MCSE Study Guide: Windows NT Server & Workstation 4.0 / Edition 1

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Overview

Readers will get expert tips and tricks from an MCSE and certified trainer on how to pass the Windows NT and Workstation 3.5X exams. Organized in a concise, easy-to-read manner that dispenses the most valuable information efficiently, this comprehensive study guide contains hundreds of tips, test questions, lists, tables, notes, and tricks to completely prepare the reader for the exams.

This invaluable guide provides all the help needed to pass two exams--Windows NT Workstation and Windows NT Server--to become a Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer. Providing hundreds of test questions, lists, tables, notes, tips, and tricks, it also offers extremely helpful insider strategies. The CD allows readers to practice for the tests. COVER TITLE

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781562055493
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 12/28/1996
  • Edition description: BK&CD ROM
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 1272
  • Product dimensions: 7.33 (w) x 9.04 (h) x 2.04 (d)

Table of Contents








[Figures are not included in this sample chapter]


MCSE Study Guide Windows NT Server & Workstation 4


Contents


Part 1: Workstation


  • Chapter 1 - About the Windows NT Workstation - - MCP Exam

    • Objectives
    • Exam Topics
    • About the Questions
    • Exam Tips
    • Getting Started




  • Chapter 2 - Planning

    • A Profile of Windows NT Workstation
    • Positioning Windows NT Workstation
    • Workgroups and Domains
    • Review
    • Review Questions




  • Chapter 3 - Installation

    • Hardware Requirements
    • Multiboot Requirements
    • Installation Procedure
    • Cross-Platform Installation Differences
    • Uninstalling Windows NT
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 4 - Account Management

    • An Overview of Windows NT Security
    • Users and Groups
    • Windows NT Workstation Built-in Groups
    • Introducing User Manager
    • The User Rights Policy
    • Built-In User Accounts
    • Defining User Accounts
    • Managing User Accounts
    • Review Questions




  • Chapter 5 - Configuration

    • The Registry
    • User Profiles
    • Hardware Profiles
    • Control Panel
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 6 - Interactive Access

    • Logging on to Windows NT
    • Locking Windows NT
    • Shutting Down Windows NT
    • Review Questions




  • Chapter 7 - Disk Resource Management

    • Partitions
    • File Systems
    • Creating a Partition Using Disk Administrator
    • Long File Name Issues
    • Converting to NTFS
    • NTFS File Compression
    • Ownership of NTFS Resources
    • Securing NTFS Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 8 - Application Support

    • Windows NT Architecture
    • Windows NT Applications
    • Windows 95 Applications
    • MS-DOS Applications
    • Windows 3.x Applications
    • OS/2 Applications
    • POSIX Applications
    • Starting Applications from the Command Prompt
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 9 - Networking

    • Built-In Components
    • Microsoft Network Interoperability
    • NWLink and CSNW
    • TCP/IP and the Internet
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 10 - Printing

    • Terminology
    • Printers Folder
    • Printers in Other Operating Systems
    • Troubleshooting
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 11 - Performance Tuning and Optimization

    • Choosing the Correct Hardware
    • Applications
    • Virtual Memory
    • Disk Access
    • Network Performance
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 12 - Troubleshooting

    • The Boot Process
    • The Emergency Repair Process
    • Event Viewer
    • Windows NT Diagnostics
    • General Troubleshooting Techniques
    • Resources for Troubleshooting
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers





Part 2: Core Technologies


  • Chapter 13 - Introduction to the Windows NT Server Exam

    • Exam Objectives




  • Chapter 14 - Introduction to Windows NT Server 4

    • Introduction to Microsoft Operating Systems
    • Workgroups and Domains
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 15 - Installation

    • Hardware Requirements
    • Multiboot Requirements
    • Choosing a Server Type (Windows NT Server Only)
    • Installation Procedure
    • The Installation Process
    • Cross-Platform Installation Differences
    • Uninstalling Windows NT
    • Troubleshooting Installation
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 16 - Configuration

    • The Registry
    • User Profiles
    • Hardware Profiles
    • Control Panel
    • System Policy Editor
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 17 - Setting Up Users and Groups

    • An Overview of Windows NT Security
    • Users and Groups
    • Built-In User Accounts
    • User Manager for Domains
    • Managing User Accounts
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 18 - Managing Files and File Systems

    • FAT
    • NTFS
    • Long File Name Issues
    • Converting to NTFS
    • NTFS File Compression
    • Ownership of NTFS Resources
    • Securing NTFS Resources
    • Synchronizing Files with My Briefcase
    • Directory Replication
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 19 - Managing Disks and Partitions

    • Partitions
    • Using Disk Administrator
    • Troubleshooting Partitions and Disks
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 20 - Supporting Applications

    • Windows NT Architecture
    • Windows NT Applications
    • Windows 95 Applications
    • MS-DOS Applications
    • Windows 3.x Applications
    • OS/2 Applications
    • POSIX Applications
    • DCOM
    • Starting and Managing Applications
    • Starting Applications from the Command Prompt
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 21 - The Boot Process

    • Booting Up
    • Troubleshooting the Boot Process
    • The Emergency Repair Process
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 22 - Printing

    • Windows NT Printing Architecture
    • Printers Folder
    • Sharing Printers
    • Setting Up a Printer Pool
    • Printing from MS-DOS Applications
    • Printers in Other Operating Systems
    • Troubleshooting
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 23 - Networking Windows NT

    • Windows NT Network Architecture
    • Distributed Processing
    • Network Services
    • The Network Application
    • Working with Microsoft Networks
    • Working with NWLink and NetWare
    • Working with TCP/IP
    • Supporting Clients
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 24 - Dialing In

