MCSA/MCSE Self-Paced Training Kit (Exam 70-210): Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional, Second Edition

MCSA/MCSE Self-Paced Training Kit (Exam 70-210): Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional, Second Edition

by Microsoft Corporation, Rick Wallace
     
 

Learn how to install, configure, and administer Windows® 2000 Professional—and prepare for the Microsoft® Certified Professional (MCP) exam—with this official Microsoft study guide. Work at your own pace through the lessons and hands-on exercises. And use the special exam-prep section and testing tool to measure what you know and where to

…  See more details below

Overview

Learn how to install, configure, and administer Windows® 2000 Professional—and prepare for the Microsoft® Certified Professional (MCP) exam—with this official Microsoft study guide. Work at your own pace through the lessons and hands-on exercises. And use the special exam-prep section and testing tool to measure what you know and where to focus your studies—before taking the actual exam. As you develop the real-world expertise needed to set up and support the Windows 2000 desktop environment, you’re also preparing for MCP Exam 70-210—a core requirement for MCSA or MCSE certification.

Build the skills to:

  • Install or upgrade to Windows 2000 Professional
  • Administer access to shared files, folders, and printers
  • Configure and manage hardware devices and drivers
  • Optimize system memory, disk, and application performance
  • Troubleshoot the desktop environment
  • Implement network protocols and services
  • Help ensure data and system security

Your kit includes:

  • Comprehensive self-paced study guide that maps to MCP exam goals and objectives
  • Learn-by-doing exercises for skills you can apply to the job
  • NEW—Test-readiness tool that generates timed, 50-question practice exams with automated scoring
  • NEW—More than 200 pages of exam prep and objective-by-objective review inside the book
  • NEW—Microsoft Encyclopedia of Networking, Second Edition, eBook
  • Fully searchable eBook version of the study guide

Read More

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780735617667
Publisher:
Microsoft Press
Publication date:
08/28/2002
Series:
Microsoft Press Training Kit Series
Edition description:
2nd ed.
Pages:
1056
Product dimensions:
7.62(w) x 9.36(h) x 1.94(d)

Read an Excerpt

Installing and Configuring Network Protocols

    • About This Chapter
    • Before You Begin
  • Lesson 1: TCP/IP
    • Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite
    • Configuring TCP/IP to Use a Static IP Address
    • Configuring TCP/IP to Obtain an IP Address Automatically
    • Using Automatic Private IP Addressing
    • Disabling Automatic Private IP Addressing
    • Using TCP/IP Utilities
    • Testing a TCP/IP Configuration
    • Practice: Installing and Configuring TCP/IP
    • Lesson Summary
  • Lesson 2: NWLink
    • Understanding NWLink Features
    • Installing NWLink
    • Configuring NWLink
    • Practice: Installing and Configuring NWLink
    • Lesson Summary
  • Lesson 3: Other Protocols Supported by Windows 2000
    • NetBEUI
    • DLC
    • AppleTalk Protocol
    • Network Monitor Driver 2
    • Lesson Summary
  • Lesson 4: Network Bindings
    • Binding Between Architectural Levels
    • Combining Network Bindings
    • Configuring Network Bindings
    • Specifying Binding Order
    • Practice: Working with Network Bindings
    • Lesson Summary
  • Review


Chapter 7  Installing and Configuring Network Protocols

About This Chapter

A protocol is a set of rules and conventions for sending information over a network. Microsoft Windows 2000 relies on TCP/IP for logon, file and print services, replication of information between one domain controller and another, and other common functions.

This chapter presents the skills and knowledge necessary to configure TCP/IP and to install other network protocols, including NWLink, NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI), and Data Link Control (DLC). The chapter also discusses the process for configuring network bindings, which are links that enable communication between network adapter cards, protocols, and services.

Before You Begin

To complete this chapter, you must have

  • A computer that meets the minimum hardware requirements located in "About This Book."
  • Windows 2000 Professional installed on the computer.

Lesson 1: TCP/IP

TCP/IP provides communication across networks of computers with various hardware architectures and operating systems. Microsoft’s implementation of TCP/IP enables enterprise networking and connectivity on computers running Windows 2000.


After this lesson, you will be able to

  • Describe the TCP/IP protocol suite and the TCP/IP utilities that ship with Windows 2000.
  • Configure TCP/IP.

Estimated lesson time: 65 minutes


Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite

TCP/IP is an industry-standard suite of protocols that enables enterprise networking and connectivity on Windows 2000–based computers. Adding TCP/IP to a Windows 2000 configuration offers the following advantages:

  • A routable networking protocol supported by most operating systems. Most large networks rely on TCP/IP.
  • A technology for connecting dissimilar systems. You can use many standard connectivity utilities to access and transfer data between dissimilar systems. Windows 2000 includes several of these standard utilities.
  • A robust, scaleable, cross-platform client/server framework. TCP/IP supports the Microsoft Windows Sockets (winsock) interface, which is ideal for developing client/server applications for WinSock-compliant stacks.
  • A method of gaining access to Internet resources.

The TCP/IP suite of protocols provides a set of standards for how computers communicate and how networks are interconnected. The TCP/IP suite of protocols map to a four-layer conceptual model: network interface, Internet, transport, and application. These layers can be seen in Figure 7.1.

The Network Interface Layer

At the base of the model is the network interface layer. This layer puts frames on the wire and pulls frames off the wire.

Figure 7.1  The TCP/IP suite of protocols within four layers (Image unavailable)

The Internet Layer

Internet layer protocols encapsulate packets into Internet datagrams and run all the necessary routing algorithms. The four Internet layer protocols are Internet Protocol (IP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). Table 7.1 describes these four Internet layer protocols.

