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Chapter 6: Network Protocols and ServicesThe most commonly used network protocol is TCP/IP. This protocol is fault-tolerant and is the required protocol for Internet access.
When you want to connect to a remote network or the Internet, you use dial-up networking. To use dial-up networking, you need a modem and connections to the remote server or the Internet. You can dial into a Remote Access Service (RAS) server, the Internet, or access a virtual private network (VPN) server on your network via a connection (for example, through the Internet).
With Windows 2000 Professional, you can also configure Internet Connection Sharing. This feature allows you to connect a single computer to the network and let other users on the same small network share the Internet connection.
Configure and troubleshoot the TCP/IP protocolTCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is one of the most commonly used network protocols. TCP/IP was orig-inally developed in the 1970s for the Department of Defense (DoD) as a way of connecting dissimilar networks. Since then, TCP/IP has become an industry standard.
Critical InformationOn a clean installation of Windows 2000, TCP/IP is installed by default. TCP/IP has the following benefits:
- It is the most commonly used protocol and is supported by almost
all network operating systems. It is the required protocol for Internet
- TCP/IP is scalable for use in small and large networks. In large networks,
TCP/IP provides routing services.
- TCP/IP is designed to be fault-tolerant and is able to dynamically
reroute packets if network links become unavailable (assuming
alternate paths exist).
- Protocol companions like DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name Service) offer advanced functionality.
Configuring TCP/IPTCP/IP requires an IP address and a subnet mask. You can also configure many other optional parameters. Depending on your network setup, TCP/IP configuration is done either manually or dynamically.
IP AddressThe IP address uniquely identifies your computer on the network. The IP address is a 4-field, 32-bit address, separated by periods. Part of the address is used to identify your network address, and part is used to identify the host (or local) computer's address.
If you use the Internet, then you should register your IP addresses with one of the Internet registration sites. There are three main classes of IP addresses. Depending on the class you use, the parts of the address will differently show the network portion of the address and the host address, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.
...Table 6.1 shows the three classes of network addresses and the number of networks and hosts that are available for each network class....
Subnet MaskThe subnet mask is used to specify which part of the IP address is the network address and which part of the address is the host address. By default, the following subnet masks are applied:
Class A 255.0.0.0
Class B 255.255.0.0
Class C 255.255.255.0
By using 255, you are selecting the octet or octets (or, in some cases, a piece of an octet) used to identify the network address. For example, in the class B network address 184.108.40.206, if the subnet mask is 255.255.0.0, then 191.200 is the network address and 2.1 is the host address.
Optional IP Configuration ParametersSome of the optional IP configuration parameters that are commonly used are listed in Table 6.2....