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More About This Textbook
Overview
Building on the extraordinary success of eight bestselling editions, Callister’s new Ninth Edition of Materials Science and Engineering continues to promote student understanding of the three primary types of materials (metals, ceramics, and polymers) and composites, as well as the relationships that exist between the structural elements of materials and their properties.
This edition is again supported by WileyPLUS, an integrated online learning environment, (when ordered as a package by an instructor). Also available is a redesigned version of Virtual Materials Science and Engineering (VMSE). This resource contains interactive simulations and animations that enhance the learning of key concepts in materials science and engineering (e.g., crystal structures, crystallographic planes/directions, dislocations) and, in addition, a comprehensive materials property database.
WileyPLUS sold separately from text.
Editorial Reviews
Booknews
New edition of a text presenting the fundamentals of materials science and engineering on a level appropriate for university/college students who have completed their freshmen calculus, chemistry, and physics courses. Material progresses from the simple to the more complex, and each topic is discussed in enough detail that students need not consult other sources to understand it. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.Booknews
A revised and updated (2nd ed., 1991) introductory textbook presenting the basic fundamentals of materials science and engineering at a level appropriate for college/university students who have completed their freshman calculus, chemistry, and physics courses. The most significant change in the present edition is the addition of a new chapter, Case Studies in Materials Selection, which includes five different case studies (a cantilever beam, an automobile valve spring, the artificial hip, the thermal protection system for the Space Shuttle, and packaging for integrated circuits) relative to the materials employed and the rationale behind their use. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)Product Details
Meet the Author
Table of Contents
LIST OF SYMBOLS xxi
1. Introduction 1
Learning Objectives 2
1.1 Historical Perspective 2
1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 2
1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? 4
Case Study—Liberty Ship Failures 5
1.4 Classification of Materials 6
Case Study—Carbonated Beverage Containers 11
1.5 Advanced Materials 12
1.6 Modern Materials’ Needs 14
1.7 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Correlations 15
Summary 17
References 17
Questions 18
2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding 19
Learning Objectives 20
2.1 Introduction 20
ATOMIC STRUCTURE 20
2.2 Fundamental Concepts 20
2.3 Electrons in Atoms 22
2.4 The Periodic Table 28
ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS 30
2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies 30
2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds 32
2.7 Secondary Bonding or van der Waals Bonding 39
Materials of Importance—Water (Its Volume Expansion Upon Freezing) 42
2.8 Mixed Bonding 43
2.9 Molecules 44
2.10 Bonding TypeMaterials Classification Correlations 44
Summary 45
Equation Summary 46
List of Symbols 46
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 47
Important Terms and Concepts 47
References 47
Questions and Problems 48
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 50
3. The Structure of Crystalline Solids 51
Learning Objectives 52
3.1 Introduction 52
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES 52
3.2 Fundamental Concepts 52
3.3 Unit Cells 53
3.4 Metallic Crystal Structures 54
3.5 Density Computations 60
3.6 Polymorphism and Allotropy 60
Materials of Importance—Tin (Its Allotropic Transformation) 61
3.7 Crystal Systems 62
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC POINTS, DIRECTIONS, AND PLANES 64
3.8 Point Coordinates 64
3.9 Crystallographic Directions 67
3.10 Crystallographic Planes 75
3.11 Linear and Planar Densities 81
3.12 ClosePacked Crystal Structures 82
CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 84
3.13 Single Crystals 84
3.14 Polycrystalline Materials 84
3.15 Anisotropy 86
3.16 XRay Diffraction: Determination of Crystal Structures 87
3.17 Noncrystalline Solids 92
Summary 93
Equation Summary 95
List of Symbols 96
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 96
Important Terms and Concepts 97
References 97
Questions and Problems 97