Table 7.1  Protocols Included in the Internet Layer

Protocol Description
IPProvides connectionless packet delivery for all other protocols in the suite. Doesn’t guarantee packet arrival or correct packet sequence.
ARPProvides IP address mapping to the media access control (MAC) sublayer address to acquire the physical MAC control address of the destination. IP broadcasts a special ARP inquiry packet containing the IP address of the destination system. The system that owns the IP address replies by sending its physical address to the requester. The MAC sublayer communicates directly with the network adapter card and is responsible for delivering error-free data between two computers on a network.
ICMPProvides special communication between hosts, allowing them to share status and error information. Higher-level protocols use this information to recover from transmission problems. Network administrators use this information to detect network trouble. The ping utility uses ICMP packets to determine whether a particular IP device on a network is functional.
IGMPProvides multicasting, which is a limited form of broadcasting, to communicate and manage information between all member devices in a multicast group. IGMP informs neighboring multicast routers of the host group memberships present on a particular network. Windows 2000 supports multicast capabilities that allow developers to create multicast programs, such as Windows 2000 Server NetShow Services.

The Transport Layer

Transport layer protocols provide communication sessions between computers. The desired method of data delivery determines the transport protocol. The two transport layer protocols are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Table 7.2 describes the two protocols included in the transport layer.

Table 7.2  Protocols Included in the Transport Layer

Protocol Description
TCPProvides connection-oriented, reliable communications for applications that typically transfer large amounts of data at one time or that require an acknowledgment for data received. TCP guarantees the delivery of packets, ensures proper sequencing of the data, and provides a checksum feature that validates both the packet header and its data for accuracy.
UDPProvides connectionless communications and doesn’t guarantee that packets will be delivered. Applications that use UDP typically transfer small amounts of data at one time. Reliable delivery is the responsibility of the application.

The Application Layer

At the top of the model is the application layer, in which applications gain access to the network. Many standard TCP/IP utilities and services reside in the application layer, such as FTP, Telnet, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), Domain Name System (DNS), and so on.

TCP/IP provides two interfaces for network applications to use the services of the TCP/IP protocol stack: Winsock and the NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) interface. Table 7.3 describes the two interfaces, which network applications use for TCP/IP services.

Table 7.3  Interfaces Through Which Applications Use TCP/IP Services

Interface Description
WinsockServes as the standard interface between socket-based applications and TCP/IP protocols.
NetBTServes as the standard interface for NetBIOS services, including name, datagram, and session services. It also provides a standard interface between NetBIOS-based applications and TCP/IP protocols.

Configuring TCP/IP to Use a Static IP Address

By default, client computers running Windows 2000, Windows 95, or Windows 98 obtain TCP/IP configuration information automatically from the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Service. However, even in a DHCP-enabled environment, you should assign a static IP address to selected network computers. For example, the computer running the DHCP Service can’t be a DHCP client, so it must have a static IP address. If the DHCP Service isn’t available, you must also configure TCP/IP to use a static IP address. For each network adapter card that uses TCP/IP in a computer, you can configure an IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway, as shown in Figure 7.2.

Figure 7.2  Configuring a static TCP/IP address (Image unavailable)

Table 7.4 describes the options used in configuring a static TCP/IP address.

Table 7.4  Options for Configuring a Static TCP/IP Address

Option Description
IP addressA logical 32-bit address that identifies a TCP/IP host. Each network adapter card in a computer running TCP/IP requires a unique IP address, such as 192.168.1.108. Each address has two parts: a network ID, which identifies all hosts on the same physical network, and a host ID, which identifies a host on the network. In this example, the network ID is 192.168.1, and the host ID is 108.
Subnet maskA network in a multiple-network environment that uses IP addresses derived from a single network ID. Subnets divide a large network into multiple physical networks connected with routers. A subnet mask blocks out part of the IP address so that TCP/IP can distinguish the network ID from the host ID. When TCP/IP hosts try to communicate, the subnet mask determines whether the destination host is on a local or remote network. To communicate on a network, computers must have the same subnet mask.
Default gatewayThe intermediate device on a local network that stores network IDs of other networks in the enterprise or Internet. To communicate with a host on another network, configure an IP address for the default gateway. TCP/IP sends packets for remote networks to the default gateway (if no other route is configured), which forwards the packets to other gateways until the packet is delivered to a gateway connected to the specified destination.

You can follow these steps to configure TCP/IP to use a static IP address:

  1. Right-click My Network Places, and then click Properties.
  2. In the Network And Dial-Up Connections window, right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Properties.
  3. In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), verify that the check box to its left is selected, and then click Properties.
  4. In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, on the General tab, click Use The Following IP Address, type the TCP/IP configuration parameters, and then click OK.
  5. Click OK to close the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box and then close the Network And Dial-Up Connections window.

  6. CAUTION:
    IP communications can fail if duplicate IP addresses exist on a network. Therefore, you should always check with the network administrator to obtain a valid static IP address.

Configuring TCP/IP to Obtain an IP Address Automatically

If a server running the DHCP Service is available on the network, it can automatically assign TCP/IP configuration information to the DHCP client, as shown in Figure 7.3. Then you can configure any clients running Windows 2000, Windows 95, and Windows 98 to obtain TCP/IP configuration information automatically from the DHCP Service. Using DHCP to configure TCP/IP automatically on client computers can simplify administration and ensure correct configuration information.


NOTE:
Windows 2000 Professional doesn’t include the DHCP Service. Only the Windows 2000 Server products provide the DHCP Service.

Figure 7.3  A server running the DHCP Service assigns TCP/IP addresses (Image unavailable)


NOTE:
Windows 2000 also includes an Automatic Private IP Addressing feature that provides DHCP clients with limited network functionality if a DHCP server is unavailable during startup.

You can use the DHCP Service to provide clients with TCP/IP configuration information automatically. However, you must configure a computer as a DHCP client before it can interact with the DHCP Service.

You can configure a DHCP client by doing the following:

  1. Right-click My Network Places, and then click Properties.
  2. In the Network And Dial-Up Connections window, right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Properties.
  3. In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), verify that the check box to its left is selected, and then click Properties.
  4. In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, on the General tab, click Obtain An IP Address Automatically.
  5. Click OK to close the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, and then close the Network And Dial-Up Connections window.

