MCSE Migrating from NT4 to Windows 2000 Exam Cram

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Overview

100% exam-focused information covers all curriculum objectives for the Upgrading Windows NT to Windows 2000 exam (70-222). A perfect complement to the MCSE Upgrading from NT 4 to Windows 2000 Exam Prep or other study materials. Contains a complete practice exam featuring questions designed to assess the reader's readiness to take the exam, and the answers and explanations that reinforce the reasoning behind the correct answers. Features an exclusive Self-Assessment section that will help the reader evaluate their...
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Overview

100% exam-focused information covers all curriculum objectives for the Upgrading Windows NT to Windows 2000 exam (70-222). A perfect complement to the MCSE Upgrading from NT 4 to Windows 2000 Exam Prep or other study materials. Contains a complete practice exam featuring questions designed to assess the reader's readiness to take the exam, and the answers and explanations that reinforce the reasoning behind the correct answers. Features an exclusive Self-Assessment section that will help the reader evaluate their knowledge base against the requirements for MSCE certification under both ideal and real circumstances.

Guidebook for passing the MCSE Windows 2000 Migrating from NT 4 exam (#70-222). Offers testing strategies and tips for conserving study time, as well as a special tips sheet with acronyms and other memory devices. Also features a companion Web sites where readers can share testing tips.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781576107171
  • Publisher: Coriolis Group
  • Publication date: 3/28/2001
  • Series: Exam Cram 2 Series
  • Pages: 448
  • Product dimensions: 6.04 (w) x 9.02 (h) x 1.11 (d)

Meet the Author

Kurt Hudson is a Microsoft Certified Trainer and a Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer. He has trained for Productivity Point, TeKnowledge, and a variety of private organizations, and co-authored The IIS 3.0 Bible (IDG, 1997).

Derek Melber, MCSE, MCP+I, A+ (Phoenix, AZ) has trained and sold solutions to AT&T Boeing, Intel, Citibank, Walt Disney, United Airlines, Hewlett Packard, Compaq, Sony, the department of Education, all branches of the military and Microsoft.

Deborah Haralson, MCSE, currently works as Manager of Information Systems for TrainAbility in Scottsdale, Arizona. Deborah has worked in the technology industry for over 10 years after getting her start helping customers with software problems for Moon Valley Software. From there she advanced in her career with MicroAge, Gateway Data Sciences, Honeywell, Mastering Computers, and CB Richard Ellis serving in a variety of roles such as DBA, Programmer, Network Administrator, Manager, and Systems Engineer. A quick study, Deborah earned her MCSE in just eight weeks.

Doug Bassett, MCSE, is actively involved in the leading edge of E-learning. He has provided the latest in certification training to thousands of people, worldwide. He is among the first one hundred Windows 2000 MCSE's. He has performed technical reviews and exam accuracy checks for five books, encompassing the entire spectrum of Windows 2000 support and certification. Doug has been in the computer industry for over 20 years, starting with teaching computer science classes while still in High School. As a Gulf War Veteran, Doug has worked in a variety of opportunities ranging from computer assembler, end-user support professional, network administrator, network design engineer, and now Senior Technical Instructor.

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Read an Excerpt

Active Directory vs. NT 4 Directory Service Structure

Terms you'll need to understand:

  • Directory service
  • Active Directory
  • Primary domain controller (PDC)
  • Backup domain controller (BDC)
  • Single domain model
  • Single-master domain model
  • Multimaster domain model
  • Complete trust domain model
  • Forest
  • Tree
  • Domain
  • Organizational unit (OU)
  • Site
  • DNS (Domain Name Service)
  • WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service)

Techniques you'll need to master:

  • Identifying and contrasting the logon processes of NT and Active Directory
  • Identifying the roles of the primary and backup domain controllers in a variety of domain models
  • Identifying the role of the Active Directory domain controller
  • Identifying the Flexible Single Master Operations (FSMO) server roles in a forest
  • Identifying the Flexible Single Master Operations server roles in a domain
  • Identifying the purpose and placement of a tree in an Active Directory forest
  • Identifying the purpose and placement of a site in an Active Directory forest
  • Identifying the purpose and placement of a domain in an Active Directory tree
  • Identifying the purpose and placement of an organizational unit in an Active Directory domain
  • Identifying the purpose of DNS in Active Directory
The largest learning curve that confronts the MCSE2K wanna-be is the completely alien vocabulary and undiscovered pitfalls of Windows 2000. The purpose of this chapter is to demystify Active Directory and compare it to NT's way of doing things. If you consider yourself a master of NT and Active Directory, we recommend that you peruse the section titles for areas you might want to review. Microsoft is extremely interested in ensuring that migration specialists are conversant with the old ways and the new ways of ensuring successful access to network resources. This level of concern is easily evident in the depth of testing that probes material mastery. Skip this chapter at your own peril.