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 104
4. Imperfections in Solids 105
Learning Objectives 106
4.1 Introduction 106
POINT DEFECTS 106
4.2 Vacancies and SelfInterstitials 106
4.3 Impurities in Solids 108
4.4 Specification of Composition 111
MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS 115
4.5 Dislocations—Linear Defects 115
4.6 Interfacial Defects 118
Materials of Importance—Catalysts (and Surface Defects) 121
4.7 Bulk or Volume Defects 122
4.8 Atomic Vibrations 122
MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION 123
4.9 Basic Concepts of Microscopy 123
4.10 Microscopic Techniques 124
4.11 GrainSize Determination 128
Summary 131
Equation Summary 132
List of Symbols 133
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 134
Important Terms and Concepts 135
References 135
Questions and Problems 135
Design Problems 138
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 139
5. Diffusion 140
Learning Objectives 141
5.1 Introduction 141
5.2 Diffusion Mechanisms 142
5.3 Fick’s First Law 143
5.4 Fick’s Second Law—NonsteadyState Diffusion 145
5.5 Factors That Influence Diffusion 149
5.6 Diffusion in Semiconducting Materials 154
Material of Importance—Aluminum for Integrated Circuit Interconnects 157
5.7 Other Diffusion Paths 158
Summary 158
Equation Summary 159
List of Symbols 160
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 160
Important Terms and Concepts 162
References 162
Questions and Problems 162
Design Problems 166
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 167
6. Mechanical Properties of Metals 168
Learning Objectives 169
6.1 Introduction 169
6.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain 170
ELASTIC DEFORMATION 174
6.3 Stress–Strain Behavior 174
6.4 Anelasticity 177
6.5 Elastic Properties of Materials 177
PLASTIC DEFORMATION 180
6.6 Tensile Properties 180
6.7 True Stress and Strain 187
6.8 Elastic Recovery After Plastic Deformation 190
6.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional Deformation 191
6.10 Hardness 191
PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY FACTORS 197
6.11 Variability of Material Properties 197
6.12 Design/Safety Factors 199
Summary 203
Equation Summary 205
List of Symbols 205
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 206
Important Terms and Concepts 206
References 207
Questions and Problems 207
Design Problems 213
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 214
7. Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms 216
Learning Objectives 217
7.1 Introduction 217
DISLOCATIONS AND PLASTIC DEFORMATION 217
7.2 Basic Concepts 218
7.3 Characteristics of Dislocations 220
7.4 Slip Systems 221
7.5 Slip in Single Crystals 223
7.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Materials 226
7.7 Deformation by Twinning 228
MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN METALS 229
7.8 Strengthening by Grain Size Reduction 229
7.9 SolidSolution Strengthening 231
7.10 Strain Hardening 232
RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, AND GRAIN GROWTH 235
7.11 Recovery 235
7.12 Recrystallization 236
7.13 Grain Growth 240
Summary 242
Equation Summary 244
List of Symbols 244
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 245
Important Terms and Concepts 246
References 246
Questions and Problems 246
Design Problems 250
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 250
8. Failure 251
Learning Objectives 252
8.1 Introduction 252
FRACTURE 253
8.2 Fundamentals of Fracture 253
8.3 Ductile Fracture 253
8.4 Brittle Fracture 255
8.5 Principles of Fracture Mechanics 257
8.6 Fracture Toughness Testing 265
FATIGUE 270
8.7 Cyclic Stresses 270
8.8 The S–N Curve 272
8.9 Crack Initiation and Propagation 276
8.10 Factors That Affect Fatigue Life 278
8.11 Environmental Effects 280
CREEP 281
8.12 Generalized Creep Behavior 281
8.13 Stress and Temperature Effects 282
8.14 Data Extrapolation Methods 285
8.15 Alloys for HighTemperature Use 286
Summary 287
Equation Summary 290
List of Symbols 290
Important Terms and Concepts 291
References 291
Questions and Problems 291
Design Problems 295
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 296
9. Phase Diagrams 297
Learning Objectives 298
9.1 Introduction 298
DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS 298
9.2 Solubility Limit 299
9.3 Phases 300
9.4 Microstructure 300
9.5 Phase Equilibria 300
9.6 OneComponent (or Unary) Phase Diagrams 301
BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS 302
9.7 Binary Isomorphous Systems 303
9.8 Interpretation of Phase Diagrams 305