Using Automatic Private IP Addressing

The Windows 2000 implementation of TCP/IP supports a new mechanism for automatic address assignment of IP addresses for simple LAN-based network configurations. This addressing mechanism is an extension of dynamic IP address assignment for LAN adapters, enabling configuration of IP addresses without using static IP address assignment or installing the DHCP Service.

For the Automatic Private IP Addressing feature to function properly on a computer running Windows 2000, you must configure a network LAN adapter for TCP/IP and click Obtain An IP Address Automatically in the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.

The process for the Automatic Private IP Addressing feature, as shown in Figure 7.4, is explained in the following steps:

  1. Windows 2000 TCP/IP attempts to find a DHCP server on the attached network to obtain a dynamically assigned IP address.
  2. In the absence of a DHCP server during startup—for example, the server is down for maintenance or repairs—the client cannot obtain an IP address.
  3. Automatic Private IP Addressing generates an IP address in the form of 169.254.x.y (where x.y is the client’s unique identifier) and a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0.

Figure 7.4  The Automatic Private IP Addressing feature    (Image unavailable)


NOTE:
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved 169.254.0.0–169.254.255.255 for Automatic Private IP Addressing. As a result, Automatic Private IP Addressing provides an address that is guaranteed not to conflict with routable addresses.

After the computer generates the address, it broadcasts to this address and then assigns the address to itself, if no other computer responds. The computer continues to use this address until it detects and receives configuration information from a DHCP server. This allows two computers to be plugged in to a LAN hub to restart without any IP address configuration and to be able to use TCP/IP for local network access.


NOTE:
Windows 98 also supports Automatic Private IP Addressing.

Automatic Private IP Addressing can assign a TCP/IP address to DHCP clients automatically. However, Automatic Private IP Addressing doesn’t generate all the information that typically is provided by DHCP, such as the address of a default gateway.

Consequently, computers enabled with Automatic Private IP Addressing can communicate only with computers on the same subnet that also have addresses of the form 169.254.x.y.

Disabling Automatic Private IP Addressing

By default, the Automatic Private IP Addressing feature is enabled. However, you can disable this feature by adding the IPAutoconfigurationEnabled value to the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\Adapter subkey of the registry and setting its value to 0.


NOTE:
This subkey includes the globally unique identifier (GUID) for the computer’s LAN adapter. For more information about GUIDs, see Chapter 9, "Introducing Active Directory Directory Services." For more information about the registry, see Chapter 5, "Using the Registry."

The IPAutoconfigurationEnabled entry takes a REG_DWORD data type. To disable Automatic Private IP Addressing, specify a value of 0 for the entry. Specify a value of 1 to enable Automatic Private IP Addressing, the default state when this value is omitted from the registry.

Using TCP/IP Utilities

Windows 2000 includes the utilities diagrammed in Figure 7.5 that you can use to troubleshoot TCP/IP and test connectivity.

Figure 7.5  TCP/IP utilities included with Windows 2000 (Image unavailable)

Troubleshooting TCP/IP

Windows 2000 offers several utilities to assist you in troubleshooting TCP/IP. Table 7.5 describes the Windows 2000 utilities that you can use to troubleshoot TCP/IP.

Table 7.5  Utilities Used to Troubleshoot TCP/IP

Option Description
PingVerifies configurations and tests connections
ARPDisplays locally resolved IP addresses as physical addresses
IpconfigDisplays the current TCP/IP configuration
NbtstatDisplays statistics and connections using NetBIOS over TCP/IP
NetstatDisplays TCP/IP protocol statistics and connections
RouteDisplays or modifies the local routing table
HostnameReturns the local computer’s host name for authentication by the Remote Copy Protocol (RCP), remote shell (RSH), and remote execution (REXEC) utilities.
TracertChecks the route to a remote system

These troubleshooting utilities are all executed from within the Command Prompt window. For information on how to use all of these commands, except Hostname and Tracert, open the Command Prompt window, type the command followed by /? and then press Enter. For example, for information on the Ping command, open the Command Prompt window, type Ping /? and then press Enter.

To use the Hostname utility, open the Command Prompt window, type Hostname, and then press Enter. Hostname will return the name of the local computer.

For information on how to use the Tracert command, open a Command Prompt window, type Tracert and then press Enter.

Testing TCP/IP Connectivity

Windows 2000 also provides utilities for testing TCP/IP connectivity. Table 7.6 describes these Windows 2000 utilities.

Table 7.6  Utilities Used to Test TCP/IP Connectivity

Option Description
FTPProvides bidirectional file transfer between a computer running Windows 2000 and any TCP/IP host running FTP. Windows 2000 Server ships with the ability to serve as an FTP client or server.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)Provides bidirectional file transfer between a computer running Windows 2000 and a TCP/IP host running TFTP
TelnetProvides terminal emulation to a TCP/IP host running Telnet. Windows 2000 Server ships with the ability to serve as a Telnet client.
Remote Copy Protocol (RCP)Copies files between a client and a host that support RCP; for example, a computer running Windows 2000 and a UNIX host.
Remote shell (RSH)Runs commands on a UNIX host.
Remote execution (REXEC)Runs a process on a remote computer.
FingerRetrieves system information from a remote computer that supports TCP/IP and the finger utility.

Testing a TCP/IP Configuration

After configuring TCP/IP and restarting the computer, you should use the ipconfig and ping command-prompt utilities to test the configuration and connections to other TCP/IP hosts and networks. Such testing helps to ensure that TCP/IP is functioning properly.

Using Ipconfig

You use the ipconfig utility to verify the TCP/IP configuration parameters on a host. This helps to determine whether the configuration is initialized, or whether a duplicate IP address exists. Use the ipconfig command with the /all switch to verify configuration information.


TIP:
Type ipconfig /all | more to prevent the ipconfig output from scrolling off the screen; to scroll down and view additional output, press the Spacebar.

