Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers / Edition 3

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Overview

Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers, 3/e is ideal for courses in Civil Engineering Materials, Construction Materials, and Construction Methods and Materials offered in Civil, Environmental, or Construction engineering departments.

This introduction gives students a basic understanding of the material selection process and the behavior of materials — a fundamental requirement for all civil and construction engineers performing design, construction, and maintenance. The authors cover the various materials used by civil and construction engineers in one useful reference, limiting the vast amount of information available to the introductory level, concentrating on current practices, and extracting information that is relevant to the general education of civil and construction engineers. A large number of experiments, figures, sample problems, test methods, and homework problems gives students opportunity for practice and review.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

“This is one of the most comprehensive and up to date CE materials textbooks available.”

-Jose Weissmann, UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT SAN ANTONIO

“This book is very well written and easy to follow. The contents of aggregates, Portland cement concrete, and asphalt binders and asphalt mixtures are exactly what I need for teaching my transportation materials course.”

-Jie Han, KANSAS STATE

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136110583
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 3/3/2010
  • Series: Alternative eText Formats Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 600
  • Sales rank: 623,052
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Michael¿S.¿Mamlouk is Professor and Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies) in the School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment at the Arizona State University's Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering.

Dr. Mamlouk's main area of expertise includes pavement analysis and design, pavement maintenance and rehabilitation, and highway materials. He has served as the P.I. and Co-P.I. of many research projects sponsored by FHWA, NHI, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Arizona DOT, and various local agencies. Dr. Mamlouk has numerous publications and is the main author of a textbook Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers published by Prentice Hall. He is a professional engineer in the state of Arizona. He is a fellow of ASCE and a member of TRB, AAPT and ASTM.

John P. Zaniewski is a Professor in Civil and Environmental Engineering at West Virginia University's College of Engineering and Mineral Resources.

Dr. Zaniewski has 16 years of academic experience preceded by 11 years of practicing engineering. In 1996, he accepted the Asphalt Technology Professor position with the Civil and Environmental Engineering faculty at WVU. Dr. Zaniewski has over 50 publications in the areas of pavement design, materials and management systems. Dr. Zaniewski has co-authored textbooks on Modern Pavement Management and Materials for Civil and Construction Engineering.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiv

ONE Materials Engineering Concepts 1
1.1 Economic Factors 2
1.2 Mechanical Properties 3
1.2.1 • Loading Conditions 4
1.2.2 • Stress—Strain Relations 5
1.2.3 • Elastic Behavior 5
1.2.4 • Elastoplastic Behavior 8
1.2.5 • Viscoelastic Behavior 12
1.2.6 • Temperature and Time Effects 17
1.2.7 • Work and Energy 18
1.2.8 • Failure and Safety 18
1.3 Nonmechanical Properties 21
1.3.1 • Density and Unit Weight 21
1.3.2 • Thermal Expansion 22
1.3.3 • Surface Characteristics 23
1.4 Production and Construction 24
1.5 Aesthetic Characteristics 25
1.6 Sustainable Design 26
1.7 Material Variability 27
1.7.1 • Sampling 28
1.7.2 • Normal Distribution 29
1.7.3 • Control Charts 29
1.7.4 • Experimental Error 32
1.8 Laboratory Measuring Devices 32
1.8.1 • Dial Gauge 33
1.8.2 • Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) 33
1.8.3 • Strain Gauge 37
1.8.4 • Non-Contact Deformation Measurement Technique 38
1.8.5 • Proving Ring 38
1.8.6 • Load Cell 39
Summary 40
Questions and Problems 41
1.9 References 51

TWO Nature of Materials 52
2.1 Basic Materials Concepts 52
2.1.1 • Electron Configuration 52
2.1.2 • Bonding 55
2.1.3 • Material Classification by Bond Type 58
2.2 Metallic Materials 58
2.2.1 • Lattice Structure 59
2.2.2 • Lattice Defects 63
2.2.3 • Grain Structure 64
2.2.4 • Alloys 67
2.2.5 • Phase Diagrams 67
2.2.6 • Combined Effects 73
2.3 Inorganic Solids 73
2.4 Organic Solids 75
2.4.1 • Polymer Development, Structure, and Cross-Linking 76
2.4.2 • Melting and Glass Transition Temperature 79
2.4.3 • Mechanical Properties 80
Summary 81
Questions and Problems 81
2.5 References 84