9.9 Development of Microstructure in Isomorphous Alloys 309
9.10 Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous Alloys 312
9.11 Binary Eutectic Systems 312
9.12 Development of Microstructure in Eutectic Alloys 318
Materials of Importance—LeadFree Solders 319
9.13 Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate Phases or Compounds 325
9.14 Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions 328
9.15 Congruent Phase Transformations 329
9.16 Ceramic and Ternary Phase Diagrams 330
9.17 The Gibbs Phase Rule 330
THE IRON–CARBON SYSTEM 333
9.18 The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe3C) Phase Diagram 333
9.19 Development of Microstructure in Iron–Carbon Alloys 336
9.20 The Influence of Other Alloying Elements 344
Summary 344
Equation Summary 346
List of Symbols 347
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 347
Important Terms and Concepts 349
References 349
Questions and Problems 349
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 355
10. Phase Transformations: Development of Microstructure and Alteration of Mechanical Properties 356
Learning Objectives 357
10.1 Introduction 357
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS 357
10.2 Basic Concepts 357
10.3 The Kinetics of Phase Transformations 358
10.4 Metastable Versus Equilibrium States 369
MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES IN IRON–CARBON ALLOYS 370
10.5 Isothermal Transformation Diagrams 370
10.6 ContinuousCooling Transformation Diagrams 381
10.7 Mechanical Behavior of Iron–Carbon Alloys 384
10.8 Tempered Martensite 388
10.9 Review of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties for Iron–Carbon Alloys 391
Materials of Importance—ShapeMemory Alloys 394
Summary 397
Equation Summary 398
List of Symbols 399
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 399
Important Terms and Concepts 401
References 402
Questions and Problems 402
Design Problems 406
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 406
11. Applications and Processing of Metal Alloys 408
Learning Objectives 409
11.1 Introduction 409
TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS 410
11.2 Ferrous Alloys 410
11.3 Nonferrous Alloys 422
Materials of Importance—Metal Alloys Used for Euro Coins 433
FABRICATION OF METALS 434
11.4 Forming Operations 434
11.5 Casting 436
11.6 Miscellaneous Techniques 437
THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS 439
11.7 Annealing Processes 439
11.8 Heat Treatment of Steels 441
11.9 Precipitation Hardening 451
Summary 458
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 460
Important Terms and Concepts 460
References 463
Questions and Problems 463
Design Problems 464
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 466
12. Structures and Properties of Ceramics 467
Learning Objectives 468
12.1 Introduction 468
CERAMIC STRUCTURES 468
12.2 Crystal Structures 469
12.3 Silicate Ceramics 477
12.4 Carbon 481
12.5 Imperfections in Ceramics 482
12.6 Diffusion in Ionic Materials 486
12.7 Ceramic Phase Diagrams 487
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 490
12.8 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics 491
12.9 Stress–Strain Behavior 495
12.10 Mechanisms of Plastic Deformation 497
12.11 Miscellaneous Mechanical
Considerations 499
Summary 501
Equation Summary 503
List of Symbols 503
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 503
Important Terms and Concepts 504
References 505
Questions and Problems 505
Design Problems 509
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 509
13. Applications and Processing of Ceramics 510
Learning Objectives 511
13.1 Introduction 511
TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF CERAMICS 512
13.2 Glasses 512
13.3 Glass–Ceramics 512
13.4 Clay Products 514
13.5 Refractories 514
13.6 Abrasives 516
13.7 Cements 517
13.8 Carbons 518
13.9 Advanced Ceramics 521
FABRICATION AND PROCESSING OF CERAMICS 525
13.10 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and Glass–Ceramics 526
13.11 Fabrication and Processing of Clay Products 531
13.12 Powder Pressing 535
13.13 Tape Casting 537
Summary 538
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 540
Important Terms and Concepts 542
References 543
Questions and Problems 543
Design Problem 544
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 544
14. Polymer Structures 545
Learning Objectives 546
14.1 Introduction 546
14.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules 546
14.3 Polymer Molecules 549
14.4 The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules 549
14.5 Molecular Weight 553