    • RAS Security
    • RAS Line Protocols
    • The Telephony API
    • Installing and Configuring RAS
    • Changing the RAS Configuration
    • Dial-Up Networking
    • Troubleshooting
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 25 - Internet and Intranet

    • Installing IIS
    • Installing PWS
    • Configuring IIS and PWS
    • Internet and Intranet Security
    • Internet Explorer
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 26 - Monitoring and Optimizing Windows NT

    • Performance Optimization
    • Performance Monitor
    • Detecting Bottlenecks
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 27 - Troubleshooting Windows NT

    • General Troubleshooting Techniques
    • Common Windows NT Problems and Solutions
    • Diagnostic Tools
    • Event Viewer
    • Windows NT Diagnostics
    • Resources for Troubleshooting
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers





Part 3: Enterprise Technologies


  • Chapter 28 - Introduction to the Enterprise Exam

    • Exam Objectives




  • Chapter 29 - Designing the Enterprise Network

    • An Introduction to Enterprise Networks
    • Windows NT Directory Services
    • Conclusion
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 30 - Configuring Windows NT for the Enterprise

    • Managing Users and Groups
    • Establishing Trust Relationships
    • Implementing a Windows NT Domain Model
    • Directory Replication
    • Advanced Windows NT Management
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 31 - Configuring Enterprise Protocols

    • TCP/IP 2
    • Address Classes
    • IP Addressing Guidelines
    • Upper Layer Services and Applications
    • Configuring Enterprise Protocols
    • IPX or NWLink
    • Installing and Configuring Multiprotocol Routing
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 32 - Monitoring and Optimization in the Enterprise

    • Measuring Performance
    • Determining the Demand for Network Services
    • Forecasting Demand
    • Capturing Data with Network Monitor
    • Capturing Data
    • Viewing Captured Data
    • Putting It All Together
    • Ongoing Reporting and Analysis
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Chapter 33 - Advanced Troubleshooting

    • STOP Errors
    • Review Questions
    • Review Answers




  • Index



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First Chapter








[Figures are not included in this sample chapter]


MCSE Study Guide Windows NT Server & Workstation 4




- 3 -


Installation and configuration is a major thrust of the MCP exam for Windows NT
Workstation, so you should spend quite a bit of time exploring the installation prerequisites,
precautions, and procedures. This chapter traces the installation process from start
to finish and explains each option encountered along the way.

Hardware Requirements


Before installing Windows NT, make sure that your hardware can support it. Windows
NT doesn't approach the sheer number of devices supported by Windows 95, so don't
assume that Windows NT will support the hardware you currently use for MS-DOS or
Windows 95.


Paramount to all the advice given in this chapter: Consult the Hardware Compatibility
List
(HCL) before you try to install Windows NT, and certainly before you purchase
any new hardware on which to run Windows NT. The HCL includes the vendor and model
names of all tested and approved systems and devices.


You should know the following facts about the HCL:


  • The HCL included with the shipping product is obsolete. You can find a more current
    version of the HCL on TechNet, Microsoft's monthly product support CD-ROM, Microsoft
    Network, CompuServe, the Internet, and other online services.



  • Just because a product is listed on the HCL doesn't mean it's one-hundred-percent
    compatible. Check the fine print; a footnote or endnote usually indicates whether
    any caveats support a device under Windows NT.



  • Just because a product is not listed on the HCL doesn't mean it is not one-hundred-percent
    compatible. It may just mean it hasn't been tested yet. Before giving up, ask the
    vendor whether any drivers are available for Windows NT 4. If the device isn't on
    the HCL, however, Microsoft probably will refer you back to the vendor for technical
    support issues.



  • If a product isn't on the HCL and the vendor doesn't have a Windows NT 4 driver,
    ask the vendor if any compatible drivers are available. The modem may be Hayes-compatible,
    for instance, or the network card may be NE2000-compatible. Should a problem arise
    down the road, however, chances are you won't be able to rely on Microsoft or the
    vendor for technical support; you truly will be on your own.

The specific hardware requirements differ depending on the platform on which you
intend to install Windows NT Workstation.

Intel


Intel-based computers form the largest segment of the Windows NT installed base,
owing to the world-wide predominance of Intel-based computers. If you plan to install
Windows NT on an Intel-based computer, make sure that your hardware meets the following
minimum requirements:


  • Intel-based computers require a 32-bit Intel or Intel- compatible CPU (80486
    DX-33 or higher); Pentium CPUs give optimal performance.



  • Windows NT Workstation will install with as few as 8 MB of RAM, but Microsoft's
    official box specs (and therefore the MCP exam) require 12 MB. Realistically, don't
    go with less than 16 MB, and expect great performance gains with memory increases
    up to 32 MB.



  • Windows NT installation requires at least 120 MB of free disk space on the hard
    drive for Intel-based machines. Any supported hard disk should suffice.

Other Hardware


A VGA (or higher) video card and a 3 1/2-inch disk drive are required.
(Microsoft no longer supplies 5 1/4-inch setup disks for Windows NT.)
Other devices, although not mandatory, are quite useful: a mouse or similar pointing
device, CD-ROM drive (optional on Intel only, required for RISC), and a network adapter
card are hard to do without. If you're using a PowerPC with an NE-2000 compatible
network card, make sure the computer's firmware is version 1.24 or later.

Multiboot Requirements


You can install Windows NT Workstation alongside another operating system on the
same machine. You would use a dual boot configuration if you have two operating systems
you want to use. If you decide you need or want to do so, you should read the following
sections according to the operating systems you want to use.