Purpose of a Directory Service

The purpose of a directory service is simple-you use a directory service to locate something. Once you have that something located, you can then gather information about it and use it for your desired purpose.

An example of a directory is the phone book. It contains white pages listing residential phone numbers and yellow pages listing business services. The purpose of a phone book is to locate people or services. If we apply this analogy to Windows 2000, we can say that Active Directory is a listing of user accounts that correspond to the residential phone entries. Active Directory also holds a listing of services that are offered on a network. This is like looking in the yellow pages for the nearest dry cleaners or pizza delivery outlet. The services advertised in Active Directory can include anything from a file server, a printer, or even the nearest domain controller. Obviously, we don't call these listings phone numbers. Microsoft calls pretty much everything in Active Directory an object.

Active Directory-The Nickel Tour

Objects in Active Directory are like records in a database. Let's say you have a record that lists a person's first name and last name. That record could be called a user record. In Active Directory, this information would be contained in a user object. There are user objects, server objects, printer objects, and file-share objects; the list goes on and on. If Active Directory doesn't have the object you want, you can always make more objects. Each of these objects has a variety of attributes. These attributes would correspond to the database record's field for the first name or the last name in a user record. Active Directory is a place to store all of the objects and attributes in an enterprise environment. We use Active Directory to locate these various objects-either by name or by one of the many attributes the objects contain. Active Directory is pretty much the foundation of a Windows 2000 network.

NT-SAM I Am

Windows NT's directory service is called the Security Accounts Manager database (SAM). This database's purpose is the same as that of Active Directory: The SAM is used to find something and to get information about what you found. One of the major differences is that the SAM contains only the white pages of our phone book. The NT SAM has only user accounts, groups, and machine accounts. It doesn't offer nearly the wealth of information that even the most bare-bones Active Directory implementation does.

Basic Structure and Terminology

It is difficult, if not impossible, to understand the nature of a forest without being familiar with the nature of a tree. In Active Directory's case, you have to know about the forest, the tree, the organizational unit, and the site. To successfully pass the exam on migration from NT SAM to Windows 2000 Active Directory, you must master each of the elements contained in both NT and Windows 2000. If you are completely familiar with how NT and 2000 interoperate and you want to get into the meat of migration, you can skip to Chapter 3, which discusses group policy. Be warned, however, that the exam assumes an extremely thorough understanding of the way NT does things and of what a transformation professional must do to ensure similar and enhanced performance.

NT-There Can Be Only One!

If you are entirely familiar with how NT distributes and acts on the Security Accounts Manager database, you might want to skip ahead and read the sections prefaced with the title Active Directory. But if you want a refresher or are new to NT, this section is solid gold. Without understanding how NT works in comparison to Active Directory, you won't get as much out of the sections on Active Directory.

The undisputed king and tyrant in the NT world is the primary domain controller (PDC). This beast will not tolerate anyone usurping its role in the network. If a PDC comes back after a well-deserved reboot and finds an impostor claiming the throne, it will throw a fit, shut down its services, and sulk. This is by design. The PDC in an NT domain is the only server that has the keys to the kingdom. The PDC holds the only Read/Write copy of the Security Accounts Manager database. If any changes need to be made-such as adding a user or changing a password-the PDC is the one you must deal with. Sulking is NT's way of preventing two PDCs from fighting it out for ultimate supremacy. The PDC doesn't have to do its job entirely alone. Any administrators worth their salt will add fault tolerance and load balancing by installing backup domain controllers (BDCs). The BDC holds a Read-Only copy of the SAM.

Any time someone, hopefully an administrator, changes the Security Accounts Manager database, the PDC replicates the new information to the BDC(s) throughout the network. If the PDC happens to be down, no changes can occur and administration of the user accounts is impossible. This creates a single point of failure.

  • PDC-This machine holds the only Read/Write copy of SAM.
  • BDC-These machines have a Read-Only copy of SAM.