14.6 Molecular Shape 556
14.7 Molecular Structure 558
14.8 Molecular Configurations 559
14.9 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers 562
14.10 Copolymers 563
14.11 Polymer Crystallinity 564
14.12 Polymer Crystals 568
14.13 Defects in Polymers 570
14.14 Diffusion in Polymeric Materials 571
Summary 573
Equation Summary 575
List of Symbols 575
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 575
Important Terms and Concepts 576
References 576
Questions and Problems 577
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 579
15. Characteristics, Applications, and Processing of Polymers 580
Learning Objectives 581
15.1 Introduction 581
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYMERS 581
15.2 Stress–Strain Behavior 581
15.3 Macroscopic Deformation 584
15.4 Viscoelastic Deformation 584
15.5 Fracture of Polymers 588
15.6 Miscellaneous Mechanical Characteristics 590
MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS 591
15.7 Deformation of Semicrystalline Polymers 591
15.8 Factors That Influence the Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers 593
Materials of Importance—ShrinkWrap Polymer Films 597
15.9 Deformation of Elastomers 597
CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING, AND GLASSTRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS 599
15.10 Crystallization 600
15.11 Melting 601
15.12 The Glass Transition 601
15.13 Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures 601
15.14 Factors That Influence Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures 603
POLYMER TYPES 605
15.15 Plastics 605
Materials of Importance—Phenolic Billiard Balls 607
15.16 Elastomers 608
15.17 Fibers 610
15.18 Miscellaneous Applications 610
15.19 Advanced Polymeric Materials 612
POLYMER SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING 616
15.20 Polymerization 616
15.21 Polymer Additives 618
15.22 Forming Techniques for Plastics 620
15.23 Fabrication of Elastomers 622
15.24 Fabrication of Fibers and Films 622
Summary 624
Equation Summary 626
List of Symbols 626
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 626
Important Terms and Concepts 629
References 629
Questions and Problems 629
Design Questions 633
Fundamentals of Engineering Question 633
16. Composites 634
Learning Objectives 635
16.1 Introduction 635
PARTICLEREINFORCED COMPOSITES 637
16.2 LargeParticle Composites 637
16.3 DispersionStrengthened Composites 641
FIBERREINFORCED COMPOSITES 642
16.4 Influence of Fiber Length 642
16.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and Concentration 643
16.6 The Fiber Phase 651
16.7 The Matrix Phase 653
16.8 PolymerMatrix Composites 653
16.9 MetalMatrix Composites 659
16.10 CeramicMatrix Composites 660
16.11 Carbon–Carbon Composites 662
16.12 Hybrid Composites 662
16.13 Processing of FiberReinforced Composites 663
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES 665
16.14 Laminar Composites 665
16.15 Sandwich Panels 667
Case Study—Use of Composites in the Boeing 787 Dreamliner 669
16.16 Nanocomposites 670
Summary 673
Equation Summary 675
List of Symbols 676
Important Terms and Concepts 676
References 676
Questions and Problems 676
Design Problems 679
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 680
17. Corrosion and Degradation of Materials 681
Learning Objectives 682
17.1 Introduction 682
CORROSION OF METALS 683
17.2 Electrochemical Considerations 683
17.3 Corrosion Rates 689
17.4 Prediction of Corrosion Rates 691
17.5 Passivity 698
17.6 Environmental Effects 699
17.7 Forms of Corrosion 699
17.8 Corrosion Environments 707
17.9 Corrosion Prevention 707
17.10 Oxidation 709
CORROSION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS 712
DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS 713
17.11 Swelling and Dissolution 713
17.12 Bond Rupture 715
17.13 Weathering 716
Summary 717
Equation Summary 719
List of Symbols 719
Important Terms and Concepts 720
References 720
Questions and Problems 721
Design Problems 723
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 724
18. Electrical Properties 725
Learning Objectives 726
18.1 Introduction 726
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION 726
18.2 Ohm’s Law 726
18.3 Electrical Conductivity 727
18.4 Electronic and Ionic Conduction 728
18.5 Energy Band Structures in Solids 728
18.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic Bonding Models 730
18.7 Electron Mobility 732
18.8 Electrical Resistivity of Metals 733
18.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial Alloys 736
Materials of Importance—Aluminum Electrical Wires 736