THREE Steel 85
3.1 Steel Production 87
3.2 Iron—Carbon Phase Diagram 89
3.3 Heat Treatment of Steel 93
3.3.1 • Annealing 93
3.3.2 • Normalizing 94
3.3.3 • Hardening 95
3.3.4 • Tempering 95
3.3.5 • Example of Heat Treatment 95
3.4 Steel Alloys 95
3.5 Structural Steel 97
3.5.1 • Structural Steel Grades 97
3.5.2 • Sectional Shapes 100
3.5.3 • Specialty Steels in Structural Applications 101
3.6 Cold-Formed Steel 106
3.6.1 • Cold-Formed Steel Grades 106
3.6.2 • Cold-Formed Steel Shapes 107
3.6.3 • Special Design Considerations for Cold-Formed Steel 109
3.7 Fastening Products 109
3.8 Reinforcing Steel 111
3.8.1 • Conventional Reinforcing 111
3.8.2 • Steel for Prestressed Concrete 115
3.9 Mechanical Testing of Steel 116
3.9.1 • Tension Test 116
3.9.2 • Torsion Test 119
3.9.3 • Charpy V Notch Impact Test 122
3.9.4 • Bend Test 124
3.9.5 • Hardness Test 125
3.9.6 • Ultrasonic Testing 125
3.10 Welding 126
3.11 Steel Corrosion 129
3.11.1 • Methods for Corrosion Resistance 130
Summary 131
Questions and Problems 131
3.12 References 139

FOUR Aluminum 140
4.1 Aluminum Production 143
4.2 Aluminum Metallurgy 145
4.2.1 • Alloy Designation System 147
4.2.2 • Temper Treatments 148
4.3 Aluminum Testing and Properties 151
4.4 Welding and Fastening 156
4.5 Corrosion 157
Summary 157
Questions and Problems 157
4.6 References 162

FIVE Aggregates 163
5.1 Aggregate Sources 164
5.2 Geological Classification 165
5.3 Evaluation of Aggregate Sources 165
5.4 Aggregate Uses 166
5.5 Aggregate Properties 167
5.5.1 • Particle Shape and Surface Texture 169
5.5.2 • Soundness and Durability 171
5.5.3 • Toughness, Hardness, and Abrasion Resistance 172
5.5.4 • Absorption 173
5.5.5 • Specific Gravity 175
5.5.6 • Bulk Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate 177
5.5.7 • Strength and Modulus 178
5.5.8 • Gradation 178
5.5.9 • Cleanness and Deleterious Materials 195
5.5.10 • Alkali—Aggregate Reactivity 196
5.5.11 • Affinity for Asphalt 197
5.6 Handling Aggregates 198
5.6.1 • Sampling Aggregates 199
Summary 200
Questions and Problems 200
5.7 References 209

SIX Portland Cement, Mixing Water, and Admixtures 210
6.1 Portland Cement Production 210
6.2 Chemical Composition of Portland Cement 211
6.3 Fineness of Portland Cement 213
6.4 Specific Gravity of Portland Cement 214
6.5 Hydration of Portland Cement 214
6.5.1 • Structure Development in Cement Paste 216
6.5.2 • Evaluation of Hydration Progress 216
6.6 Voids in Hydrated Cement 218
6.7 Properties of Hydrated Cement 218
6.7.1 • Setting 218
6.7.2 • Soundness 220
6.7.3 • Compressive Strength of Mortar 221
6.8 Water—Cement Ratio 221
6.9 Types of Portland Cement 222
6.9.1 • Standard Portland Cement Types 222
6.9.2 • Other Cement Types 225
6.10 Mixing Water 226
6.10.1 • Acceptable Criteria 226
6.10.2 • Disposal and Reuse of Concrete Wash Water 228
6.11 Admixtures for Concrete 228
6.11.1 • Air Entrainers 229
6.11.2 • Water Reducers 230
6.11.3 • Retarders 233
6.11.4 • Hydration-Control Admixtures 234
6.11.5 • Accelerators 234
6.11.6 • Specialty Admixtures 235
6.12 Supplementary Cementitious Materials 236
Summary 239
Questions and Problems 240
6.13 References 245