Windows NT Server


An unlimited number of Windows NT variants can co-exist on the same workstation.
Be careful to install each operating system in a separate directory. Windows NT-based
operating systems will automatically create and update a boot loader menu if other
operating systems are found on the system.

Windows 95


Windows 95 and Windows NT Workstation can co-exist on the same machine, but not
in the same directory root, because each OS has files that differ in content but
not in name or location. Win95 applications, therefore, must be reinstalled under
Windows NT Workstation before you can use them under both operating systems. Again,
Windows NT will detect Windows 95 if it is present and create or update the boot
loader menu.

MS-DOS


Windows 95 and MS-DOS can co-exist on the same machine without any problems. If
your MS-DOS installation includes Windows 3.x or Windows for Workgroups, you can
install Windows NT Workstation in the existing Windows root directory. Chapter 5,
"Configuration," discusses the benefit of being a synchronized desktop
environment. Also, such an arrangement frees you from having to re-install your Windows
applications before you can use them under Windows NT Workstation.

OS/2


You can install Windows NT on a system that currently runs OS/2, but doing so
disables OS/2's Boot Manager in favor of the Windows NT Boot Loader. If you want
to use the OS/2 Boot Manager, you must re-enable it through Disk Administrator by
marking the Boot Manager active after Windows NT successfully installs. When Boot
Manager is active, you can boot to Windows NT by choosing MS-DOS from the Boot Manager
menu. Choosing MS-DOS invokes the Windows NT Boot Loader, from which you can boot
either Windows NT or MS-DOS.


Early versions of OS/2 (version 1.x) don't have Boot Manager. Instead, you must
use the BOOT command: type BOOT /DOS from inside OS/2 and reboot to bring
up the Windows NT Boot Loader, or type BOOT /OS2 from MS-DOS and reboot to
bring up OS/2.

Installation Procedure


The user documentation that accompanies Windows NT 4 includes detailed instructions
for installing and upgrading to Windows 4.


The following are two possible sources of Windows NT 4 installation files:


  • The Windows NT Installation CD (with three setup floppies)



  • A network sharepoint (with three setup floppies)

Most installation procedures consist of two distinct phases: a file copying phase
that takes place under a minimal text-mode version of Windows NT and a configuration
phase that runs under the full GUI Windows NT Setup wizard.





NOTE The Windows NT Setup wizard is your first evidence of NT Workstation
4's new Windows 95-like user interface features.



The details of the Windows NT installation process can vary: different prompts
and dialog boxes may ask you for additional information depending on the devices
on your system and the components you want to install.

CD and Floppy Installs


The Windows NT Installation CD-ROM, the easiest and most common method for installing
NT, comes with three startup floppy disks. To begin the CD-ROM installation process,
boot from Setup Disk 1. Setup asks for all three of the setup disks before it asks
for the CD. (You learn how to regenerate these disks, if necessary, later in this
chapter.)


You also can begin the installation by starting the CD (from within your existing
operating system) and double-clicking on Windows NT Setup. Setup copies the installation
files from the CD to your hard drive and asks you to restart your computer. Don't
throw away your Setup floppy disks, however. Even if you initiate the installation
from the CD-ROM, Setup asks for Setup Disk 2. (You learn more about the three Windows
NT Setup disks later in this chapter.)


If you are initiating the installation from the Setup disks, you must boot from
the Setup disks; don't type the standard run a:\setup. Setup is a Windows
NT program, so to run it requires that Windows NT be running. When you boot from
the initial setup disk, a minimal version of Windows NT loads and initializes.

Network Installs


If you have to roll out many Windows NT Workstations in a short time frame, a
CD-based installation may be impractical. Perhaps not all your workstations will
have CD-ROM drives; perhaps you do not have as many copies of the CD-ROM as you do
workstations. A network install is really a CD-ROM install: an initial preinstallation
phase is added in which the contents of the CD are copied across the network from
the server to the client computer. After all the installation files have been copied,
the client computer reboots from the setup disks and proceeds with the installation
as if it were a CD-ROM install (in this case, the "CD" is the hard drive).


When many workstations are simultaneously downloading the installation files,
performance isn't great, but you can still set up many clients at once and let them
run while you do other things.





TIP A tip for improving performance: Copy the contents of the CD to the hard
drive and share the hard disk's copy rather than the CD's copy. Hard disks are much
faster than CD-ROM drives.



To start an installation across the network, you must first redirect an MS-DOS
drive letter to the network sharepoint containing the installation files. From a
NetWare client, you could use the MAP command; from a Windows 95 client, you could
utilize the Network Neighborhood and connect to a drive; from an MS-DOS client, you
could use the NET USE command; from a Windows for Workgroups client, you could use
the Connect Network Drive command from the Disk menu in File Manager. In short, establish
network connections however you ordinarily do it.


After you map a drive to the installation share, change to the drive and run a
program called WINNT.EXE. (If you install from a previous version of NT, the system
prompts you to run WINNT32.EXE instead of WINNT.EXE.) WINNT.EXE is an MS-DOS program
that generates the three necessary setup disks and copies the Windows NT installation
files from the server to the local hard drive. After all the files are copied, WINNT.EXE
prompts you to insert Setup Disk 1 so it can reboot the computer and begin the installation
process.





NOTE One interesting quirk about WINNT.EXE: When it asks you to insert each
of the three blank, formatted disks necessary to create the setup disks, it does
so in reverse order. It asks for Disk 3 first, then Disk 2, and finally Disk 1. Microsoft
did this for your convenience, believe it or not: one less disk swap occurs in this
scenario--try it and see. Still, it confuses many first-time installers who try to
reboot their machine from Disk 3, believing it to be Disk 1.



