all types of hard materials for floors and walls, provided the installation information for those materials. The Wallcoverings Association Web site provided background information on wallcoverings, furthering the knowledge of both students and faculty. Each of these associations is the recognized authority in its field.

Many professionals helped me ensure the accuracy and relevance of information presented in this text. Robert Hanks of Bridgepoint Corporation realized that proper maintenance is vital to the durability of carpet. Sherwin-Williams was a great help in making sure that the information in Chapter 2 was current. (There have been many technical changes in that field.) I would also like to thank my reviewer, Professor Jeanne M. Halloin of the Department of Human Environment and Design at Michigan State University.

Most of all, I would like to thank my husband, sculptor Frank Riggs, for serving as house husband and for offering his support and encouragement. He has also helped with many of the line drawings in the text. I am also grateful to him for not complaining about meals served at odd times during the writing of this new edition. (He is getting to be a better cook with each edition.) Once I get on the computer, time is irrelevant.

J. Rosemary Riggs

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Introduction

While teaching an introductory class in interior design, I noticed that the students usually chose paint or wallpaper for the walls and always used carpet on the floor, as though these were the only suitable treatments for walls and floors. I felt a need to break the cycle by exposing students to the fascinating world of materials—and so this book started to take shape.

I was unable to find a book that fully covered the exciting nonstructural materials available to the interior designer. Some authors concentrated on historical aspects of the home, both in architecture and furniture. Some emphasized upholstered furniture, draperies, and carpets; whereas still others stressed the principles and elements of design and color and the aesthetic values that make up a home. No one, however, concentrated on the "nuts and bolts" of interior design. Some books purporting to cover all types of flooring did not even mention wood floors, whereas others had only one or two paragraphs on the subject. In the fourth edition of this book, a chapter on environmental concerns was added, and this sixth edition has increased information on products that are environmentally sustainable. Throughout this edition, for those particularly interested in environmental concerns, products and manufacturers are mentioned that are participating in some way in the recycling processes. (See Chapter 1, "Environmental Concerns.") Chapter 1 should be of prime interest to those designers (most of us) who believe that the environment is precious and worth saving. Environmental responsibility and recycling are also ways to help cope with the growing landfill problem. In researching material for the "EnvironmentalConcerns" chapter, a representative from a very environmentally conscious company said that because she spent all day working on this problem, it has become a habit in her personal life and in the lives of other coworkers. This, of course, is the aim of the chapter. The companies listed at the end of the chapter are some of the companies that are helping our environment, sometimes to their financial betterment but not always.

In the past, the interior design profession has dealt mainly with the more decorative aspects of design. Today it has become increasingly necessary for interior designers to be knowledgeable not only about the finishing materials used in the design field, but about some structural materials as well. Many interior designers are working for or with architects, so it is important that they understand the properties and uses of all materials. Thus, the raison d'etre of this textbook. Together with the properties of materials, I also feel that students should have historical background on the materials, as in the case of marble and the construction of wallcoverings. In the latter case, there is a considerable cost difference between various wallcoverings, and much of that difference is due to the methods of printing and the backing used. A knowledge of this will be able to convince clients to use the more expensive product. The section on wallcoverings includes background information on this subject supplied by the Wallcovering Organization.

In the case of decorative laminate, I found some interesting historical background and also current uses. The old "Woodie" station wagon used laminate for the imitation wood on the sides, and today most bowling alleys are surfaced with plastic laminate. The interiors of pleasure boats are often manufactured with laminate because of the product's durability, ease of maintenance, and resistance to salt. Also included is some background on the beginnings of Jacuzzi and Moen.

Most sales representatives realize that the interior design student of today is the customer of tomorrow, but there are still some who do not understand the scope of the interior design field. Many interior designers are women, and I have found that the ability to talk knowledgeably about materials earns the respect of a man in the profession.