The result of the ipconfig /all command is as follows:

  • If a configuration has initialized, the ipconfig utility displays the IP address and subnet mask, and, if it is assigned, the default gateway.
  • If a duplicate IP address exists, the ipconfig utility indicates that the IP address is configured; however, the subnet mask is 0.0.0.0.
  • If the computer is unable to obtain an IP address from a server running the DHCP Service on the network, the ipconfig utility displays the IP address as the address provided by Automatic Private IP Addressing.

Using Ping

After you have verified the TCP/IP configuration, use the ping utility to test connectivity. The ping utility is a diagnostic tool that you can use to test TCP/IP configurations and diagnose connection failures. Use the ping utility to determine whether a particular TCP/IP host is available and functional. To test connectivity, use the Ping command with the following syntax:

ping IP_address

Using Ipconfig and Ping

Figure 7.6 outlines the steps for verifying a computer’s configuration and for testing router connections.

Figure 7.6  Using ipconfig and ping (Image unavailable)

The following list explains the steps outlined in Figure 7.6:

  1. Use the ipconfig command to verify that the TCP/IP configuration has been initialized.
  2. Use the ping command with the loopback address (ping 127.0.0.1) to verify that TCP/IP is correctly installed and bound to your network adapter card.
  3. Use the ping command with the IP address of the computer to verify that your computer is not a duplicate of another IP address on the network.
  4. Use the ping command with the IP address of the default gateway to verify that the default gateway is operational and that your computer can communicate with the local network.
  5. Use the ping command with the IP address of a remote host to verify that the computer can communicate through a router.


NOTE:
Typically, if you ping the remote host (step 5) and the ping command is successful, steps 1 through 4 are successful by default. If the ping command isn’t successful, ping the IP address of another remote host before completing the entire diagnostic process because the current host might be turned off.

By default, the following message appears four times in response to a successful ping command:

Reply from IP_address

Practice: Installing and Configuring TCP/IP

In this practice, you will use two TCP/IP utilities to verify your computer’s configuration. Then you will configure your computer to use a static IP address and verify your computer’s new configuration. Next you will configure your computer to use a DHCP server to automatically assign an IP address to your computer, whether or not a DHCP server is available on your network. Finally you will test the Automatic Private IP Addressing feature in Windows 2000 by disabling the DHCP server, if one exists on your network.

To complete this practice, you need

  • TCP/IP as the only installed protocol.
  • Optional: A server running the DHCP Service to provide IP addresses. If you are working on a computer that isn’t part of a network and a server isn’t running the DHCP service, you won’t be able to do certain procedures in this practice.

In the following table, record the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway that your network administrator provides for you to use during this practice. Also, ask your network administrator whether you can use another computer to test your computer’s connectivity, and record the IP address of that computer as well. If you are not on a network, you can use the suggested values.

Variable value Suggested value Your value
Static IP address192.168.1.201 
Subnet mask255.255.255.0 
Default gateway (if required)None 
Computer to test connectivity N/A 

Exercise 1: Verifying a Computer’s TCP/IP Configuration

In this exercise, you will use two TCP/IP utilities, ipconfig and ping, to verify your computer’s configuration.


NOTE:
As you complete the exercises in this practice, you will use the Command Prompt and Network Connections windows frequently. For the sake of efficiency, you will open the windows one time and then minimize and restore them as necessary.

To verify a computer’s configuration

  1. Open the Command Prompt window.
  2. At the command prompt, type ipconfig /all | more and then press Enter.
  3. The Windows 2000 IP Configuration utility displays the TCP/IP configuration of the physical and logical adapters configured on your computer.

  4. Press Spacebar as necessary to display the heading Local Area Connection. Use the information displayed in this section to complete as much of the following table as possible. Press Spacebar to display additional information, as necessary, and to return to the command prompt.
  5. Setting Value
    Host name 
    Description 
    Physical address 
    DHCP enabled 
    Autoconfiguration enabled 
    IP address 
    Subnet mask 
    Default gateway 
    DNS servers 

  6. Press Spacebar as necessary to scroll through the configuration information and return to the command prompt.
  7. To verify that the TCP/IP is working and configured for your adapter, type ping 127.0.0.1 and then press Enter.
  8. A response similar to the following indicates a successful ping:

    Pinging 127.0.0.1 with 32 bytes of data:

    Reply from 127.0.0.1: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128
    Reply from 127.0.0.1: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128
    Reply from 127.0.0.1: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128
    Reply from 127.0.0.1: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128

    Ping statistics for 127.0.0.1:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 <0% loss>,
    Approximate round trip times in milliseconds:

        Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

  9. Minimize the Command Prompt window.

Exercise 2: Configuring TCP/IP to Use a Static IP Address

In this exercise, you will configure TCP/IP to use a static IP address.

To configure TCP/IP to use a static IP address

  1. Right-click My Network Places, and then click Properties.
  2. The Network And Dial-Up Connections window appears.

  3. Right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Properties.
  4. The Local Area Connection Properties dialog box appears, displaying the network adapter in use and the network components used in this connection.

  5. Click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then verify that the check box to the left of the entry is selected.
  6. Click Properties.
  7. The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box appears.

  8. Click Use The Following IP Address.
  9. In the IP Address box, the Subnet Mask box, and the Default Gateway box (if required), type the values that you entered in the table at the top of page 166, or the suggested values listed in the table.

  10. IMPORTANT:
    Be careful when manually entering IP configuration settings, especially numeric addresses. The most frequent cause of TCP/IP connection problems is incorrectly entered IP address information.

  11. Click OK.
  12. You are returned to the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box.

  13. Click OK to close the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box.
  14. Minimize the Network And Dial-Up Connections window.

To test the static TCP/IP configuration

  1. Restore the Command Prompt.
  2. At the command prompt, type ipconfig /all | more and then press Enter.
  3. The Windows 2000 IP Configuration utility displays the physical and logical adapters configured on your computer.

  4. Press Spacebar as needed to scroll through the configuration information and locate the local area connection information.
  5. Record the current TCP/IP configuration settings for your local area connection in the following table.
  6. Setting Value
    IP address 
    Subnet mask 
    Default gateway 

  7. Press Spacebar as necessary to scroll through the configuration information and return to the command prompt.
  8. To verify that the IP address is working and configured for your adapter, type ping 127.0.0.1 and then press Enter.
  9. What happens?