WINNT.EXE Switches


The following switches enable you to customize how WINNT.EXE begins the setup
process. /B--No Boot Floppies The /B switch instructs WINNT.EXE not to create
the three setup disks. Instead, WINNT.EXE creates images of these disks on your system
partition, requiring an extra 4 or 5 MB of disk space. The boot sector of the hard
disk is modified to point to the temporary directory that contains the images ($WIN_NT$.~BT).


The /B switch can significantly speed up the installation process. If the computer
crashes during Setup, however, you won't be able to reboot to your old operating
system. Keeping an MS-DOS or Windows 95 bootable disk around should solve that problem.
Enter the SYS command for the C: drive and your system should boot normally. /S--Source
File Location
When WINNT.EXE executes, it immediately asks the user for the location
of the Windows NT source files, even if the user is in the same directory from which
WINNT.EXE was run. To avoid having to answer this question, supply the information
up-front by using the syntax WINNT.EXE /S:<path>. /U--Unattended Installation
Well, mostly unattended. The initial file copy phases will proceed unattended, as
will the text mode portion of Setup following the initial reboot. When Setup switches
to graphical mode, however, Setup starts to require information from you, such as
the computer name, network settings, printer, and so on.


To use this switch, follow it with the /S switch; otherwise, Setup can't run unattended.
/W--Run in Windows Normally, Setup cannot run under Windows. If you want to
run Setup from Windows 3.x or Windows 95, use the /W switch. /T--Temporary Directory
After the setup disks are created, WINNT.EXE copies all the Windows NT installation
files across the network to a temporary directory on the hard disk partition that
contains the most free space. The temporary directory will be called \$WIN_NT$.~LS,
unless you specify otherwise by using the /T:<path> switch. /O--Only Make
Boot Diskettes (Network Install)
Situations sometimes occur in which you want
to create only the boot disks but skip the actual installation; for example, you
lose the original setup disks and need to repair a damaged Windows NT-based computer.
WINNT.EXE exits after creating these disks. /OX--Only Make Boot Disks (Local Install)
Essentially the same command as the /O switch, /OX also creates boot disks. The only
difference is that /O creates disks that require the installation files to be in
the hard disk's $WIN_NT$.~LS temporary directory, and /OX requires the installation
files to be on disk or CD-ROM.


The difference between the resulting setup disks is just a single byte on Disk
2. The WINNT.SIF file on Disk 2 is a text file that has an entry of MsDosInitiate=,
which is set to 1 if the /O command is used, and set to 0 if the /OX command is used.
You can actually convert local install disks to network install disks by changing
this entry in WINNT.SIF. /F--Don't Verify Files You can shave time off the
installation process by skipping the verification of the files copied to the boot
disks, but the savings are negligible. It doesn't take that much time to verify the
files, and it certainly takes much longer to restart the installation if the disks
are corrupt. Still, such corruptions during file copying are rare, so if you're a
gambler... /C--Don't Check for Free Space This switch tells WINNT.EXE not
to check for the required free space on the setup boot disks. You should use this
switch for two reasons:


  • The disks are pretty packed; if you have files on the disks, you probably won't
    be able to fit all the required Setup files on as well.



  • The amount of time you can save by using this switch is approximately equal to
    the amount of time it takes to type the switch.

/I--INF File An INF file is a text file that contains answers to
the questions Setup asks during installation. By using the /I:<file_name> switch
along with the /U and /S switches, and specifying a custom INF file, you can truly
automate the installation of Windows NT.

The Setup Boot Diskettes


The contents of the setup disks are described in the following sections. Setup
Disk One
When your computer boots from this disk, the Master Boot Record loads
and passes control to NTLDR (the Windows NT Boot Loader). NTLDR, in turn, loads the
kernel (NTKRNLMP.EXE). Next, the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) is loaded.
The three possible contenders for this role, depending on the platform detected,
are as follows: HAL486C.DLL, HALMCA.DLL, or HALAPIC.DLL. Setup Disk Two This
disk contains a minimal registry used by Setup, SETUPREG.HIV. This registry contains
single entry instructs that tell Windows NT to load SETUPDD.SYS, which is the main
installation driver. Next, generic drivers are loaded for video (VGA.SYS, VIDEOPRT.SYS),
keyboard (I8042PRT.SYS, KBDCLASS.SYS, KBDUS.DLL), floppy drive (FLOPPY.SYS), and
the FAT file system (FASTFAT.SYS). Also included on this disk is the setup font (VGAOEM.FON),
locale-specific data (C_1252.NLS, C_437.NLS and L_INTL.NLS), and the first of many
SCSI port drivers, which continue on the third setup disk. Setup Disk Three
Disk three contains additional SCSI port drivers, of which only one or two are typically
loaded (depending on what SCSI adapters are installed, if any). Additional file system
drivers such as NTFS.SYS are loaded from this disk. Also on this disk are drivers
for specific types of hard disks: ATDISK.SYS for ESDI or IDE, and ABIOSDSK.SYS for
Micro Channel.


At this point, the SCSI drivers will be loaded, so Windows NT should recognize
supported SCSI CD-ROM drives. IDE CD-ROM drives will also be detected, but proprietary
Mitsumi or Panasonic drives may not be. You'll have to manually inform Windows NT
of their presence.

Text-Mode Steps


Between Setup disks two and three, the Welcome screen appears, informing you of
your options--installing Windows NT, repairing an existing installation, or learning
more about the setup process. Take a moment to read the online help if you want.
When you're ready, press Enter to begin the installation.