Active Directory-A Domain Controller Is a Domain Controller

Active Directory uses a multimaster replication model. This means that every Windows 2000 domain controller has a Read/Write copy of Active Directory. When an administrator needs to add a user account, or update one of the several attributes associated with the account, he or she can contact any domain controller. After the changes are made, this domain controller notifies other domain controllers, and they come get the latest information. This scheme ensures a certain level of fault tolerance and network load balancing. Active-Directory-aware clients-such as Windows 2000 Professional or Windows 95/98/NT running the Active Directory client-can contact a domain controller close to them to perform routine account maintenance, such as changing passwords. Gone are the days of rushing to the PDC every 45 days because the password is expiring.

Understanding the multiple-master aspect of Active Directory is critical to managing migration properly. In the old days, password changes would sometimes have to traverse WAN links to find the PDC. This led to the proliferation of multiple domains so the user accounts could have a PDC located nearby. The PDC mindset is one hurdle that you must overcome when shifting to Windows 2000.

NT Domain Validation

NT domain controllers have many jobs, but their main purpose is to validate users. Users must be validated by a domain controller before they are allowed access to network resources. You need to fully comprehend how each of the important points works. That way you can support users throughout the 2000 transformation and, what's more important, laugh at those feared case-study questions.
Note: In the following procedures, the steps in boldface type are the primary concerns when you're moving from NT domains to Active Directory. It's not necessary to memorize them for the exam, but you should be familiar with them.

In Windows NT, when a user does the three-finger salute by pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del, the following events are triggered:

1. The computer presents the user with a dialog box that asks for a username, a password, and a domain.

2. This information is presented to the Local Security Authority (LSA) for validation.

3. The LSA checks whether the user is attempting to validate against the local machine's SAM or whether domain validation is being requested.

4. The machine tries to locate a domain controller to which it can send the username and password for domain validation.

5. The logon username and password are passed to the domain controller that was found.

6. The domain controller locates the username in the SAM and verifies the password.

7. The domain controller returns the user account's security identifier (SID), which uniquely identifies that account in the network.

8. The domain controller returns group membership tokens that list the SIDs of any groups that contain the user account.

9. The domain controller returns the path of any user logon scripts that were associated with the user account.

10. The domain controller returns the path to the user's roaming profile, if one is assigned.

11. The computer then goes to the validating domain controller's NETLOGON share to look for any system policies associated with the machine SID, the user account SID, or group SIDs that have the user account as a member.

12. All policies are applied, the user profile is downloaded, and any user logon scripts are executed.

13. The user then gets access to the desktop.

Active Directory Domain Validation

In Windows 2000, when a user does the three-finger salute by pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del, the following events are triggered:
1. The computer presents the user with a dialog box that asks for a username and a password. The domain is displayed only if the user requests it or if the previous logon attempt failed.

2. This information is presented to the Local Security Authority (LSA) for validation.

3. The LSA checks whether the user is attempting to validate against the local machine's SAM or whether domain validation is being requested.

4. The machine tries to locate a domain controller for domain validation.

5. Windows 2000 creates a Kerberos authentication request containing the username and a random number. This random number is embedded twice in the request message: once in clear text and once encrypted using the user's typed-in password. This message is passed to the domain controller that was found. Notice that the password itself never hits the wire. L0PHTCRACK can't break a password that never leaves the computer. This process ensures that only a real domain controller from your real domain can respond to the authentication request because any responses are also encrypted. The famous man-in-the-middle attacks, in which the evil computer criminal impersonates your domain controller and steals information from your user credentials or off of your machine, are no longer as likely.

6. The domain controller locates the username in Active Directory and decrypts the encrypted number with the password stored in Active Directory. If the clear text and decrypted numbers match, the user is authenticated. If they don't match, the attempt fails.

7. The domain controller returns the user account's security identifier (SID), which uniquely identifies that account in the network.

8. The domain controller and the global catalog server return group membership tokens that list the SIDs of any groups that contain the user account.

9. The domain controller returns the path of any user logon scripts that were explicitly associated with the user account. This is primarily for backward compatibility.

10. The domain controller returns the path to the user's roaming profile, if one is assigned.

11. The domain controller provides the machine with the user portion of the assigned group policies associated with that user account. The computer portion of the group policy was already activated when the computer booted.

12. All policies are applied, the user profile is downloaded, and any user logon scripts are executed.

13. The user then gets access to the desktop.

Windows Active Directory adds security, stability, load balancing, and flexibility to an already impressive array of tools provided to the network administrator. With this power comes responsibility. One of the few opportunities you have to fundamentally change the way you do business arises when you are moving from one network enterprise infrastructure to another. Proper understanding of the interrelationships and contrasts between NT and 2000 will make it a lot easier to solve those case-study problems. Typically you are presented with a set of challenges, and you will leverage your understanding of the inner workings of Active Directory and NT to ensure that all of your bases are covered. We will now examine and contrast each of the critical points in the validation process. You must know the difference because that is the key that unlocks this exam.