Installation methods are discussed in this book because there are some contractors (luckily only a few) who will use the cheapest method of installation, one that may not be the best for that particular job. Installation methods have been taken from information provided by manufacturers, associations, and institutions involved with that product. Knowledge of the correct installation procedures ensures a properly installed project. The instructor's manual provides many real-world examples of problems with products that have been improperly installed, and some installation problems are mentioned in this sixth edition. In researching material for this edition, I read in technical journals of various problems, such as yellowing in carpet, moisture in concrete slabs, and discolorations in vinyl flooring. Awareness of a potential problem before it occurs can prevent headaches in the future.

Maintenance information on many materials has also been included, because the cost of maintenance should be one of the deciding factors in product selection. What may be an inexpensive material at first may be the most expensive over time because of high maintenance costs.

Most of the world uses the metric system, and the U.S. government has stressed the importance of a transition to the metric system, so designers will find increasing use of millimeters, meters, grams, and kilograms as measurements for length and weight. The wallcovering industry has already converted to metric or European measurements. Some manufacturers, particularly those who sell to Canada and other foreign countries, now list their products in two systems, inches and metric. Thus Appendix A contains handy conversion tables of most of the measurements used in interior design.

In doing my research and talking to many manufacturers, I have found a growing awareness of customers' needs and wishes. Dependability is one thing the consumer requires, whether for a private home or a large commercial installation. Thus many manufacturers offer warranties (one manufacturer offers a lifetime structural guarantee on the wood floor).

All disciplines have their own jargon. To communicate properly with contractors and architects, a designer must understand their jargon. Designers or prospective builders who have read and studied Materials and Components of Interior Architecture will be able to talk knowledgeably with architects and contractors about the uses of materials and their methods of installation. This understanding will also enable designers to decide for themselves which materials and methods are best for a given installation and avoid being influenced by the bias of salespeople.

One word about the spelling of moulding: The Architectural Woodwork Institute uses this spelling, and the term is spelled this way in Canada, where this textbook is also used. The dictionary I consulted has both spellings. To be consistent I have used moulding throughout this book, as some companies even have that spelling in their corporate name.

The growth of the Internet between the writing of the fifth and sixth edition is phenomenal, and therefore, I have included as many Web addresses as possible of manufacturers of products mentioned in the text. In selecting products to mention, I have selected ones that advertise in Interior Design Magazine and Interiors & Sources, especially in the Buyer's Guides. I am also on the e-mail list of many companies who send me information about their latest products as soon as they appear on the market. Awards are also a good source of new and well-designed materials.

This book can serve as a reference for designers who are already practicing, because it brings to their attention new materials on the market and improvements in current ones, many of which won awards in 1997. The appendices are useful reminders of manufacturers and their products. When a product is unique to one manufacturer, that manufacturer's product has been mentioned. Wherever possible, generic information has been used. A contractor who read this book told me that contractors would also benefit from using it as a reference tool.

In arranging the subject matter, I placed the chapter on environmental concerns first, because all chapters on materials stress environmental concerns. The chapter on paint follows because all types of surfaces—floors, walls, and ceilings—may be painted. Then, starting from the bottom, the logical progression was a chapter on carpets, Chapter 3 (carpet is the most common floor covering). (The Carpet and Rug Institute provided invaluable assistance in writing Chapter 3.) Chapter 4 deals with all the other types of materials for floors.

One comment on ceramic tile is needed here. Spain is the largest producer of ceramic tile, with Italy and Brazil also being large producers. However, I have not mentioned manufacturers of imported tile as the scope of imported tile is too large. Students should be aware that many companies carrying ceramic tile also display imported tile, which can be ordered. Delivery may not be quite as easy as domestically produced tiles.

Many of the same materials used for flooring are also discussed in Chapter 5, but this time they are used on walls; the installation, finish, and maintenance vary of course. In this chapter, the Web site of the Wallcoverings Association proved invaluable. Chapter 6 covers ceilings, areas that are usually either painted or ignored. Chapter 7 discusses all the other components that make up a well-designed room, including mouldings, doors, hardware, and hinges.

