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|About the Authors|
|A Guide to Maternal-Newborn and Child Nursing|
|Unit I||Introductory Concepts|
|1||Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Nursing|
|Unit II||The Reproductive Years and Beyond|
|2||Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology|
|3||Women's Health Care|
|4||Special Reproductive Issues for Families|
|Unit III||Pregnancy and Family|
|5||Conception and Fetal Development|
|6||Preparation for Parenthood|
|7||Physical and Psychologic Changes of Pregnancy|
|8||Antepartal Nursing Assessment|
|9||The Expectant Family: Needs and Care|
|12||Pregnancy at Risk: Progestational Problems|
|13||Pregnancy at Risk: Gestational Onset|
|14||Assessment of Fetal Status|
|Unit IV||Birth and the Family|
|15||Processes and Stages of Labor and Birth|
|16||Intrapartal Nursing Assessment|
|17||The Family in Childbirth: Needs and Care|
|18||Pain Relief Therapies During Birth|
|19||Childbirth at Risk|
|Unit V||The Postpartal Childbearing Family and Newborn|
|21||Postpartal Adaptation and Nursing Assessment|
|22||The Postpartum Family: Needs and Care|
|23||The Postpartal Family at Risk|
|24||The Physiologic Responses of the Newborn to Birth|
|25||Nursing Assessment of the Newborn|
|26||Normal Newborn: Needs and Care|
|28||The Newborn at Risk: Conditions Present at Birth|
|29||The Newborn at Risk: Birth-Related Stressors|
|30||Home Care of the Postpartum Family|
|Unit VI||Care and Needs of Children|
|31||Infant, Child, and Adolescent Nutrition|
|32||Growth and Development|
|34||Nursing Considerations for the Hospitalized Child|
|35||Nursing Considerations for the Child in the Community|
|36||Social and Environmental Influences on the Child|
|37||The Child with a Life-Threatening Illness or Injury|
|38||Pain Assessment and Management in Children|
|Unit VII||Caring for Children with Alterations in Health Status|
|39||The Child With Alterations in Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance|
|40||The Child With Alterations in Immune Function|
|41||The Child With Infectious and Communicable Diseases|
|42||The Child With Alterations in Respiratory Function|
|43||The Child With Alterations in Cardiovascular Function|
|44||The Child With Alterations in Hematologic Function|
|45||The Child With Alterations in Cellular Growth|
|46||The Child With Alterations in Gastrointestinal Function|
|47||The Child With Alterations in Genitourinary Function|
|48||The Child With Alterations in Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Function|
|49||The Child With Alterations in Neurologic Function|
|50||The Child With Alterations in Musculoskeletal Function|
|51||The Child With Alterations in Endocrine Function|
|52||The Child With Alterations in Skin Integrity|
|53||The Child With Alterations in Mental Health Function|
|App. A||Selected Maternal-Newborn Laboratory Values|
|App. B||Selected Normal Pediatric Laboratory Values|
|App. C||Physical Growth Charts|
|App. D||Conversions and Equivalents|
|App. E||Actions and Effects of Selected Drugs during Breastfeeding|
|App. F||Common Abbreviations in Maternal-Newborn and Women's Health Nursing|
|App. G||Common Abbreviations in Nursing Care of Children|
|App. H||Family Assessment|
|App. I||Guidelines for Working with Deaf Clients and Interpreters|
|App. J||Recommended Dietary Allowances for Childhood and Adolescence|
|App. K||Recommended Dietary Allowances for Females, Pregnancy, and Lactation|
|App. L||Standards for Maternal-Newborn and Child Health Nursing|
|App. M||West Nomogram - Body Surface Area|
Today, more than ever before, nurses play a significant role in the care of families during pregnancy and the experience of birth, and then with the child's care through all stages of growth. Nurses working with childbearing and childrearing families are challenged by a variety of forces that effect the provision of nursing care. Our goal is a text that is accurate and readable, and one that helps students develop the skills and abilities they need now and in the future in an ever-changing health care environment. The underlying philosophy of Maternal-Newborn and Child Nursing: Family-Centered Care is that the family members are coparticipants in care, whether this is related to pregnancy and childbirth or to care of the infant or child at any age of development.