NT-Locating a Domain Controller

You have only four methods for locating either the PDC or a BDC, and these methods are always used in the order in which they're listed here. Realize that once you locate a domain controller, you stop and don't use any of the other methods. This makes it easier to...
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Microsoft Certification Exams 1
Chapter 2 Active Directory vs. NT 4 Directory Service Structure 21
Chapter 3 Group Policy 69
Chapter 4 Planning Migration 99
Chapter 5 Preparing for Migration 127
Chapter 6 Migrating to Windows 2000 155
Chapter 7 Planning the Restructuring 175
Chapter 8 Restructuring 219
Chapter 9 Post Migration and Restructuring 255
Chapter 10 Troubleshooting 295
Chapter 11 Sample Test 339
Chapter 12 Answer Key 367
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Introduction

Welcome to MCSE Windows 2000 Migrating from NT 4 to Windows 2000 Exam Cram! Whether this is your first or your fifteenth Exam Cram book, you'll find information here and in Chapter 1 that will help ensure your success as you pursue knowledge, experience, and certification. This book aims to help you get ready to take-and pass-the Microsoft certification Exam 70-222, titled "Migrating from Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 to Microsoft Windows 2000." This Introduction explains Microsoft's certification programs in general and talks about how the Exam Cram series can help you prepare for Microsoft's Windows 2000 certification exams.

Exam Cram books help you understand and appreciate the subjects and materials you need to pass Microsoft certification exams. Exam Cram books are aimed strictly at test preparation and review. They do not teach you everything you need to know about a topic. Instead, we (the authors) present and dissect the questions and problems we've found that you're likely to encounter on a test. We've worked to bring together as much information as possible about Microsoft certification exams.

Nevertheless, to completely prepare yourself for any Microsoft test, we recommend that you begin by taking the Self-Assessment included in this book immediately following this Introduction. This tool will help you evaluate your knowledge base against the requirements for an MCSE under both ideal and real circumstances.

Based on what you learn from that exercise, you might decide to begin your studies with some classroom training or some background reading. On the other hand, you might decide to pick up and read one of the many study guides available from Microsoft or third-party vendors on certain topics, including The Coriolis Group's Exam Prep series. We also recommend that you supplement your study program with visits to ExamCram.com to receive additional practice questions, get advice, and track the Windows 2000 MCSE program.

We also strongly recommend that you install, configure, and fool around with the software that you'll be tested on, because nothing beats hands-on experience and familiarity when it comes to understanding the questions you're likely to encounter on a certification test. Book learning is essential, but hands-on experience is the best teacher of all!

The Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) Program

The MCP Program currently includes the following separate tracks, each of which boasts its own special acronym (as a certification candidate, you need to have a high tolerance for alphabet soup of all kinds):
  • MCP (Microsoft Certified Professional)-This is the least prestigious of all the certification tracks from Microsoft. Passing one of the major Microsoft exams qualifies an individual for the MCP credential. Individuals can demonstrate proficiency with additional Microsoft products by passing additional certification exams.
  • MCP+SB (Microsoft Certified Professional + Site Building)-This certification program is designed for individuals who are planning, building, managing, and maintaining Web sites. Individuals with the MCP+SB credential will have demonstrated the ability to develop Web sites that include multimedia and searchable content and Web sites that connect to and communicate with a back-end database. It requires one MCP exam, plus two of these three exams: "70-055: Designing and Implementing Web Sites with Microsoft FrontPage 98," "70-057: Designing and Implementing Commerce Solutions with Microsoft Site Server 3.0, Commerce Edition," and "70-152: Designing and Implementing Web Solutions with Microsoft Visual InterDev 6.0."
  • MCSE (Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer)-Anyone who has a current MCSE is warranted to possess a high level of networking expertise with Microsoft operating systems and products. This credential is designed to prepare individuals to plan, implement, maintain, and support information systems, networks, and internetworks built around Microsoft Windows 2000 and its BackOffice Server 2000 family of products.
To obtain an MCSE, an individual must pass four core operating system exams, one optional core exam, and two elective exams. The operating system exams require individuals to prove their competence with desktop and server operating systems and networking/internetworking components.