During this phase of the installation, Setup asks you to verify certain information
about your hardware and your hardware-related software components. The following
sections describe the questions Setup asks you during this text-mode phase.

Mass Storage Devices


Setup asks if you want it to attempt to detect the mass storage devices attached
to your PC. A note informs you that Setup can automatically detect floppy controllers
and standard ESDI/IDE hard disks. (Some other mass storage devices, such as SCSI
adapters and certain CD-ROM drives can cause the computer to malfunction or become
unresponsive.)


Press Enter to let Setup detect mass storage devices on your PC.


Press S to skip mass storage device detection and manually select SCSI adapters,
CD-ROM drives, and special disk controllers.


Setup asks for Setup disk 3 and attempts to detect the mass storage devices. Setup
then asks you to verify the list.


Press Enter if you have no additional devices.


Type S to specify an additional device.

Hardware and Components


Setup looks for certain hardware and software components, such as a keyboard,
a mouse, a video screen, and the accompanying drivers. Setup presents a list of components
and asks if you want to make any changes.


Press Enter to accept the list.


To change an item, select the item by using the arrow keys and press Enter
to see alternatives.

Partitions


After you identify your SCSI adapters and CD-ROM drivers, Windows NT Setup needs
to know on which partition it should install Windows NT. Setup displays a screen
showing the existing partitions on your hard drive and the space available for creating
new partitions.


Press Enter to install Windows NT on the highlighted partition or unpartitioned
space.


Press C to create a new partition in unpartitioned space.


Press D to delete a partition.

NTFS


Setup then presents the following options:


  • Format the partition by using the FAT file system.



  • Format the partition by using the NTFS file system.



  • Convert the partition to NTFS.



  • Leave the current file system intact.

Specifically designed for Windows NT, NT File System (NTFS) offers some
advantages, including better performance and increased security, but NTFS isn't compatible
with Windows 95 or earlier versions of DOS and Windows. The other optional file systems
for NT hard drives is File Allocation Table or FAT (for MS-DOS and Windows systems).
If you choose to convert a FAT partition to NTFS, you will lose the data currently
on the partition.





NOTE The conversion to NTFS isn't performed during installation, but rather,
after Windows NT is completely installed and the computer reboots for the first time.
The end result is the same: before the user can log on to Windows NT, the partition
must be converted.



The default choice is to leave the current file system intact. If your system
is now running MS-DOS, Windows 3.x, or Windows 95, it uses the FAT file system. If
you plan on ever accessing the partition from MS-DOS or Windows, select the FAT file
system.


Chapter 7, "Disk Resource Management," offers further explanation of
the file systems that Windows NT supports.

NT Root Directory


Setup asks what name you want to give the Windows NT root directory. Setup suggests
\WINNT as the installation directory by default.





WARNING Windows NT can peacefully co-exist with Windows 3.x in the same directory
tree. But do not, under any circumstance, install Windows NT in the same directory
as Windows 95. Currently the two operating systems cannot co-exist in the same directory
structure.



If Setup detects an installation of Windows NT already in the selected directory,
you will have the option to replace the existing installation or choose another location.

Hard Disk Corruption


Setup examines your hard disk(s) for corruption. It automatically performs a basic
examination. You can choose whether or not you want Setup to perform an exhaustive
secondary examination, which might take several minutes, by pressing Enter. Press
Esc to skip the secondary examination.

Reboot


A progress bar appears as Setup copies files to your hard disk. This may take
several minutes.


The last text-mode screen announces that this portion of Setup is complete and
asks that you remove the disk from your floppy drive and restart your PC.


Press Enter to reboot your PC.

The Setup Wizard


After your computer restarts, Setup asks you to approve the licensing agreement
and begins copying files from the disks, CD, or network to the Windows NT root directory.
The Windows NT Setup Wizard then appears on your screen, announcing the three remaining
parts of the setup process:


1. Gathering information about your computer.



2. Installing Windows NT Networking.



3. Finishing Setup.

The Setup Wizard helps you define your configuration and moves you through the
final steps of the installation process.

Gathering Information About Your Computer


The following sections discuss the questions the Setup Wizard asks you in the
Gathering Information phase. Setup Options Your first choice is to decide
on one of the following four Setup options:


  • Typical. The recommended option for most computers.



  • Portable. An installation designed for portable PCs.



  • Compact. A minimal installation for systems short on disk space--optional
    components aren't installed.



  • Custom. An option for advanced users who want to control which components
    to install.

Of these options, the Typical setup is suitable for most situations. The Custom
option provides the most flexibility in defining your installation.


Note that if you choose the Custom option (or any other option for that matter)
and leave out a component, you can always install that component later. Choose Add/Remove
programs in the Control Panel and select the Windows NT Setup tab to add the missing
component. You won't have to re-install your whole system. Name and Company Name
For legal and registration reasons, Setup then asks for your name and organization,
which it then uses as the defaults for additional software installed under Windows
NT. You must enter a value in the Name field but you can leave the Company Name blank.


You also are asked for your Product ID number, which is a sticker attached to
the CD sleeve. You must enter this number before you can continue with the installation.
Computer Name Every networked Windows NT-based computer must have a unique
computer name, even if the computers are split among multiple domains. The computer
name is a typical NetBIOS name: that is, it consists of up to 15 characters. Because
workgroup and domain names also use NetBIOS names, the computer name must be unique
among all these names as well. NetBIOS names are not case-sensitive; they always
appear in uppercase. Administrator Password Setup asks you to enter a password
for the Administrator account. The length of the password should be 14 characters
or less. You need the Administrator account to create and manage other accounts within
Windows NT. See Chapter 4, "Account Management," for more on Windows NT
accounts.