Families experience the excitement and exhilaration of adding a healthy infant to the family, but they also experience sorrow and concern when a health problem occurs. Nurses play a vital role in helping families celebrate the normal life processes associated with birth and then foster the child's growth and development from infancy through adolescence. Infants and children are dependent upon their families for the care they need. Nursing care for pregnant women and children is a family-centered process. We are committed to providing a text that integrates the needs of families across the continuum from conception through adolescence.
Most maternity and pediatric nursing care occurs in the community setting, especially since most pregnant women end children are healthy and have only episodic acute health conditions. Although pregnancy, birth, and thepostpartal period cover a timeframe of many months, in reality most women spend only two to three days in an acute care facility. Thus, by its very nature, maternal-newborn nursing is primarily community-based nursing. Moreover, because of the changes resulting from managed care, even women with high-risk pregnancies are receiving more care in their homes and in the community and are spending less time in hospital settings.
Dramatic health care system changes have resulted in community and home care for children with serious chronic health conditions, including children needing care with advanced technology. Short-stay surgical units and short-term observation units have replaced hospitalization for many acute conditions. The nurse's role in preparing a family for their child's discharge from an acute care facility is often the transitional step to nursing care in the home and community. Information on long-term management of complex health conditions is included as these problems are especially challenging to manage in community settings. Selected ambulatory pediatric conditions are also included because students will see them in everyday life and in the hospital where these conditions are secondary to the presenting problem.
Because many graduating nurses practice in acute care facilities, this text emphasizes the information necessary to prepare students to work in that setting. Students who understand how to care for families effectively in an acute care setting can readily transfer these skills to other nursing situations and environments. However, there is a strong emphasis on helping pregnant women, parents and families care for themselves and their children in community settings.
As educators and nurses, we have organized this text to flow logically and to integrate maternity and pediatric nursing concepts carefully. For example, Chapter 1 begins with introductory concepts important for maternal, newborn, and child nursing. Later chapters focus on reproductive issues and women's health, pregnancy, birth processes, postpartum care, newborn management, and then transition into the pediatric care chapters. The pediatric chapters first address general pediatric health care concepts, and then the nursing care of children with various disorders, organized by body system. We have made efforts to reduce duplication and potentially conflicting information throughout the text.
Throughout this text, several core elements have been emphasized.
The nursing process is emphasized throughout the nursing care chapters. We use the heading Nursing Management to highlight nursing actions. Selected health issues or conditions have an expanded section on nursing management to help students understand and apply the nursing process more completely. We present sections on Nursing Assessment and Diagnosis, Planning and Implementation, and Evaluation. The health issues and conditions in this comprehensive presentation were chosen because they are seen frequently or because of their high-risk nature.
In keeping with the changing approaches to nursing care management, Nursing Care Plans and Clinical Pathways are featured throughout the text. The nursing care plans are designed to help students approach care from the nursing process perspective. They have integrated the new nursing diagnosis features of Nursing Intervention Classifications (NIC) and Nursing Outcome Classifications (NOC). The clinical pathways are designed to help students plan and manage care within normally anticipated time frames. The plans and pathways help students become familiar with these two approaches to managing care so that they are better equipped for variations in clinical settings.
Client education remains a critical element of effective nursing care, one that is emphasized and highlighted in this text. Our focus is on the teaching that nurses do at all stages of pregnancy and the childbearing process, and during the child's health visits and care for specific conditions. There is a significant emphasis on helping pregnant women, parents, and family members care for themselves and their children after leaving the hospital and also the various community settings. A special patient education feature is integrated into many chapters of the text—Teaching About a special health care issue or problem includes the key teaching points for care by the family.
Nurses today must be able to think critically and problem solve effectively. To support the development of critical thinking skills, Thinking Critically boxes provide brief scenarios that ask students to determine the appropriate response. Suggested answers to the scenarios are provided on the Student CD-ROM and the Instructor's Resource Manual so that students have feedback on their decision-making skills. Additionally, students can access a variety of critical thinking exercises and case studies on the textbook's companion website.
