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For most mathematicians and many mathematical physicists the name Erich Kähler (1906 - 2000) is strongly tied to important geometric notions such as Kähler metrics, Kähler manifolds and Kähler groups. They all go back to a paper of 14 pages written in 1932. This, however, is just a small part of Kähler's many outstanding achievements which cover an unusually wide area: His principal interest was in finding the unity in the variety of mathematical themes and establishing thus mathematics as a universal language. In this volume Kähler's mathematical papers are collected following a "Tribute to Herrn Erich Kähler" by S. S. Chern, an overview of Kähler's life data by A. Bohm and R. Berndt, and a Survey of his Mathematical Work by the editors. There are also comments and reports on the developments of the main topics of Kähler's work. As Kähler's interest went beyond the realm of mathematics and mathematical physics, any picture of his work would be incomplete without touching his work reaching into other regions. So a short appendix reproduces three of his articles concerning his vision of mathematics as a universal Theme together with an essay by K. Maurin giving an "Approach to the philosophy of Erich Kähler".