For Windows NT 4 MCSEs, the Accelerated exam, "70-240: Microsoft Windows 2000 Accelerated Exam for MCPs Certified on Microsoft Windows NT 4.0," is an option. This free exam covers all of the material tested in the Core Four exams. The hitch in this plan is that you can take the test only once. If you fail, you must take all four core exams to recertify. The Core Four exams are: "70-210: Installing, Configuring and Administering Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional," "70-215: Installing, Configuring and Administering Microsoft Windows 2000 Server," "70-216: Implementing and Administering a Microsoft Windows 2000 Network Infrastructure," and "70-217: Implementing and Administering a Microsoft Windows 2000 Directory Services Infrastructure." To fulfill the fifth core exam requirement, you can choose from three design exams: "70-219: Designing a Microsoft Windows 2000 Directory Services Infrastructure," "70-220: Designing Security for a Microsoft Windows 2000 Network," or "70-221: Designing a Microsoft Windows 2000 Network Infrastructure." You are also required to take two elective exams. An elective exam can fall in any number of subject or product areas, primarily BackOffice Server 2000 components. The two design exams that you don't select as your fifth core exam also qualify as electives. If you are on your way to becoming an MCSE and have already taken some exams, visit www.microsoft.com/trainingandservices/ for information about how to complete your MCSE certification.

Individuals who wish to remain certified MCSEs after 12/31/2001 must "upgrade" their certifications on or before 12/31/2001. For more detailed information than is included here, visit www.microsoft.com/trainingandservices/.

New MCSE candidates must pass seven tests to meet the MCSE requirements. It's not uncommon for the entire process to take a year or so, and many individuals find that they must take a test more than once to pass. The primary goal of the Exam Prep and Exam Cram test preparation books is to make it possible, given proper study and preparation, to pass all Microsoft certification tests on the first try. Table 1 shows the required and elective exams for the Windows 2000 MCSE certification.

  • MCSD (Microsoft Certified Solution Developer)-The MCSD credential reflects the skills required to create multitier, distributed, and COM-based solutions, in addition to desktop and Internet applications, using new technologies. To obtain an MCSD, an individual must demonstrate the ability to analyze and interpret user requirements; select and integrate products, platforms, tools, and technologies; design and implement code, and customize applications; and perform necessary software tests and quality assurance operations.

    To become an MCSD, you must pass a total of four exams: three core exams and one elective exam. Each candidate must choose one of these three desktop application exams-"70-016: Designing and Implementing Desktop Applications with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0," "70-156: Designing and Implementing Desktop Applications with Microsoft Visual FoxPro 6.0," or "70-176: Designing and Implementing Desktop Applications with Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0"-plus one of these three distributed application exams-"70-015: Designing and Implementing Distributed Applications with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0," "70-155: Designing and Implementing Distributed Applications with Microsoft Visual FoxPro 6.0," or "70-175: Designing and Implementing Distributed Applications with Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0." The third core exam is "70-100: Analyzing Requirements and Defining Solution Architectures." Elective exams cover specific Microsoft applications and languages, including Visual Basic, C++, the Microsoft Foundation Classes, Access, SQL Server, Excel, and more.

  • MCDBA (Microsoft Certified Database Administrator)-The MCDBA credential reflects the skills required to implement and administer Microsoft SQL Server databases. To obtain an MCDBA, an individual must demonstrate the ability to derive physical database designs, develop logical data models, create physical databases, create data services by using Transact-SQL, manage and maintain databases, configure and manage security, monitor and optimize databases, and install and configure Microsoft SQL Server.

    To become an MCDBA, you must pass a total of three core exams and one elective exam. The required core exams are "70-028: Administering Microsoft SQL Server 7.0," "70-029: Designing and Implementing Databases with Microsoft SQL Server 7.0," and "70-215: Installing, Configuring and Administering Microsoft Windows 2000 Server."

    The elective exams that you can choose from cover specific uses of SQL Server and include "70-015: Designing and Implementing Distributed Applications with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0," "70-019: Designing and Implementing Data Warehouses with Microsoft SQL Server 7.0," "70-155: Designing and Implementing Distributed Applications with Microsoft Visual FoxPro 6.0," "70-175: Designing and Implementing Distributed Applications with Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0," and two exams that relate to Windows 2000: "70-216: Implementing and Administering a Microsoft Windows 2000 Network Infrastructure," and "70-087: Implementing and Supporting Microsoft Internet Information Server 4.0." If you have taken the three core Windows NT 4 exams on your path to becoming an MCSE, you qualify for the Accelerated exam (it replaces the Network Infrastructure exam requirement). The Accelerated exam covers the objectives of all four of the Windows 2000 core exams. In addition to taking the Accelerated exam, you must take only the two SQL exams-Administering and Database Design.