Chapter 8 explains the construction, structure, and design of fine cabinetry and could not have been written without the assistance of the Architectural Woodwork Institute. (The information presented in Chapter 8 will come in handy for inspecting ready-made furniture because cabinets and furniture are constructed similarly.) Study of Chapter 8 will enable designers to provide rough drawings of cabinetry that is as economical as possible to construct. Architectural Woodwork Quality Standards, 7th edition, version 1.0, 1997 should be consulted for precise drawings.

Chapter 9 discusses kitchens. With the background of previous chapter, Chapter 9 enables a designer to make an intelligent selection of the appropriate cabinetry. Chapter 9 also covers the various appliances and the newest innovations in kitchen design. Chapter 10 describes bathrooms, both residential and institutional. One comment about glass shower doors. The author was building a new home and ordered, at the county seat, a glass shower door. The salesman asked, "Where do you live?" Which points up how building codes may differ within one county. Chapters 9 and 10 were included because designers will be called on frequently to assist in the renovation of homes—including the very expensive areas of kitchens and bathrooms. These remodeling jobs will probably cost about 10 to 15 percent of the house value. A full bath added to an older three-bedroom, one-bath house will not only guarantee recouping the cost of the improvements, but will increase resale value.

A glossary of words boldfaced in the text appears at the end of each chapter. It can be used as an aid for students studying for exams. Appendix A lists manufacturers and associations that sell or represent the products mentioned in the chapters. Appendix B lists the names and addresses of the manufacturers named in Appendix A. Every effort has been made to make this list as up to date as possible, but businesses do change names and locations. For this sixth edition, I have added Web sites, where available, so students and designers can immediately access product information.

While compiling the index for this book, I realized that it can also be an aid in preparing for comprehensive exams, such as a final or the National Council for Interior Design Qualification (NCIDQ) exam. Thus in the index I have listed, in parentheses, all the words in the glossaries; I have done this for two reasons: First, the page number enables users to find the word (the usual purpose of an index). Second, students can test themselves on whether they are familiar with the word and its meaning.

If one manufacturer seems to be given more emphasis than another, it is not necessarily because its product is better than others on the market, but because the manufacturer has been extremely helpful (providing information and brochures, checking sections for accuracy, and, most important, providing photographs with which to illustrate the various sections). The photographs should not be glossed over as merely interesting illustrations but should be examined in detail as to how and where the material is used, and what ambience it creates.

I am indebted to the many manufacturers and trade organizations that have so willingly sent me technical information and brochures, from which I have compiled up-to-date data. As mentioned previously, I am grateful to the Carpet and Rug Institute for providing extensive information and for granting permission to quote from its informative book, Specifier's Handbook. This handbook has been the basis for much of the information contained in Chapter 3.

I have found the trade organizations to be very helpful and would like to thank in particular the Architectural Woodwork Institute for the many drawings and technical information found not only in Chapter 5, "Walls," but also Chapter 8, "Cabinet Construction." The Oak Flooring Manufacturers Association provides industry-wide standards for wood flooring installation. The Marble Institute of America reviewed the section on marble floors and walls, while the Tile Council of America, the authority for all types of hard materials for floors and walls, provided the installation information for those materials. The Wallcoverings Association Web site provided background information on wallcoverings, furthering the knowledge of both students and faculty. Each of these associations is the recognized authority in its field.

Many professionals helped me ensure the accuracy and relevance of information presented in this text. Robert Hanks of Bridgepoint Corporation realized that proper maintenance is vital to the durability of carpet. Sherwin-Williams was a great help in making sure that the information in Chapter 2 was current. (There have been many technical changes in that field.) I would also like to thank my reviewer, Professor Jeanne M. Halloin of the Department of Human Environment and Design at Michigan State University.

Most of all, I would like to thank my husband, sculptor Frank Riggs, for serving as house husband and for offering his support and encouragement. He has also helped with many of the line drawings in the text. I am also grateful to him for not complaining about meals served at odd times during the writing of this new edition. (He is getting to be a better cook with each edition.) Once I get on the computer, time is irrelevant.

J. Rosemary Riggs

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