Don't forget to write down the Administrator account password and store it in
a safe place. Emergency Disk The Setup Wizard asks if you want to create an
emergency repair disk. Chapter 12, "Troubleshooting," discusses the Emergency
Repair Disk
(ERD) in detail. It is essentially a clone of the information stored
in the \REPAIR directory in case that directory or even the hard disk becomes corrupt
or inaccessible. Creating an ERD for every computer in your company is a good idea.
Label each ERD with the serial number of the computer to which it is paired.


The Wizard then asks whether you want the most common components installed or
whether you would prefer to choose the components from a list. (Note that the Microsoft
Exchange messaging client might not be in the list of common components.)


If you want to view the list of components, you can always choose the Choose Components
option to view the list and then click on Next (leaving the list unchanged and accepting
the defaults).

Installing Windows NT Networking


The Wizard then announces that it is ready to begin installing Windows NT Networking.
The following sections describe the Networking phase of the setup.

Network Participation


The next screen asks whether your computer will participate in a network, and
if so, whether it will be wired to the network or will access the network through
a modem. If you intend to connect via both a modem and an ISDN adapter or network
adapter, check both boxes.


If you click in the No button (your computer will not participate in a
network), the Wizard proceeds to the Finishing Setup portion of the installation
described later in this chapter.

Network Adapter Card


The next screen asks if you want Setup to search for your network adapter card.
Click on Start Search if you want Setup to find your card. Setup stops after it finds
the first card and the Start Search button becomes a Find Next button. If you have
another network adapter card, choose Find Next. Alternatively, you can choose Select
from List to select your Adapter card from a list. The Have Disk button in the Select
Network Adapter dialog box enables you to install the software for the adapter card.
You need to obtain a Windows NT 4 driver from your vendor and supply the path to
the driver in the dialog box.


If Setup successfully autodetects your network adapter card, it displays its findings
so that you can confirm the network adapter card and its settings. If it cannot detect
the card, Setup expects you to manually select a network adapter card from a list
of drivers supplied with Windows NT.


After selecting or confirming your network adapter card, you may see a dialog
box with card configuration options. These options may include Interrupt Request
(IRQ), Base I/O Address, Transceiver Type, and other card-specific parameters.
Confirm these options before proceeding because Windows NT doesn't always pick all
these up correctly, especially if you added your card manually, skipping detection.


If you don't have a network card, you can still install the networking services
on top of the Remote Access Service (RAS). You'll be prompted only to install
RAS during Setup if you do not select a network card at all. See Chapter 24, "Dialing
In," in the Windows NT Server section of this book for more information about
RAS.

Network Protocols


The next screen enables you to specify networking protocols for your network.
You can check TCP/IP, NWLink IPX/SPX Compatible Transport, or NetBEUI. Click on Select
from List for a new window with some additional options, including AppleTalk, DLC,
Point to Point Tunneling Protocol, and Streams Environment. This new window also
provides a Have Disk option so that you can install your own protocol software.


By default, only TCP/IP is installed on an Intel-based computer. On a RISC-based
computer, NWLink IPX/SPX Compatible Transport is the default protocol.


Carefully consider your current network configuration and needs before accepting
the default protocols. If your network currently runs mostly NetWare, you might want
to use NWLink rather than TCP/IP. If your network uses both NetWare and Unix, you
might want both NWLink and TCP/IP. If your network is a small, self-contained workgroup,
you might want to use only NetBEUI. See Chapter 9, "Networking," for more
information about network transport protocols.





TIP If your clients already use TCP/IP, then you know how easy it is to misconfigure
TCP/IP when installing it, especially the subnet mask and default gateway. If you
are installing over the network and have copied the install directory (that is, I386)
to the hard drive, you can modify IPINFO.INF. This file is a template for TCP/IP
configuration parameters. It's a fairly large file, but you're only interested in
the section that begins with [DefaultIPInfo]. The file consists of mostly
comment lines, so make sure that you have found the section that does not have each
line preceded by a semicolon (the comment indicator).

After you find the [DefaultIPInfo] section, you can modify the following
parameters:




  • NumberOfIPAddress = x, in which x is the number of IP addresses
    to be assigned. For most workstations, this should be set to 1.



  • IPAddress1 = "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx" Because this para-meter
    will change from client to client, you might not want to fill in this.



  • SubnetMask1 = "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx" All your clients will
    probably use the same subnet mask, so this is a smart default to set.



  • DefaultGateway = "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx" Again, all your clients
    on a particular subnet should use the same default gateway (router), so this is another
    smart default.





Of course, users can still override this information during an installation, but
at least they won't be guessing parameters out of the blue.



Network Components


The Setup Wizard then asks if you want to change any of your previous choices,
and proceeds to install your networking components. Depending on the components and
options you select, various dialog boxes might appear as the components are installed.
The Wizard might try to find your modem, for instance, or you might be asked if you
want to use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). You also might be
prompted for the IP address and default gateway (see Chapter 9, "Networking").


After the network components are installed, Setup announces that it is ready to
start the network so that you can complete the network installation. Setup asks for
the name of the workgroup or domain to which your computer will belong. (Select Workgroup
or Domain, and type the name.) If Setup successfully starts the network, Setup immediately
begins to copy additional files for a few minutes. If unsuccessful, Setup asks if
you would like to change your network adapter card's configuration parameters. It's
a good idea not to proceed any further until the network starts correctly, particularly
if you are performing a network installation: if your computer does not have a CD-ROM
drive, you may find yourself unable to load additional drivers after Windows NT restarts.
If you cannot get the network to start after multiple attempts, you may proceed with
installation, but you will not be able to join a domain until the network services
are successfully started at some point.