Additionally, health care professionals are increasingly aware of the importance of using reliable information as the basis for planning and providing effective care. This approach, called evidence-based practice, draws on information from a variety of sources including nursing research. To help nurses become more comfortable integrating new knowledge into their nursing practice, we have included a brief discussion of evidence-based practice in Chapter 1. While the text uses current literature and research findings, we have chosen to present our research features on the text's website. This allows the information to be updated easily and makes it possible to provide links for further research so students can maximize their understanding of research and evidence-based practice.
Instructors and students both value in-text learning aids. We have developed a text that is easy to learn from and easy to use as a reference. In keeping with our theme of family-centered care, each chapter begins with a Family Quote that helps set the stage for content that follows from the family's perspective. This is followed by a list of Key Terms. Page numbers are included with each key term to identify the place where the term first appears in the chapter. Media related to the chapter content is highlighted in features called MediaLink at the beginning of each chapter. Each chapter ends with a chapter review that consists of a summary of Chapter Highlights, a list of References, and a section entitled EXPLORE MediaLink. This last section encourages students to use the additional chapter-specific NCLEX review, interactive exercises, and resources available on the accompanying free Student CD-ROM and the Companion Website. Finally, a Glossary of terms commonly used in the field of maternal-newborn and child nursing can be found on the Student CD-ROM and the Companion Website, with audio pronunciations of the terms as well as printed definitions.
Students may notice a "voice" change within chapters. For example, within the more theoretical/knowledge sections of the chapters, we address the students as "the nurse". Within the nursing management sections we speak to the students directly (e.g., "Assess . . .", "Manage . . .", etc.). This way, students have a very clear understanding of their responsibilities, and can put themselves in the role of the nurse more easily. Explicit second person address ("you") is used only in boxed features.
Other features found in the text include the following:
To enhance the teaching and learning process, the following supplements have been developed in close correlation with this new textbook. The full complement of supplemental teaching materials is available to all qualified instructors from your Prentice Hall Sales Representative.
Student CD-ROM. The Student CD-ROM includes many valuable learning supplements. It is packaged free with every copy of the textbook.
Clinical Skills Manual. The clinical skills manual describes commonly performed maternal, newborn, women's health, and pediatric nursing skills. This colorful and highly visual manual clearly shows students the steps required to perform each skill. It is assumed that students have already had a basic skills course so the material presented focuses on techniques specific to maternal-newborn nursing and pediatrics. Both hospital-based and community-based skills are included. Margin boxes emphasize material such as clinical tips and safety considerations. The protocols for performing skills contain rationales when needed to clarify recommended actions.
Instructor's Resource Manual. This effective teaching aid guides instructors on how to use Maternal-Newborn and Child Nursing: Family-Centered Care for their courses. It includes lecture suggestions, objectives, test questions, answers to the textbook Thinking Critically exercises, a guide to PowerPoint images and animations on the Instructor's Resource CD-ROM, and a guide to using the Companion Website and Syllabus Manger. Finally, it includes a test bank of items that follow the NCLEX format and are classified by cognitive level, nursing process step, and client need.
Instructor's Resource CD-ROM. This practical CD-ROM provides three resources in an electronic format. First, the CDROM includes the complete test bank in a PC-compatible format. Second, it includes a comprehensive collection of images from the textbook in PowerPoint format, so faculty can easily import these photographs and illustrations into their own classroom lecture presentations. Finally, instructors can access the animations found on the Student CD-ROM so they can incorporate them into their lectures.
Companion Website and Syllabus Manager®. Faculty and students using this textbook may access the free Companion Website. This website serves as a text-specific, interactive online workbook to Maternal-Newborn and Child Nursing: Family-Centered Care. The website includes modules for objectives, chapter outlines, audio glossary with definitions, discussion questions with essay responses, research activities, NCLEX review questions with automatic grading, links to other sites for student research and essay responses, additional nursing care plans and clinical pathways, and more. Instructors adopting this textbook for their courses have free access to an online Syllabus Manager with a whole host of features that facilitate the students' use of this Companion Website and allow faculty to post their syllabi online for their students. For more information or a demonstration of Syllabus Manager, please contact your Prentice Hall Sales Representative or go online to www.prenhall.com/demo.
Marcia L. London
Patricia W. Ladewig
Jane W. Ball
Ruth C. Bindler