Measurement by the Physical Educator: Why and How / Edition 7

Measurement by the Physical Educator: Why and How / Edition 7

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by David Miller
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0078022681

ISBN-13: 9780078022685

Pub. Date: 02/01/2013

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

The purpose of this text is to help the physical education, exercise science, or kinesiology major develop the necessary confidence and skills to conduct measurement techniques properly and effectively. However, more than just measurement techniques are presented. Emphasis is placed upon the reasons for the measurement and the responsibilities after measurement is

Overview

The purpose of this text is to help the physical education, exercise science, or kinesiology major develop the necessary confidence and skills to conduct measurement techniques properly and effectively. However, more than just measurement techniques are presented. Emphasis is placed upon the reasons for the measurement and the responsibilities after measurement is completed. These inclusions should help the student develop an appreciation of the need for measurement in a variety of settings. In addition, every effort has been made to present all the material in an uncomplicated way, and only practical measurement techniques are included.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780078022685
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Education
Publication date:
02/01/2013
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
320
Sales rank:
856,001
Product dimensions:
8.10(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 Measurement, Evaluation, Assessment, and Statistics 1

Reasons for Measurement, Evaluation, and Assessment by the Physical Educator 2

Motivation 2

Diagnosis 2

Classification 3

Achievement 3

Evaluation of Instruction and Programs 3

Prediction 3

Research 4

Why Statistics? 4

Analyze and Interpret Data 4

Interpret Research 4

Standardized Test Scores 4

Determine the Worth (Validity and Reliability) of a Test 4

Chapter Review Questions 4

2 Describing and Presenting a Distribution of Scores 5

Statistical Terms 5

Scales of Measurement 6

Nominal Scale 6

Ordinal Scale 7

Interval Scale 7

Ratio Scale 7

Normal Distribution 8

Analysis of Ungrouped Data 9

Score Rank 10

Measures of Central Tendency 10

The Mean 12

The Median 13

The Mode 14

Which Measure of Central Tendency Is Best for Interpretation of Test Results? 14

Measures of Variability 15

The Range 15

The Quartile Deviation 16

The Standard Deviation 17

Relationship of Standard Deviation and Normal Curve 18

Which Measure of Variability Is Best for Interpretation of Test Results? 21

Percentiles and Percentile Ranks 22

Frequency Distribution 22

Graphs 23

Standard Scores 23

z-Scores 23

T-Scores 25

Percentiles 27

Statistics Software 27

Review Problems 28

Chapter Review Questions 28

3 Investigating the Relationship between Scores 31

Linear Correlation 31

Scattergram 32

Spearman Rank-Difference Correlation Coefficient 33

Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient 34

Interpretation of the Correlation Coefficient 35

Significance of the Correlation Coefficient 35

Coefficient of Determination 37

Negative Correlation Coefficients 37

Correlation, Regression, and Prediction 37

Review Problems 38

Chapter Review Questions 39

4 Investigating the Difference in Scores 41

Testing for Significant Difference between Two Means 41

Dependent and Independent Variables 42

The Null Hypothesis 42

Degrees of Freedom 42

Level of Significance 43

Standard Error of the Mean 43

Standard Error of the Difference between Means 44

t-Test for Independent Groups 44

t-Test for Dependent Groups 46

Review Problems 47

Testing for Significant Difference among Three or More Means 48

Special Terms and Symbols 48

Analysis of Variance for Independent Groups 48

Post Hoc Test For Independent Groups 49

Analysis of Variance for Repeated Measures 51

Post Hoc Test for Repeated Measures 53

Review Problems 54

Chapter Review Questions 56

5 What Is a Good Test? 57

Criterion-Referenced Measurement 57

Norm-Referenced Measurement 58

Validity 58

Validity of Criterion-Referenced Tests 59

Validity of Norm-Referenced Tests 59

Factors Affecting Validity 62

Reliability 62

Reliability of Criterion-Referenced Tests 63

Reliability of Norm-Referenced Tests 63

Factors Affecting Reliability 64

Objectivity 65

Administrative Feasibility 65

Review Problems 66

Chapter Review Questions 66

6 Construction of Knowledge Tests 67

Steps in Construction of a Test 67

1 Test Planning 67

2 Test Item Construction 69

3 Test Administration 70

4 Item Analysis 70

5 Item Revision 73

Objective Test Items 73

True-False Items 73

Multiple-Choice Items 75

Matching Items 76

Short-Answer and Completion Items 77

Essay Test Items 78

Review Problems 80

Chapter Review Questions 80

7 Assessing and Grading the Students 81

Characteristics of Authentic Assessment 82

Formal Record Keeping 82

Natural Surroundings 82

Formative and Summative Assessment 82

Technique (Form) and End Result 82

Self-Assessment and Peer Assessment 85

Portfolio Assessment 85

National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) 86

Grading 86

Use of Grades 87

Students 87

Parents 87

Teachers 87

Administrators 87

Factors Used in Grading 88

Affective Factors 88

Cognitive Factors 88

Psychomotor Factors 89

Criteria for Grades 90

Methods of Grading 91