SEVEN Portland Cement Concrete 246
7.1 Proportioning of Concrete Mixes 246
7.1.1 • Basic Steps for Weight and Absolute Volume Methods 247
7.1.2 • Mixing Concrete for Small Jobs 263
7.2 Mixing, Placing, and Handling Fresh Concrete 266
7.2.1 • Ready-Mixed Concrete 266
7.2.2 • Mobile Batcher Mixed Concrete 267
7.2.3 • Depositing Concrete 267
7.2.4 • Pumped Concrete 267
7.2.5 • Vibration of Concrete 270
7.2.6 • Pitfalls and Precautions for Mixing Water 272
7.2.7 • Measuring Air Content in Fresh Concrete 272
7.2.8 • Spreading and Finishing Concrete 274
7.3 Curing Concrete 274
7.3.1 • Ponding or Immersion 280
7.3.2 • Spraying or Fogging 280
7.3.3 • Wet Coverings 280
7.3.4 • Impervious Papers or Plastic Sheets 281
7.3.5 • Membrane-Forming Compounds 282
7.3.6 • Forms Left in Place 282
7.3.7 • Steam Curing 283
7.3.8 • Insulating Blankets or Covers 283
7.3.9 • Electrical, Hot Oil, and Infrared Curing 285
7.3.10 • Curing Period 285
7.4 Properties of Hardened Concrete 285
7.4.1 • Early Volume Change 285
7.4.2 • Creep Properties 286
7.4.3 • Permeability 286
7.4.4 • Stress—Strain Relationship 287
7.5 Testing of Hardened Concrete 289
7.5.1 • Compressive Strength Test 290
7.5.2 • Split-Tension Test 292
7.5.3 • Flexure Strength Test 293
7.5.4 • Rebound Hammer Test 294
7.5.5 • Penetration Resistance Test 295
7.5.6 • Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test 296
7.5.7 • Maturity Test 296
7.6 Alternatives to Conventional Concrete 297
7.6.1 • Self-Consolidating Concrete 297
7.6.2 • Flowable Fill 299
7.6.3 • Shotcrete 301
7.6.4 • Lightweight Concrete 302
7.6.5 • Heavyweight Concrete 303
7.6.6 • High-Strength Concrete 304
7.6.7 • Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete 305
7.6.8 • Polymers and Concrete 305
7.6.9 • Fiber-Reinforced Concrete 305
7.6.10 • Roller-Compacted Concrete 306
7.6.11 • High-Performance Concrete 307
Summary 308
Questions and Problems 308
7.7 References 313

EIGHT Masonry 315
8.1 Masonry Units 315
8.1.1 • Concrete Masonry Units 316
8.1.2 • Clay Bricks 321
8.2 Mortar 324
8.3 Grout 324
8.4 Plaster 325
Summary 325
Questions and Problems 325
8.5 References 328

NINE Asphalt Binders and Asphalt Mixtures 329
9.1 Types of Asphalt Products 332
9.2 Uses of Asphalt 334
9.3 Temperature Susceptibility of Asphalt 337
9.4 Chemical Properties of Asphalt 340
9.5 Superpave and Performance Grade Binders 342
9.6 Characterization of Asphalt Cement 342
9.6.1 • Performance Grade Characterization Approach 342
9.6.2 • Performance Grade Binder Characterization 343
9.6.3 • Traditional Asphalt Characterization Tests 348
9.7 Classification of Asphalt 350
9.7.1 • Asphalt Binders 350
9.7.2 • Asphalt Cutbacks 356
9.7.3 • Asphalt Emulsions 356
9.8 Asphalt Concrete 357
9.9 Asphalt Concrete Mix Design 358
9.9.1 • Specimen Preparation in the Laboratory 358
9.9.2 • Density and Voids Analysis 362
9.9.3 • Superpave Mix Design 365
9.9.4 • Superpave Refinement 374
9.9.5 • Marshall Method of Mix Design 374
9.9.6 • Evaluation of Moisture Susceptibility 382
9.10 Characterization of Asphalt Concrete 383
9.10.1 • Indirect Tensile Strength 384
9.10.2 • Diametral Tensile Resilient Modulus 384
9.10.3 • Freeze and Thaw Test 386
9.10.4 • Superpave Asphalt Mixture Performance Tests 386
9.11 Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete Production and Construction 390
9.11.1 • Production of Raw Materials 390
9.11.2 • Manufacturing Asphalt Concrete 390
9.11.3 • Field Operations 391
9.12 Recycling of Asphalt Concrete 394
9.12.1 • RAP Evaluation 395
9.12.2 • RAP Mix Design 395
9.12.3 • RAP Production and Construction 395
9.13 Additives 397
9.13.1 • Fillers 397
9.13.2 • Extenders 397
9.13.3 • Polymer Modified Asphalt 397
9.13.4 • Antistripping Agents 399
9.13.5 • Others 399
9.14 Warm Mix 399
Summary 401
Questions and Problems 402
9.15 References 409