  10. If you have a computer that you are using to test connectivity, type ping ip_address (where ip_address is the IP address of the computer you are using to test connectivity), and then press Enter. If you don’t have a computer to test connectivity, skip to step 8.
  11. What happens?

  12. Minimize the command prompt.

Exercise 3: Configuring TCP/IP to Automatically Obtain an IP Address

In this exercise, you will configure TCP/IP to automatically obtain an IP address. Then you will test the configuration to verify that the DHCP Service has provided the appropriate IP addressing information. Be sure to perform the first part of this exercise even if you have no DHCP Service server because you will also use these settings in Exercise 4.

To configure TCP/IP to automatically obtain an IP address

  1. Restore the Network And Dial-Up Connections window, right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Properties.
  2. The Local Area Connection dialog box appears.

  3. Click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then verify that the check box to the left of the entry is selected.
  4. Click Properties.
  5. The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box appears.

  6. Click Obtain An IP Address Automatically.
  7. Which IP address settings will the DHCP Service configure for your computer?

  8. Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.
  9. Click OK to close the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box.
  10. Minimize the Network And Dial-Up Connections window.

To test the TCP/IP configuration


NOTE:
If a server isn’t available running the DHCP Service to provide an IP address, skip this procedure and continue with Exercise 4.

  1. Restore the command prompt, type ipconfig /release and then press Enter.
  2. At the command prompt, type ipconfig /renew and then press Enter.
  3. At the command prompt, type ipconfig | more and then press Enter.
  4. Pressing Spacebar as necessary, record the current TCP/IP configuration settings for your local area connection in the following table.
  5. Setting Value
    IP address 
    Subnet mask 
    Default gateway 

  6. To test that TCP/IP is working and bound to your adapter, type ping 127.0.0.1 and then press Enter.

The internal loopback test displays four replies if TCP/IP is bound to the adapter.

Exercise 4: Obtaining an IP Address By Using Automatic Private IP Addressing

In this exercise, if you have a server running the DHCP Service, you will need to disable it on that server so that a DHCP server will not be available to provide an IP address for your computer. Without a DHCP server available to provide an IP address, the Windows 2000 Automatic Private IP Addressing feature will provide unique IP addresses for your computer. If the DHCP Service can’t be disabled, you can simply disconnect the server network adapter cable. However, your computer’s network adapter cable must remain connected.

To obtain an IP address by using Automatic Private IP Addressing

  1. At the command prompt, type ipconfig /release and then press Enter.
  2. At the command prompt, type ipconfig /renew and then press Enter.
  3. There will be a pause while Windows 2000 attempts to locate a DHCP server on the network.

    What message appears, and what does it indicate?

To test the TCP/IP configuration

  1. At the command prompt, type ipconfig | more and then press Enter.
  2. Pressing Spacebar as necessary, record the current TCP/IP settings for your local area connection in the following table.
  3. Setting Value
    IP address 
    Subnet mask 
    Default gateway 

    Is this the same IP address assigned to your computer in Exercise 3? Why or why not?

  4. Press Spacebar to finish scrolling through the configuration information, as necessary.
  5. To verify that TCP/IP is working and bound to your adapter, type ping 127.0.0.1 and then press Enter.
  6. The internal loopback test displays four replies if TCP/IP is bound to the adapter.

  7. If you have a computer to test TCP/IP connectivity with your computer, type ping ip_address (where ip_address is the IP address of the computer that you are using to test connectivity), and then press Enter. If you don’t have a computer to test connectivity, skip this step and proceed to Exercise 5.
  8. Were you successful? Why or why not?

Exercise 5: Obtaining an IP Address by Using DHCP

In this exercise, enable the DHCP Service running on the computer that is acting as a DHCP server (or reconnect your network cable if you disconnected it in Exercise 4). Your computer will obtain IP addressing information from the DHCP server.


NOTE:
If a server isn’t available running the DHCP Service to provide an IP address, skip this exercise.

To obtain an IP address by using DHCP

  1. At the command prompt, type ipconfig /release and then press Enter.
  2. At the command prompt, type ipconfig /renew and then press Enter.
  3. After a short wait, a message indicates the adapter’s local area connection.

  4. At the command prompt, type ipconfig /all | more and then press Enter.
  5. Verify that the DHCP server has assigned an IP address to your computer.
  6. Close the Command Prompt window.

Lesson Summary

In this lesson, you learned that Microsoft’s implementation of TCP/IP enables enterprise networking and connectivity on computers running Windows 2000. It provides a robust, scaleable, cross-platform client/server framework that is supported by most large networks, including the Internet. You learned that the TCP/IP suite of protocols map to a four-layer conceptual model: network interface, Internet, transport, and application.

By default, client computers running Windows 2000 obtain TCP/IP configuration information automatically from the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Service. However, even in a DHCP-enabled environment, some computers, such as the computer running the DHCP Service, require a static IP address. For each network adapter card that uses TCP/IP in a computer, you can configure an IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.

You also learned that Windows 2000 includes utilities that you can use to trouble.shoot TCP/IP and test connectivity. Ping and ipconfig are two of the common troubleshooting utilities, and FTP and telnet are two of the connectivity utilities.

Finally, in this lesson you learned that the Windows 2000 implementation of TCP/IP supports automatic private IP addressing. Automatic private IP addressing is a new mechanism for automatic address assignment of IP addresses for simple LAN-based network configurations. It is an extension of dynamic IP address assignment for LAN adapters and enables configuration of IP addresses without using static IP address assignments or installing the DHCP Service. By default, the Automatic Private IP Addressing feature is enabled. However, you can disable this feature by adding IPAutoconfigurationEnabled to the registry.