Norm-Referenced Grading 91

Criterion-Referenced Grading 93

Which Method of Grading Is Best? 95

Weighting of Factors 95

Reporting of Final Grades 96

Review Problem 96

Chapter Review Questions 97

8 Construction and Administration of Psychomotor Tests 99

Test Construction Guidelines 99

Know What Is Required of a Good Test 99

Define the Performance to Be Measured 99

Analyze the Performance 100

Review the Literature 100

Devise the Test Items 100

Prepare the Directions 100

Have the Test Reviewed by Your Peers 101

Administer the Test to a Small Group of Students 101

Determine the Validity, Reliability, and Objectivity 101

Develop the Norms 101

Determine Intercorrelations 101

Test Administration Responsibilities 103

Pre-test Responsibilities 103

Testing Responsibilities 103

Post-test Responsibilities 104

Types of Psychomotor Tests 104

Review Problem 105

Chapter Review Questions 105

9 Agility 107

Why Measure Agility? 108

Responsibilities after Measurement 108

Tests of Agility 108

Activities to Develop Agility 114

Changes in the Height of the Body in lumps 114

Changes in Distance 114

Changes in Direction 115

Other Agility Activities 115

Review Problems 115

Chapter Review Questions 116

10 Balance 117

Why Measure Balance? 117

Responsibilities after Measurement 118

Tests of Balance 118

Static Balance Tests 118

Dynamic Balance Tests 120

Activities to Develop Balance 122

Static Balance Activities 122

Dynamic Balance Activities 123

Recapturing Balance Activities 123

Review Problems 123

Chapter Review Questions 123

11 Cardiorespiratory Fitness 125

Why Measure Cardiorespiratory Fitness? 125

Pre-Test/Pre-Activity Screening 126

Responsibilities after Measurement 127

Tests of Cardiorespiratory Fitness 129

Development of Cardiorespiratory Fitness 139

Review Problems 141

Chapter Review Questions 141

12 Flexibility 143

Why Measure Flexibility? 143

Responsibilities after Measurement 144

Tests of Flexibility 145

Exercises to Develop Flexibility 151

Neck 153

Shoulder and Upper Chest 153

Upper Back 153

Lower Back 153

Trunk 154

Posterior Hip, Upper Leg, and Lower Back 154

Anterior Hip and Thigh 154

Groin Area 154

Posterior Lower Leg 154

Foot and Ankle 155

Review Problems 155

Chapter Review Questions 155

13 Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Power 157

Why Measure Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Power? 157

Responsibilities after Measurement 158

Tests of Muscular Strength and Endurance 158

Tests with Weight-Training Equipment 159

Tests Requiring Limited Equipment 161

Tests of Muscular Power 172

Exercises to Develop Muscular Strength and Endurance 175

Posterior Upper Arms, Shoulders, Chest, and Upper Back 175

Anterior Upper Arms, Shoulders, Chest, and Upper Back 175

Abdomen 176

Lateral Trunk 176

Lower Back and Buttocks 176

Lateral Hips and Thighs 176

Upper Legs 176

Lower Legs 177

Review Problems 177

Chapter Review Questions 177

14 Anthropometry and Body Composition 179

Why Measure Body Structure and Composition? 180

Responsibilities after Measurement 180

Body Type Classification (Somatotyping) 181

Height-Weight Tables 181

Elbow Breadth 184

Ankle Girth 184

Body Composition 184

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) 185

Air Displacement Plethysmography (BOD POD) 186

Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) 186

Underwater Weighing 187

Skinfold Tests 187

Estimating Percent Body Fat 190

Optimal Percent Body Fat and Desirable Body Weight 191

Cooper Method for Determining Ideal Weight 196

Body Mass Index (BMI) 196

Fat Distribution 197

Review Problems 198

Chapter Review Questions 198

15 Physical Fitness 199

Why Measure Physical Fitness? 200

Guidelines for the Administration and Use of Fitness Tests 200

Norm-Referenced Standards versus Criterion-Referenced Standards 200

Responsibilities after Measurement 201

Tests of Health-Related Physical Fitness 202

Tests of Skill-Related Physical Fitness 212

Review Problems 218

Chapter Review Questions 219

16 Older Adults 221

Why Measure Functional Fitness? 221

Responsibilities after Measurement 222

Testing Guidelines 222

Tests of Functional Fitness 222

Physical Activity for the Older Adult 232

Activity 233

Frequency 233

Duration 233

Intensity 233

Review Problems 233

Chapter Review Questions 233

17 Special-Needs Populations 235

Why Measure Special-Needs Populations? 235

Norm-Referenced or Criterion-Referenced Tests? 237

Responsibilities after Measurement 237

Perceptual-Motor Performance Tests 237

Motor Performance Tests 238

Physical Fitness Tests 241

Review Problems 247

Chapter Review Questions 247

18 Sports Skills 249

Why Measure Sports Skills? 249

Responsibilities after Measurement 250

Individual and Dual Sports 251

Archery 251

Badminton 251

Golf 253

Handball 255

Racquetball 255

Tennis 256

Team Sports 260

Basketball 260

Field Hockey 262

Football 264

Soccer 266

Softball 267

Volleyball 270

Review Problems 274

Chapter Review Questions 274

Sources of Additional Sports Skills Tests 274

Archery 274

Badminton 275

Basketball 275

Bowling 275

Field Hockey 275

Football 275

Golf 275

Handball 275

Racquetball 275

Soccer 275

Softball 276

Swimming 276

Tennis 276

Volleyball 276

Appendixes 277

A Values of the Correlation Coefficient (r) 277

B Critical Values of t (Two-Tailed Test) 278

C F-Distribution 279

D Values of the Studentized Range (q) 283

References and Additional Reading 285

Index 293

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