SEMICONDUCTIVITY 738
18.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction 738
18.11 Extrinsic Semiconduction 741
18.12 The Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentration 744
18.13 Factors That Affect Carrier Mobility 745
18.14 The Hall Effect 749
18.15 Semiconductor Devices 751
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS AND IN POLYMERS 757
18.16 Conduction in Ionic Materials 758
18.17 Electrical Properties of Polymers 758
DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR 759
18.18 Capacitance 759
18.19 Field Vectors and Polarization 761
18.20 Types of Polarization 764
18.21 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant 766
18.22 Dielectric Strength 767
18.23 Dielectric Materials 767
OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS 767
18.24 Ferroelectricity 767
18.25 Piezoelectricity 768
Materials of Importance—Piezoelectric Ceramic InkJet Printer Heads 769
Summary 770
Equation Summary 773
List of Symbols 774
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 774
Important Terms and Concepts 778
References 778
Questions and Problems 778
Design Problems 782
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 783
19. Thermal Properties 785
Learning Objectives 786
19.1 Introduction 786
19.2 Heat Capacity 786
19.3 Thermal Expansion 790
Materials of Importance—Invar and Other LowExpansion Alloys 792
19.4 Thermal Conductivity 793
19.5 Thermal Stresses 796
Summary 798
Equation Summary 799
List of Symbols 799
Important Terms and Concepts 800
References 800
Questions and Problems 800
Design Problems 802
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 802
20. Magnetic Properties 803
Learning Objectives 804
20.1 Introduction 804
20.2 Basic Concepts 804
20.3 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism 808
20.4 Ferromagnetism 810
20.5 Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism 811
20.6 The Influence of Temperature on Magnetic Behavior 815
20.7 Domains and Hysteresis 816
20.8 Magnetic Anisotropy 819
20.9 Soft Magnetic Materials 820
Materials of Importance—An Iron–Silicon Alloy Used in Transformer Cores 821
20.10 Hard Magnetic Materials 822
20.11 Magnetic Storage 825
20.12 Superconductivity 828
Summary 831
Equation Summary 833
List of Symbols 833
Important Terms and Concepts 834
References 834
Questions and Problems 834
Design Problems 837
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 837
21. Optical Properties 838
Learning Objectives 839
21.1 Introduction 839
BASIC CONCEPTS 839
21.2 Electromagnetic Radiation 839
21.3 Light Interactions with Solids 841
21.4 Atomic and Electronic Interactions 842
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS 843
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS 844
21.5 Refraction 844
21.6 Reflection 846
21.7 Absorption 846
21.8 Transmission 850
21.9 Color 850
21.10 Opacity and Translucency in Insulators 852
APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA 853
21.11 Luminescence 853
21.12 Photoconductivity 853
Materials of Importance—LightEmitting Diodes 854
21.13 Lasers 856
21.14 Optical Fibers in Communications 860
Summary 862
Equation Summary 864
List of Symbols 865
Important Terms and Concepts 865
References 865
Questions and Problems 866
Design Problem 867
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 867
22. Economic, Environmental, and Societal Issues in Materials Science and Engineering 868
Learning Objectives 869
22.1 Introduction 869
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS 869
22.2 Component Design 870
22.3 Materials 870
22.4 Manufacturing Techniques 870
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIETAL CONSIDERATIONS 871
22.5 Recycling Issues in Materials Science and Engineering 873
Materials of Importance—Biodegradable and Biorenewable Polymers/Plastics 876
Summary 878
References 879
Design Questions 879
Appendix A The International System of Units (SI) 880
Appendix B Properties of Selected Engineering Materials 882
B.1 Density 882
B.2 Modulus of Elasticity 885
B.3 Poisson’s Ratio 889
B.4 Strength and Ductility 890
B.5 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness 895
B.6 Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 897
B.7 Thermal Conductivity 900
B.8 Specific Heat 903
B.9 Electrical Resistivity 906
B.10 Metal Alloy Compositions 909
Appendix C Costs and Relative Costs for Selected Engineering Materials 911
Appendix D Repeat Unit Structures for Common Polymers 916
Appendix E Glass Transition and Melting Temperatures for Common Polymeric Materials 920
Glossary 921
Answers to Selected Problems 934
Index 939