Lesson 2: NWLink

This lesson discusses the NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS-compatible transport protocol (usually referred to as NWLink), Microsoft’s implementation of Novell’s NetWare Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) protocol. NWLink is most commonly used in environments where clients running Microsoft operating systems are used to access resources on NetWare servers, or where clients running NetWare are used to access resources on computers running Microsoft operating systems.


After this lesson, you will be able to

  • Install and configure NWLink.

Estimated lesson time: 30 minutes


Understanding NWLink Features

NWLink allows computers running Windows 2000 to communicate with other network devices that are using IPX/SPX. You can also use NWLink in small network environments that use only clients running Windows 2000 and other Microsoft operating systems.

NWLink supports the networking APIs that provide the interprocess communications (IPC) services described in Table 7.7.

Table 7.7  Networking APIs Supported by NWLink

Networking API Description
WinsockSupports existing NetWare applications written to comply with the NetWare IPX/SPX Sockets interface
NetBIOS over IPXImplemented as NWLink NetBIOS; supports communication between a NetWare client running NetBIOS and a computer running Windows 2000 and NWLink NetBIOS

NWLink also provides NetWare clients with access to applications designed for Windows 2000 Server, such as Microsoft SQL Server and Microsoft SNA Server. To provide NetWare client access to file and print resources on a computer running Windows 2000 Server, you should install File and Print Services for NetWare (FPNW).

In summary, the 32-bit Windows 2000 implementation of NWLink provides the following features:

  • Supports communications with NetWare networks
  • Supports sockets and NetBIOS over IPX
  • Provides NetWare clients with access to Windows 2000 servers

Installing NWLink

The procedure for installing NWLink is the same process that you use to install any network protocol in Windows 2000:

  1. Right-click My Network Places, and then click Properties.
  2. In the Network And Dial-Up Connections window, right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Properties.
  3. The Local Area Connection Properties dialog box appears, displaying the network adapter in use and the network components configured for this adapter.

  4. Click Install.
  5. In the Select Network Component Type dialog box, click Protocol, and then click Add.
  6. In the Select Network Protocol dialog box, in the Network Protocol list, click NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol (see Figure 7.7), and then click OK.
  7. Figure 7.7  The Select Network Protocol dialog box (Image unavailable)

Configuring NWLink

NWLink configuration involves three components: frame type, network number, and internal network number. By default, Windows 2000 detects a frame type and a network number automatically when you install NWLink. Windows 2000 also provides a generic internal network number. However, you must manually specify an internal network number if you plan to run FPNW or IPX routing, as shown in Figure 7.8.


NOTE:
Each network adapter card bound to NWLink in a computer requires a frame type and network number.

Figure 7.8  Configuring NWLink (Image unavailable)

Frame Type

A frame type defines the way that the network adapter card formats data. To ensure proper communication between a computer running Windows 2000 and a NetWare server, you must configure the NWLink frame type to match the frame type on the NetWare server.


NOTE:
A connection between two computers that use different frame types is possible if the NetWare server is acting as a router. However, this is inefficient and could result in a slow connection.

Table 7.8 lists the topologies and frame types supported by NWLink.

Table 7.8  Topologies and Frame Types Supported by NWLink

Topology Frame type
EthernetEthernet II, 802.3, 802.2, and Sub Network Access Protocol (SNAP), which defaults to 802.2
Token Ring802.5 and SNAP
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)802.2 and SNAP


NOTE:
On Ethernet networks, the standard frame type for NetWare 2.2 and NetWare 3.11 is 802.3. For NetWare 3.12 and later, the default is 802.2.

When you install NWLink, Windows 2000 automatically determines which IPX frame type is in use on the network and sets the NWLink frame type accordingly. If Windows 2000 detects frame types in addition to 802.2 during NWLink installation, the frame type for NWLink defaults to 802.2.

Network Number

Each frame type configured on a network adapter card requires a network number, which must be unique for each network segment. All computers on a segment using the same frame type must use the same network number to communicate with one another.


NOTE:
On a computer running Windows 2000, type ipxroute config at a command prompt to display the network number, frame type, and device in use.

Although Windows 2000 automatically detects a network number during NWLink installation by default, you can also manually specify a network number by using Registry Editor.

Setting a network number in the registry for a given frame type requires entering two corresponding entries, NetworkNumber and PktType, in this subkey of the registry: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Nwlnkipx\Parameters\Adapters\Adapter.

  • NetworkNumber specifies the network number (in hexadecimal) for the adapter. If the value for this entry is 0, NWLink gets the network number from the network while it is running. Network numbers are 4 bytes (eight hexadecimal characters). The NetworkNumber entry takes the data type REG_MULTI_SZ.
  • PktType specifies the packet form to use. The PktType entry takes a data type REG_MULTI_SZ. Table 7.9 lists the values for the PktType entry and the packet forms supported by NWLink.

Table 7.9  Packet Types or Forms Supported by NWLink

Value Packet form
0Ethernet_II
1Ethernet_802.3
2802.2
3SNAP
4ArcNet
FF (default)Auto-detect


NOTE:
If an adapter uses multiple packet types, you can specify the network number for each packet type by adding corresponding values in the NetworkNumber entry.

Internal Network Number

An internal network number uniquely identifies a computer on the network for internal routing. This eight-digit hexadecimal number, or virtual network number, is set to 00000000 by default.

The internal network number identifies a virtual network segment inside the computer. That is, the internal network number identifies another (virtual) segment on the network. So, if an internal network number is configured for a computer running Windows 2000, a NetWare server or a router adds an extra hop in its route to the computer.

You must manually assign a unique, nonzero internal network number in the following situations:

  • FPNW is installed, and there are multiple frame types on a single adapter.
  • FPNW is installed, and NWLink is bound to multiple adapters in the computer.
  • An application is using the NetWare Service Advertising Protocol (SAP). SQL Server and SNA Server are examples of applications that can use SAP.


NOTE:
If a computer has multiple network adapter cards bound to NWLink, and if you want each one to use a different frame type, configure each network adapter card to use the Manual Frame Type Detection option. You must also specify a frame type, network number, and internal network number for each network adapter card.