  • MCT (Microsoft Certified Trainer)-Microsoft Certified Trainers are deemed able to deliver elements of the official Microsoft curriculum, based on technical knowledge and instructional ability. Thus, it is necessary for an individual seeking MCT credentials (which are granted on a course-by-course basis) to pass the related certification exam for a course and complete the official Microsoft training in the subject area, and to demonstrate an ability to teach.

    This teaching skill criterion may be satisfied by proving that one has already attained training certification from Novell, Banyan, Lotus, the Santa Cruz Operation, or Cisco, or by taking a Microsoft-sanctioned workshop on instruction. Microsoft makes it clear that MCTs are important cogs in the Microsoft training channels. Instructors must be MCTs before Microsoft will allow them to teach in any of its official training channels, including Microsoft's affiliated Certified Technical Education Centers (CTECs) and its online training partner network. As of January 1, 2001, MCT candidates must also possess a current MCSE.

Microsoft has announced that the MCP+I and MCSE+I credentials will not be continued when the MCSE exams for Windows 2000 are in full swing because the skill set for the Internet portion of the program has been included in the new MCSE program. Therefore, details on these tracks are not provided here; go to www.microsoft.com/trainingandservices/ if you need more information. Once a Microsoft product becomes obsolete, MCPs typically have to recertify on current versions. (If individuals do not recertify, their certifications become invalid.) Because technology keeps changing and new products continually supplant old ones, this should come as no surprise. This explains why Microsoft has announced that MCSEs have 12 months past the scheduled retirement date for the Windows NT 4 exams to recertify on Windows 2000 topics. (Note that this means taking at least two exams, if not more.) The best place to keep tabs on the MCP program and its related certifications is on the Web. The URL for the MCP program is www.microsoft.com/trainingandservices/. But Microsoft's Web site changes often, so if this URL doesn't work, try using the Search tool on Microsoft's site with either "MCP" or the quoted phrase "Microsoft Certified Professional" as a search string. This will help you find the latest and most accurate information about Microsoft's certification programs.

Taking a Certification Exam

Once you've prepared for your exam, you need to register with a testing center. Each computer-based MCP exam costs $100, and if you don't pass, you may retest for an additional $100 for each additional try. In the United States and Canada, tests are administered by Prometric and by Virtual University Enterprises (VUE). Here's how you can contact them:
  • Prometric-You can sign up for a test through the company's Web site at www.prometric.com. Or, you can register by phone at 800-755-3926 (within the United States or Canada). For those outside the United States or Canada, visit Prometric's Web site for registration information.
  • Virtual University Enterprises-You can sign up for a test or get the phone numbers for local testing centers through the Web page at www.vue.com/ms/.
To sign up for a test, you must possess a valid credit card, or contact either company for mailing instructions to send them a check (in the U.S.). Only when payment is verified, or a check has cleared, can you actually register for a test.

To schedule an exam, call the number or visit either of the Web pages at least one day in advance. To cancel or reschedule an exam, you must call before 7 P.M. pacific standard time the day before the scheduled test time (or you may be charged, even if you don't appear to take the test). When you want to schedule a test, have the following information ready:

  • Your name, organization, and mailing address.
  • Your Microsoft Test ID. (Inside the United States, this means your Social Security number; citizens of other nations should call ahead to find out what type of identification number is required to register for a test.)
  • The name and number of the exam you wish to take.
  • A method of payment. (As we've already mentioned, a credit card is the most convenient method, but alternate means can be arranged in advance, if necessary.)
Once you sign up for a test, you'll be informed as to when and where the test is scheduled. Try to arrive at least 15 minutes early. You must supply two forms of identification-one of which must be a photo ID-to be admitted into the testing room.

All exams are completely closed-book. In fact, you will not be permitted to take anything with you into the testing area, but you will be furnished with a blank sheet of paper and a pen or, in some cases, an erasable plastic sheet and an erasable pen. We suggest that you immediately write down on that sheet of paper all the information you've memorized for the test. In Exam Cram books, this information appears on a tear-out sheet inside the front cover of each book. You will have some time to compose yourself, record this information, and take a sample orientation exam before you begin the real thing. We suggest you take the orientation test before taking your first exam, but because they're all more or less identical in layout, behavior, and controls, you probably won't need to do this more than once.

When you complete a Microsoft certification exam, the software will tell you whether you've passed or failed. If you need to retake an exam, you'll have to schedule a new test with Prometric or VUE and pay another $100.