You must join a domain, a workgroup, or neither. You cannot join both.


Joining a workgroup requires nothing more than the name of that workgroup. The
workgroup doesn't have to exist prior to this point; you can create it just by joining
it. In a workgroup, everyone's a chief. Every Windows NT-based computer has its own
account database, and sharing resources between computers requires an immense amount
of administration or a significant lack of security.


Joining a domain requires that the domain already exist; that is, a Primary Domain
Controller (PDC) must be defined and available on the network. If Setup cannot find
a Windows NT Server acting as a primary domain controller for that domain on the
network, you can't join the domain.


If the primary domain controller does exist and is available, then an account
must be created at the PDC for your workstation. This can occur if the domain administrator
manually adds an account for this workstation by using the Server Manager application
(see Chapter 16, "Configuration," in the Core Technologies part of this
book for more information on using Server Manager), or if you create the account
yourself during workstation installation. Before you can do so, you must know the
username and password of the domain administrator or have the user right "Create
computer accounts in the domain." (See Chapter 4, "Account Management,"
for more information about user rights.)

Finishing Setup


After the network components are installed, Setup is almost complete. The Wizard
announces that you are ready for the last phase--Finishing Setup.





How Windows NT Uses Time Zone Information

Although this behavior is not configurable, nor is it covered on the exam, it might
interest you to know what Windows NT does with the time zone information.

Most operating systems stamp files with the date and time at which they were saved,
according to the computer's clock. Not so in Windows NT--when files are saved under
Windows NT, the operating system stamps the file with the amount of time that has
elapsed since midnight on January 1, 1970 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Windows
NT checks the time zone to determine how much of an offset it should use to ensure
that the elapsed-time stamp is calculated in GMT. When a directory is reviewed on
another machine, Windows NT looks at the elapsed-time stamp and, using that computer's
time zone offset, calculates the exact date and time--relative to that computer's
time zone--that the file was created. In other words a file saved at 11:00 p.m. on
October 30, 1995, in Portland, OR, would appear in Philadelphia, PA, as having been
saved at 2:00 a.m. on October 31, 1995. In legal situations when companies must know
exactly when a document was created or revised, this feature is a godsend. Assuming
that all clocks on the network are set correctly, you should no longer have to know
where a document was created before you can determine when the document was created.





Time Zone


You can set your computer's current date and time and select the appropriate time
zone through a Setup dialog box. Specify the date and time in the Date & Time
tab. Specify a time zone in the Time Zone tab. If you choose a time zone that switches
from standard time to daylight savings time and back, you may elect to have Windows
NT automatically make this change for you. If so, enable the Automatically Adjust
Clock for Daylight Savings Changes check box.





NOTE Note that certain separate time zone entries for certain individual states
don't fit within a time zone profile. Arizona, for instance, geographically belongs
to the Mountain Standard time zone but, unlike other Mountain Time states, does not
switch to Daylight Savings Time in the summer. Arizona has a separate entry in the
Time Zone list.



Display Settings


Setup will detect the video display adapter. If the adapter uses a chipset for
which Windows NT includes a driver, the name of the chipset will appear on screen.


If this setting is correct, confirm it. If not, you might choose another driver
by choosing Have Disk and supplying the path to the third-party driver, or else choose
the standard VGA driver. Contact your card's vendor for a Windows NT driver if Windows
NT does not detect it correctly.


Setup will not enable you to proceed until you test your selected settings. Because
Windows NT cannot detect your monitor settings at all, you might pick a resolution
or refresh rate that your card supports, but that your monitor does not support.
When you click on the Test button, the screen briefly goes blank and is then replaced
by a test pattern. If all looks well, confirm the settings for the card when the
Windows NT Setup interface returns. Otherwise, choose a new setting and test again.
If your test is unsuccessful, odds are that Windows NT will not function correctly
with that setting. A few monitors go blank and stay blank during testing, even though
the chosen settings are supported. If this is the case with your installation, and
you're sure that your configuration is supported by both adapter card and monitor,
you may lie and tell Setup that the test was successful. If, upon rebooting, Windows
NT restarts in an unusable video state, you may reboot and select Windows NT Workstation
3.51 [VGA mode] from the Boot Loader menu.

Pentium Patch


The last bit of detection that Setup performs is for the presence of the Intel
Pentium floating-point division error. If present, Setup asks if you would like to
disable the floating-point hardware and enable floating-point emulation software.


If you choose to disable the hardware, your floating-point calculations will be
more accurate, at the expense of performance, because the software isn't as fast
as the native floating-point hardware. The nice thing about this software solution,
however, is that Windows NT will continue to detect the hardware error every time
it boots. If and when the processor is upgraded to an error-free Pentium or higher
processor, the emulation software will be automatically disabled and the floating-point
hardware re-enabled.

Emergency Repair Directory and Disk


Installation is almost complete. Setup copies files to your Windows NT root directory.
The screen then clears, except for a progress gauge called, Saving Configuration.
At this point, Setup has created a \REPAIR directory in the Windows NT root directory
to which it is backing up the configuration registry files. This procedure may take
a few minutes, but when it is complete the \REPAIR directory will contain the information
necessary to repair most damaged Windows NT installations.