Practice: Installing and Configuring NWLink

In this practice, you will install and configure the NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol.


NOTE:
You can install any of the available protocols in Windows 2000 by using this procedure.

To install and configure NWLink

  1. Restore the Network And Dial-Up Connections window.
  2. Right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Properties.
  3. The Local Area Connection Properties dialog box appears, displaying the network adapter card in use and the network components used in this connection.

  4. Click Install.
  5. The Select Network Component Type dialog box appears.

  6. Click Protocol, and then click Add.
  7. The Select Network Protocol dialog box appears.

    What protocols can you install?

  8. Select NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol, and then click OK.
  9. Notice that the NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol is listed in the Components list in the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box that appears.

  10. Select NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol, and then click Properties.
  11. Which type of frame detection is selected by default?

  12. Click OK to close the NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol Properties dialog box.
  13. Click OK to close the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box.

Lesson Summary

In this lesson, you learned that NWLink is Microsoft’s implementation of Novell’s NetWare IPX/SPX protocol. NWLink is most commonly used in environments where clients running Microsoft operating systems are used to access resources on NetWare servers, or where clients running NetWare are used to access resources on computers running Microsoft operating systems. NWLink supports Winsock and NetBIOS over IPX networking APIs. Winsock supports existing NetWare applications written to comply with the NetWare IPX/SPX Sockets. NetBIOS over IPX is implemented as NWLink NetBIOS and supports communication between a NetWare client running NetBIOS and a computer running Windows 2000 and NWLink NetBIOS.

Lesson 3: Other Protocols Supported by Windows 2000

Windows 2000 also supports other protocols, including NetBEUI, DLC, AppleTalk protocol, and the Network Monitor Driver 2.


After this lesson, you will be able to

  • Explain the capabilities and limitations of NetBEUI.
  • Explain the capabilities and limitations of DLC.
  • Describe other protocols supported by Windows NT.

Estimated lesson time: 20 minutes


NetBEUI

NetBEUI is a protocol developed for LANs with 20–200 computers. However, while NetBEUI is a small, fast, and efficient protocol, it isn’t routable and therefore is unsuitable for use in a WAN environment.

NetBEUI Capabilities

NetBEUI provides compatibility with existing LANs that use the NetBEUI protocol. NetBEUI provides computers running Windows 2000 with the following capabilities:

  • Connection-oriented and connectionless communication between computers
  • Self-configuration and self-tuning
  • Error protection
  • Small memory overhead

NetBEUI Limitations

NetBEUI also has a number of limitations. NetBEUI is

  • Designed for department-sized LANs.
  • Nonroutable. Because of this limitation, you must connect computers running Windows 2000 and NetBEUI by using bridges instead of routers.
  • Broadcast-based. NetBEUI protocol relies on broadcasts for many of its functions, such as name registration and discovery, which creates more broadcast traffic than other protocols.

DLC

As shown in Figure 7.9, DLC is a special-purpose, nonroutable protocol that enables computers running Windows 2000 to communicate with the following:

  • Other computers running the DLC protocol stack, such as IBM mainframes
  • Network peripherals that use a network adapter card to connect directly to the network, such as a Hewlett-Packard LaserJet 4Si print device, which can connect directly to the network by using an HP JetDirect network adapter
  • Figure 7.9  DLC connectivity (Image unavailable)


NOTE:
You must install the DLC protocol on the print server for the print device. Computers sending print jobs to the print server don’t require DLC.

DLC isn’t designed to be a primary protocol for use between personal com-puters and should be installed only on computers performing the previously mentioned tasks.

AppleTalk Protocol

The AppleTalk protocol allows computers running Windows 2000 Server and Apple Macintosh clients to share files and printers.


NOTE:
For the AppleTalk protocol to function properly, a computer running Windows 2000 Server configured with Windows 2000 Services for Macintosh must be available on the network.

Network Monitor Driver 2

The Network Monitor driver on a Windows 2000–based computer collects and displays statistics about activity detected by the network card in the computer. You can view these statistics on a computer that is running Network Monitor Agent Service. You can also use Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) and Network Monitor to collect statistics from computers that are running Network Monitor Agent.

Lesson Summary

In this lesson, you learned that Windows 2000 supports protocols besides TCP/IP and NWLink. These other protocols include NetBEUI, DLC, AppleTalk, and the Network Monitor driver 2. NetBEUI is a protocol developed for LANs with 20–200 computers. It is a small, fast, and efficient protocol, but it isn’t routable and therefore is unsuitable for use in a WAN environment. NetBEUI provides compatibility with existing LANs that use the NetBEUI protocol. DLC is a special-purpose, nonroutable protocol that enables computers running Windows 2000 to communicate with other computers running the DLC protocol stack, such as IBM mainframes. DLC is also used to communicate with network peripherals that use a network adapter card to connect directly to the network, such as a Hewlett-Packard LaserJet 4Si print device.

Lesson 4: Network Bindings

Network bindings enable communication between network adapter card drivers, protocols, and services. Figure 7.10 shows an example of network bindings. In Figure 7.10, the workstation service is bound to each of three protocols, and each protocol is bound to at least one network adapter card. This lesson describes the function of bindings in a network and the process for configuring them.

The Windows 2000 network architecture uses a series of interdependent layers. The bottom layer of the network architecture ends at the network adapter card, which places information on the cable, allowing information to flow between computers.


After this lesson, you will be able to

  • Explain how to configure network bindings.
Estimated lesson time: 20 minutes

Figure 7.10  Network bindings (Image unavailable)

Binding Between Architectural Levels

Binding is the process of linking network components on different levels to enable communication between those components. A network component can be bound to one or more network components above or below it. The services that each component provides can be shared by all other components that are bound to it. For example, in Figure 7.10, TCP/IP is bound to both the Workstation service and the Server service.

Combining Network Bindings

Many combinations of network bindings are possible. In the example shown in Figure 7.10, all three protocols are bound to the Workstation service, but only the routable protocols, NWLink and TCP/IP, are bound to the Server service. It is possible to select which protocols are bound to the network adapter cards. Network adapter card (0) is bound to all three protocols, while network adapter card (1) is bound only to the routable protocols. To control which components are bound together, you must be a member of the Administrators group.