The first time you fail a test, you can retake the test the next day. However, if you fail a second time, you must wait 14 days before retaking that test. The 14-day waiting period remains in effect for all retakes after the second failure.

Tracking MCP Status

As soon as you pass any Microsoft exam (except Networking Essentials), you'll attain Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) status. Microsoft also generates transcripts that indicate which exams you have passed. You can view a copy of your transcript at any time by going to the MCP secured site and selecting Transcript Tool. This tool will allow you to print a copy of your current transcript and confirm your certification status.

Once you pass the necessary set of exams, you'll be certified. Official certification normally takes anywhere from six to eight weeks, so don't expect to get your credentials overnight. When the package for a qualified certification arrives, it includes a Welcome Kit that contains a number of elements (see Microsoft's Web site for other benefits of specific certifications):

  • A certificate suitable for framing, along with a wallet card and lapel pin.
  • A license to use the MCP logo, thereby allowing you to use the logo in advertisements, promotions, and documents, and on letterhead, business cards, and so on. Along with the license comes an MCP logo sheet, which includes camera-ready artwork. (Note: Before using any of the artwork, individuals must sign and return a licensing agreement that indicates they'll abide by its terms and conditions.)
  • A subscription to Microsoft Certified Professional Magazine, which provides ongoing data about testing and certification activities, requirements, and changes to the program.
Many people believe that the benefits of MCP certification go well beyond the perks that Microsoft provides to newly anointed members of this elite group. We're starting to see more job listings that request or require applicants to have an MCP, MCSE, and so on, and many individuals who complete the program can qualify for increases in pay and/or responsibility. As an official recognition of hard work and broad knowledge, one of the MCP credentials is a badge of honor in many IT organizations.

How to Prepare for an Exam

Preparing for any Windows 2000 Server-related test (including "Migrating from Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 to Microsoft Windows 2000") requires that you obtain and study materials designed to provide comprehensive information about the product and its capabilities that will appear on the specific exam for which you are preparing. The following list of materials will help you study and prepare:
  • The Windows 2000 Server product CD includes comprehensive online documentation and related materials; it should be a primary resource when you are preparing for the test.
  • The exam preparation materials, practice tests, and self-assessment exams on the Microsoft Training & Services page at www.microsoft.com/trainingandservices/default.asp?PageID=mcp. The Testing Innovations link offers samples of the new question types found on the Windows 2000 MCSE exams. Find the materials, download them, and use them!
  • The exam preparation advice, practice tests, questions of the day, and discussion groups on the ExamCram.com e-learning and certification destination Web site (www.examcram.com).
In addition, you'll probably find any or all of the following materials useful in your quest for Migration expertise:
  • Microsoft training kits-Microsoft Press offers a training kit that specifically targets Exam 71-222. For more information, visit: http://mspress.microsoft.com/findabook/list/series_ak.htm. This training kit contains information that you will find useful in preparing for the test.
  • Microsoft TechNet CD-This monthly CD-based publication delivers numerous electronic titles that include coverage of Directory Services Design and related topics on the Technical Information (TechNet) CD. Its offerings include product facts, technical notes, tools and utilities, and information on how to access the Seminars Online training materials for Directory Services Design. A subscription to TechNet costs $299 per year, but it is well worth the price. Visit www.microsoft.com/technet/ and check out the information under the "TechNet Subscription" menu entry for more details.
  • Study guides-Several publishers-including The Coriolis Group-offer Windows 2000 titles. The Coriolis Group series includes the following:
  • The Exam Cram series-These books give you information about the material you need to know to pass the tests.
  • The Exam Prep series-These books provide a greater level of detail than the Exam Cram books and are designed to teach you everything you need to know from an exam perspective. Each book comes with a CD that contains interactive practice exams in a variety of testing formats.
Together, the two series make a perfect pair.
  • Multimedia-These Coriolis Group materials are designed to support learners of all types-whether you learn best by reading or doing:
  • The Exam Cram Personal Trainer-Offers a unique, personalized self-paced training course based on the exam.
  • The Exam Cram Personal Test Center-Features multiple test options that simulate the actual exam, including Fixed-Length, Random, Review, and Test All. Explanations of correct and incorrect answers reinforce concepts learned.
  • Classroom training-CTECs, online partners, and third-party training companies (like Wave Technologies, Learning Tree, Data-Tech, and others) all offer classroom training on Windows 2000. These companies aim to help you prepare to pass Exam 70-222. Although such training runs upwards of $350 per day in class, most of the individuals lucky enough to partake find it to be quite worthwhile.
  • Other publications-There's no shortage of materials available about Migration. The resource sections at the end of each chapter should give you an idea of where we think you should look for further discussion. By far, this set of required and recommended materials represents a nonpareil collection of sources and resources for Migration and related topics. We anticipate that you'll find that this book belongs in this company.