TEN Wood 411
10.1 Structure of Wood 413
10.1.1 • Growth Rings 413
10.1.2 • Anisotropic Nature of Wood 415
10.2 Chemical Composition 416
10.3 Moisture Content 417
10.4 Wood Production 419
10.4.1 • Cutting Techniques 421
10.4.2 • Seasoning 422
10.5 Lumber Grades 423
10.5.1 • Hardwood Grades 424
10.5.2 • Softwood Grades 425
10.6 Defects in Lumber 426
10.7 Physical Properties 429
10.7.1 • Specific Gravity and Density 429
10.7.2 • Thermal Properties 429
10.7.3 • Electrical Properties 431
10.8 Mechanical Properties 431
10.8.1 • Modulus of Elasticity 431
10.8.2 • Strength Properties 432
10.8.3 • Load Duration 432
10.8.4 • Damping Capacity 433
10.9 Testing to Determine Mechanical Properties 433
10.9.1 • Flexure Test of Structural Members (ASTM D198) 434
10.9.2 • Flexure Test of Small, Clear Specimen (ASTM D143) 436
10.10 Design Considerations 437
10.11 Organisms that Degrade Wood 437
10.11.1 • Fungi 438
10.11.2 • Insects 438
10.11.3 • Marine Organisms 438
10.11.4 • Bacteria 438
10.12 Wood Preservation 439
10.12.1 • Petroleum-Based Solutions 439
10.12.2 • Waterborne Preservatives 439
10.12.3 • Application Techniques 440
10.12.4 • Construction Precautions 440
10.13 Engineered Wood Products 441
10.13.1 • Structural Panels/Sheets 443
10.13.2 • Structural Shapes 445
10.13.3 • Composite Structural Members 455
Summary 456
Questions and Problems 456
10.14 References 462

ELEVEN Composites 463
11.1 Microscopic Composites 465
11.1.1 • Fiber-Reinforced Composites 465
11.1.2 • Particle-Reinforced Composites 467
11.1.3 • Matrix Phase 467
11.1.4 • Fabrication 467
11.1.5 • Civil Engineering Applications 468
11.2 Macroscopic Composites 473
11.2.1 • Plain Portland Cement Concrete 473
11.2.2 • Reinforced Portland Cement Concrete 474
11.2.3 • Asphalt Concrete 474
11.2.4 • Engineered Wood 475
11.3 Properties of Composites 475
11.3.1 • Loading Parallel to Fibers 476
11.3.2 • Loading Perpendicular to Fibers 477
11.3.3 • Randomly Oriented Fiber Composites 479
11.3.4 • Particle-Reinforced Composites 479
Summary 480
Questions and Problems 480
11.4 References 482
Appendix 483

Experiments
1. Introduction to Measuring Devices 484
2. Tension Test of Steel and Aluminum 487
3. Torsion Test of Steel and Aluminum 490
4. Impact Test of Steel 493
5. Microscopic Inspection of Materials 496
6. Sieve Analysis of Aggregates 497
7. Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate 501
8. Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate 503
9. Bulk Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate 505
10. Slump of Freshly Mixed Portland Cement Concrete 508
11. Unit Weight and Yield of Freshly Mixed Concrete 511
12. Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by Pressure Method 513
13. Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by Volumetric Method 515
14. Making and Curing Concrete Cylinders and Beams 517
15. Capping Cylindrical Concrete Specimens with Sulfur or Capping Compound 521
16. Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens 523
17. Flexural Strength of Concrete 526
18. Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete 529
19. Penetration Resistance of Hardened Concrete 531
20. Testing of Concrete Masonry Units 534
21. Viscosity of Asphalt Binder by Rotational Viscometer 537
22. Dynamic Shear Rheometer Test of Asphalt Binder 539
23. Penetration Test of Asphalt Cement 541
24. Absolute Viscosity Test of Asphalt 543
25. Preparing and Determining the Density of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA)
Specimens by Means of the Superpave Gyratory Compactor 545
26. Preparation of Asphalt Concrete Specimens Using the Marshall Compactor 548
27. Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures 551
28. Marshall Stability and Flow of Asphalt Concrete 553
29. Bending (Flexure) Test of Wood 555
30. Tensile Properties of Plastics 561
Index 576

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