Maths from Scratch for Biologists / Edition 1

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Overview

Numerical ability is an essential skill for everyone studying the biological sciences; but many students are frightened by the 'perceived' difficulty of mathematics, and are nervous about applying mathematical skills in their chosen field of study. Having taught introductory maths and statistics for many years, Alan Cann understands these challenges, and just how invaluable an accessible, confidence building textbook could be to the fearful student. Unable to find a book pitched at the right level that concentrated on why numerical skills are useful to biologists, he wrote his own. The result is Maths from Scratch for Biologists, a highly instructive, informal text that explains step by step how and why you need to tackle maths within the biological sciences.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471498346
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 12/12/2002
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 240
  • Product dimensions: 6.79 (w) x 9.72 (h) x 0.85 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi
1 Maths in Biology 1
1.1 What can go wrong? 1
1.2 Estimating 5
1.3 How to use this book 6
1.4 Mathematical conventions used in this book 6
2 Manipulating Numbers 7
2.1 Manipulating numbers 8
2.2 Solving equations 9
2.3 Why do you need to know all this? 12
2.4 Fractions 14
2.5 The number 1 15
2.6 Lowest common multiple and greatest common factor 16
2.7 Adding and subtracting fractions 17
2.8 Multiplying fractions 18
2.9 Dividing fractions 18
2.10 Fractions, decimals and percentages 19
2.11 Ratios and proportions 20
3 Units and Conversions 25
3.1 The SI system of units 25
3.2 SI prefixes 27
3.3 SI usage 28
3.4 Measuring energy 29
3.5 Temperature 31
4 Molarities and Dilutions 35
4.1 Avogadro's number 35
4.2 Molecular weight 36
4.3 Solutions 37
4.4 Spectroscopy 40
4.5 Dilutions 42
5 Areas and Volumes 49
5.1 Geometry 49
5.2 Calculating areas and volumes 49
6 Exponents and Logs 57
6.1 Exponents 57
6.2 Exponential functions 60
6.3 Logarithms 62
7 Introduction to Statistics 69
7.1 What is statistics? 69
7.2 Statistical variables 70
7.3 Statistical methods 71
7.4 Frequency distributions 73
7.5 Frequency distribution graphs 76
8 Descriptive Statistics 83
8.1 Populations and samples 83
8.2 The central tendency 84
8.3 Variability 85
8.4 Standard error 88
8.5 Confidence intervals 88
8.6 Parametric and non-parametric statistics 90
8.7 Choosing an appropriate statistical test 91
8.8 Exploratory data analysis 92
9 Probability 99
9.1 Probability theory 99
9.2 Replacing vs not replacing selections 100
9.3 Calculating the probability of multiple events 101
9.4 The binomial distribution 103
9.5 Coincidences 106
10 Inferential Statistics 111
10.1 Statistical inference 111
10.2 Procedure for hypothesis testing 113
10.3 Standard scores (z-scores) 114
10.4 Student's t-test (t-test) 115
10.5 Analysis of variance (ANOVA) 121
10.6 x[superscript 2]-test 125
10.7 Fisher's exact test 131
11 Correlation and Regression 135
11.1 Regression or correlation? 135
11.2 Correlation 136
11.3 Regression 141
Appendix 1 Answers to Problems 147
Appendix 2 Software for Biologists 195
E-mail 195
Word processors 197
Presentation and graphics 198
Internet resources 198
Statistics software 200
Appendix 3 Statistical Formulae and Tables 203
Critical values of the x[superscript 2] distribution 206
Critical values of student's t-Test 207
Table of critical values of the F-statistic 208
Table of critical values of the correlation coefficient, r 213
Table of binomial probabilities 214
Appendix 4 Glossary 221
Index 227
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