About This Book

Each topical Exam Cram chapter follows a regular structure, along with graphical cues about important or useful information. Here's the structure of a typical chapter:
  • Opening hotlists-Each chapter begins with a list of the terms, tools, and techniques that you must learn and understand before you can be fully conversant with that chapter's subject matter. We follow the hotlists with one or two introductory paragraphs to set the stage for the rest of the chapter.
  • Topical coverage-After the opening hotlists, each chapter covers a series of topics related to the chapter's subject title. Throughout this section, we highlight topics or concepts likely to appear on a test using a special Exam Alert layout, like this:
This is what an Exam Alert looks like. Normally, an Exam Alert stresses concepts, terms, software, or activities that are likely to relate to one or more certification test questions. For that reason, we think any information found offset in Exam Alert format is worthy of unusual attentiveness on your part. Indeed, most of the information that appears on The Cram Sheet appears as Exam Alerts within the text.

Pay close attention to material flagged as an Exam Alert; although all the information in this book pertains to what you need to know to pass the exam, we flag certain items that are really important. You'll find what appears in the meat of each chapter to be worth knowing, too, when preparing for the test. Because this book's material is very condensed, we recommend that you use this book along with other resources to achieve the maximum benefit.

In addition to the Exam Alerts, we have provided tips that will help you build a better foundation for Migration knowledge. Although the information may not be on the exam, it is certainly related and will help you become a better test-taker.

This is how tips are formatted. Keep your eyes open for these, and you'll become a Migration guru in no time!

  • Practice questions-Although we talk about test questions and topics throughout the book, a section at the end of each chapter presents a series of mock test questions and explanations of both correct and incorrect answers.
  • Details and resources-Every chapter ends with a section titled "Need to Know More?" This section provides direct pointers to Microsoft and third-party resources offering more details on the chapter's subject. In addition, this section tries to rank or at least rate the quality and thoroughness of the topic's coverage by each resource. If you find a resource you like in this collection, use it, but don't feel compelled to use all the resources. On the other hand, we recommend only resources we use on a regular basis, so none of our recommendations will be a waste of your time or money (but purchasing them all at once probably represents an expense that many network administrators and would-be MCPs and MCSEs might find hard to justify).

The bulk of the book follows this chapter structure slavishly, but there are a few other elements that we'd like to point out. Chapter 11 includes a sample test that provides a good review of the material presented throughout the book to ensure you're ready for the exam. Chapter 12 is an answer key to the sample test that appears in Chapter 11. In addition, you'll find a handy glossary and an index.

Finally, the tear-out Cram Sheet attached next to the inside front cover of this Exam Cram book represents a condensed and compiled collection of facts and tips that we think you should memorize before taking the test. Because you can dump this information out of your head onto a piece of paper before taking the exam, you can master this information by brute force-you need to remember it only long enough to write it down when you walk into the test room. You might even want to look at it in the car or in the lobby of the testing center just before you walk in to take the test.

How to Use This Book

We've structured the topics in this book to build on one another. Therefore, some topics in later chapters make more sense after you've read earlier chapters. That's why we suggest you read this book from front to back for your initial test preparation. If you need to brush up on a topic or you have to bone up for a second try, use the index or table of contents to go straight to the topics and questions that you need to study. Beyond helping you prepare for the test, we think you'll find this book useful as a tightly focused reference to some of the most important aspects of Migration.

Given all the book's elements and its specialized focus, we've tried to create a tool that will help you prepare for-and pass-Microsoft Exam 70-222. Please share your feedback on the book with us, especially if you have ideas about how we can improve it for future test-takers. We'll carefully consider everything you say , and we'll respond to all suggestions.

Send your questions or comments to us at learn@examcram.com. Please remember to include the title of the book in your message; otherwise, we'll be forced to guess which book you're writing about. And we don't like to guess-we want to know! Also, be sure to check out the Web pages at www.examcram.com, where you'll find information updates, commentary, and certification information.

Thanks, and enjoy the book!

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 1, 2001

    THE AUTHOR LIKES IT!

    It was a lot of fun writing this book. I have been using Windows 2000 since the Alpha and this is a culmination of all of those long nights bleeding over the systems. This book takes you by the hand and guides you on the path to obtaining the migration elective certification.

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