When adding network software, Windows 2000 automatically binds all dependent network components accordingly. Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) 5 provides the capability to bind multiple protocols to multiple network adapter card drivers.

Configuring Network Bindings

You can configure your network bindings by using My Network Places.

You can configure network bindings by following these steps:

  1. Right-click My Network Places, and then click Properties.
  2. In the Network And Dial-Up Connections window, click Advanced, and then click Advanced Settings.
  3. In the Advanced Settings dialog box, under Client For Microsoft Networks, do one of the following:
    • To bind the protocol to the selected adapter, click to select the adapter.
    • To unbind the prot ocol from the selected adapter, click to clear the adapter.


NOTE:
Only an experienced network administrator who is familiar with the requirements of the network software should attempt to change binding settings.

Specifying Binding Order

You can also specify binding order to optimize network performance. For example, a computer running Windows 2000 Workstation has NetBEUI, NWLink IPX/SPX, and TCP/IP installed. However, most of the servers to which this computer connects are running only TCP/IP. Verify that the Workstation binding to TCP/IP is listed before the Workstation bindings for the other protocols. In this way, when a user attempts to make a connection to a server, the Workstation service first attempts to use TCP/IP to establish the connection.

You can follow these steps to specify binding order:

  1. Right-click My Network Places, and then click Properties.
  2. In the Network And Dial-Up Connections window, click Advanced, and then click Advanced Settings.
  3. In the Advanced Settings dialog box, under Client For Microsoft Networks, click the protocol for which you want to change the binding order.
  4. Use the arrow buttons to change the binding order for protocols that are bound to a specific adapter:
    • To move the protocol higher in the binding order, click the Up Arrow button.
    • To move the protocol lower in the binding order, click the Down Arrow button.

Practice: Working with Network Bindings

In this practice, you will change the binding order of the protocols bound to your network adapter card. Next you will unbind a protocol from your network adapter card and then bind a protocol to your network adapter card. Finally you will uninstall a network protocol.

After completing this practice, you will be able to

  • Change the binding order of protocols.
  • Bind and unbind a protocol.
  • Remove a protocol.

Exercise 1: Changing the Binding Order of a Protocol

In this exercise, you will change the binding order of the protocols bound to your network adapter card.

To change the protocol binding order

  1. Right-click My Network Places and click Properties.
  2. Maximize the Network And Dial-Up Connections window, and on the Advanced menu, click Advanced Settings.
  3. The Advanced Settings dialog box appears.

    What is the order of the protocols listed under Client For Microsoft Networks in the Bindings For Local Area Connection list?

  4. Under Client For Microsoft Networks, click NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol.
  5. Click the downward-pointing arrow.
  6. Notice that the order of the protocols listed under Client For Microsoft Networks has changed. NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol should now be listed below Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). If it’s not, click the downward-pointing arrow again to move it below Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).

  7. Leave the Advanced Settings dialog box open.

Exercise 2: Unbinding a Protocol

In this exercise, you will unbind TCP/IP from your network adapter card, which will leave NWLink as the only protocol available to access other computers.

To unbind TCP/IP

  1. In the Advanced Settings dialog box, under Client For Microsoft Networks in the Bindings For Local Area Connection list, unbind Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) by clearing the check box to the left of the entry.
  2. TCP/IP is now unbound from your network adapter card.

  3. Click OK to close the Advanced Settings dialog box.

Exercise 3: Uninstalling NWLink

In this exercise, you will uninstall the NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol.

To remove NWLink

  1. In the Network And Dial-Up Connections window, right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Properties.
  2. The Local Area Connection Properties dialog box appears, displaying the adapter in use and the network components configured for this connection.

  3. Click NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol, and then click Uninstall.
  4. The Uninstall NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol dialog box appears.

  5. Click Yes to continue.
  6. Notice that NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol is no longer listed as an installed protocol.

  7. Click Close.

Exercise 4: Binding a Protocol

In this exercise, TCP/IP is the only protocol installed, so you will bind TCP/IP to your network adapter card.

To bind TCP/IP

  1. On the Advanced menu of the Network And Dial-Up Connections window, click Advanced Settings.
  2. The Advanced Settings dialog box appears.

  3. Under Client For Microsoft Networks, select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) by clicking the check box to the left of the option.
  4. Click OK.
  5. TCP/IP is now bound to your network adapter card.

  6. Close the Network And Dial-Up Connections window.

Lesson Summary

In this lesson, you learned that binding is the process of linking network components on different levels to enable communication between them. A network component can be bound to one or more network components above or below it, which allows the services that each component provides to be shared by all other components that are bound to it. When you install network software, Windows 2000 automatically binds all dependent network components accordingly. NDIS 5 provides the capability to bind multiple protocols to multiple network adapter card drivers, and you can optimize network performance by specifying the binding order.

Review

The following questions will help you determine whether you have learned enough to move on to the next chapter. If you have difficulty answering these questions, please go back and review the material in this chapter before beginning the next chapter. See Appendix A, "Questions and Answers," for the answers to these questions.

  1. Your computer running Windows 2000 Client for Microsoft Networks was configured manually for TCP/IP. You can connect to any host on your own subnet, but you can’t connect to or even ping any host on a remote subnet. What is the likely cause of the problem and how would you fix it?
  2. Your computer running Windows 2000 Professional can communicate with some, but not all, of the NetWare servers on your network. Some of the NetWare servers are running frame type 802.2 and some are running 802.3. What is the likely cause of the problem?
  3. What are the limitations of the NetBEUI protocol?
  4. What is the primary function of the DLC protocol?
  5. What is the significance of the binding order of network protocols?

Read More

Meet the Author

Developed by senior editors and content managers at Microsoft Corporation.

Customer Reviews

Average Review:

Write a Review

and post it to your social network

     

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See all customer reviews >