If you previously told Setup you wanted to create an Emergency Repair Disk (see
the earlier section, "Emergency Disk"), Setup now creates an Emergency
Repair Disk. Insert a floppy into the floppy drive. The disk you supply does not
have to be blank or formatted. Setup automatically formats the disk to ensure that
no media errors exist. After the disk is completed, Setup informs you that installation
is complete and prompts you to reboot.

Cross-Platform Installation Differences


So far, you have followed the procedure for installing Windows NT on an Intel-based
computer. The procedure is pretty generic, but you should be aware of some differences
when installing Windows NT on other platforms:


  • Alpha, MIPS, and PowerPC-based computers can only install Windows NT from CD.
    The procedure required to start the setup program varies from computer to computer,
    but most new RISC-based computers ship with a firmware option that enables a user
    to select Install Windows NT or something similar from a firmware menu. From there,
    installation proceeds as previously explained.



  • The system partition (the partition from which the computer boots) on a MIPS
    or Alpha-based computer must be FAT. This is a hardware requirement; the firmware
    on these computers recognize only FAT.

Uninstalling Windows NT


Uninstalling Windows NT is relatively painless. In most cases, you can remove
the operating system without damaging the other applications and documents on your
system.


To remove Windows NT from your computer:


1. Boot to another operating system, such as Windows 95 or MS-DOS.



2. Delete the Windows NT installation directory tree.



3. Delete pagefile.sys.



4. Turn off the hidden, system, and read-only attributes for the following
files and then delete them: NTLDR, BOOT.INI, NTDETECT.COM, BOOTSECT.DOS, and NTBOOTDD.SYS.
Not all these may be present on your computer, but if they exist they will all be
in the root directory of your C drive.

If you are dual-booting Windows NT and another operating system (such as MS-DOS
or Windows 95), create a startup disk for the other operating system before you uninstall
Windows NT. If MS-DOS, Windows 3.x, or Windows 95 doesn't boot properly after you
remove NT, boot to the startup disk and type SYS C: to re-install
your system files on the hard drive.





NOTE To create a startup disk in Windows 95, go to the Add/Remove Programs
applet in the Control Panel and select the Startup Disk tab.



Review Questions


The following scenarios exemplify the type of material you will face on Microsoft's
Windows NT Workstation assessment exam.


1. You install Windows NT Workstation for the first time on a RISC-based
computer. Which source medium/media can you use?



A. CD-ROM



B. floppy disk



C. network



D. SCSI tape




2. You install Windows NT Workstation on a portable computer that does
not have a network adapter card installed. What should you do after installing RAS
on your computer?



A. Install NWLink.



B. Install a network adapter driver, re-install RAS, and then remove the driver.



C. Use the Devices option in the Control Panel to configure RAS for automatic
startup.



D. Do nothing.




3. Your Windows NT Workstation computer's hard disk is formatted as a
single NTFS partition. You want to install Microsoft MS-DOS so that the computer
can dual-boot. What must you do?



A. Create an extended FAT partition by using Disk Administrator.



B. Create a FAT partition by using the Fdisk program.



C. Install MS-DOS on the FAT partition.



D. Install Multiboot.



E. Re-install Windows NT Workstation.




4. During the installation of Windows NT Workstation, Windows NT Setup
fails to detect your network adapter card. You check the Microsoft Windows NT Hardware
Compatibility List and find that your network adapter card is not supported. Which
option do you have to complete the installation?



A. Modify SETUP.INI to include the settings for your network adapter card.



B. Install Windows NT Workstation with the generic driver.



C. Temporarily install a supported network adapter card, install Windows NT
Workstation, and then re-install the unsupported card.



D. Find out whether your network adapter card emulates a card on the Microsoft
Windows NT Hardware Compatibility List, and install the listed network adapter card.



Review Answers



1. A.


Explanation:


A. RISC-based computers can read CDs after booting.



B. RISC-based computers cannot boot from a floppy disk.



C. RISC-based computers cannot "see" the network until Windows NT
is installed.



D. RISC-based computers cannot "see" a SCSI tape until Windows NT
is installed.




2. D.


Explanation:


A. Although a network protocol is necessary for using RAS, it doesn't have
to be NWLink. In fact, Setup will automatically install TCP/IP and bind it to RAS
for you. You should, however, confirm that whatever protocol you choose to install
is supported by your RAS server.



B. Although this solution does work, it is unnecessary: RAS does not require
a network adapter.



C. RAS does not need to start automatically on the client. It will start whenever
the client interface is invoked.



D. Although not a great answer, this is the best of the answers presented
here. Installation can proceed normally after RAS is installed. A better answer would
have been to install a network protocol that is supported by the RAS server.




3. B, C, and E


Explanation:


A. You cannot create a FAT partition while inside Windows NT because the
question makes it clear that the entire drive is formatted with NTFS, and, consequently,
no free space is available from which to make a partition.



B. Although the answer should really have stated, "Boot from an MS-DOS
system disk, delete the NTFS partition, and create a FAT partition using the Fdisk
program," this answer is technically correct. Fdisk running under MS-DOS is
the only way to create a FAT partition in this situation. In so doing, you will destroy
the Windows NT installation.



C. After Step B is completed, installing MS-DOS on the FAT partition will
give you a usable MS-DOS based computer.



D. This is a nonsensical answer--Multiboot doesn't exist.



E. You must re-install Windows NT Workstation after steps B and C are complete,
because Windows NT was deleted when the NTFS partition was deleted.




4. D


Explanation:


A. SETUP.INI does not exist.



B. There is no generic driver.



C. You would run into the same problem when you re-install the unsupported
card.



D. This will work, although Microsoft will not guarantee you technical support
on problems that may be traced back to this adapter.




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